Publications by authors named "Nadira Yuldasheva"

40 Publications

Endothelial IGF-1 receptor mediates crosstalk with the gut wall to regulate microbiota in obesity.

EMBO Rep 2021 May 2;22(5):e50767. Epub 2021 May 2.

Faculty of Medicine and Health, Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Changes in composition of the intestinal microbiota are linked to the development of obesity and can lead to endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction. It is unknown whether EC can directly influence the microbiota. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its receptor (IGF-1R) are critical for coupling nutritional status and cellular growth; IGF-1R is expressed in multiple cell types including EC. The role of ECIGF-1R in the response to nutritional obesity is unexplored. To examine this, we use gene-modified mice with EC-specific overexpression of human IGF-1R (hIGFREO) and their wild-type littermates. After high-fat feeding, hIGFREO weigh less, have reduced adiposity and have improved glucose tolerance. hIGFREO show an altered gene expression and altered microbial diversity in the gut, including a relative increase in the beneficial genus Akkermansia. The depletion of gut microbiota with broad-spectrum antibiotics induces a loss of the favourable metabolic differences seen in hIGFREO mice. We show that IGF-1R facilitates crosstalk between the EC and the gut wall; this crosstalk protects against diet-induced obesity, as a result of an altered gut microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/embr.202050767DOI Listing
May 2021

Elevated circulating amyloid concentrations in obesity and diabetes promote vascular dysfunction.

J Clin Invest 2020 08;130(8):4104-4117

Division of Systems Medicine, School of Medicine, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, United Kingdom.

Diabetes, obesity, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with vascular complications and impaired nitric oxide (NO) production. Furthermore, increased β-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving (APP-cleaving) enzyme 1 (BACE1), APP, and β-amyloid (Aβ) are linked with vascular disease development and increased BACE1 and Aβ accompany hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. However, the causal relationship between obesity and diabetes, increased Aβ, and vascular dysfunction is unclear. We report that diet-induced obesity (DIO) in mice increased plasma and vascular Aβ42 that correlated with decreased NO bioavailability, endothelial dysfunction, and increased blood pressure. Genetic or pharmacological reduction of BACE1 activity and Aβ42 prevented and reversed, respectively, these outcomes. In contrast, expression of human mutant APP in mice or Aβ42 infusion into control diet-fed mice to mimic obese levels impaired NO production, vascular relaxation, and raised blood pressure. In humans, increased plasma Aβ42 correlated with diabetes and endothelial dysfunction. Mechanistically, higher Aβ42 reduced endothelial NO synthase (eNOS), cyclic GMP (cGMP), and protein kinase G (PKG) activity independently of diet, whereas endothelin-1 was increased by diet and Aβ42. Lowering Aβ42 reversed the DIO deficit in the eNOS/cGMP/PKG pathway and decreased endothelin-1. Our findings suggest that BACE1 inhibitors may have therapeutic value in the treatment of vascular disease associated with diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI122237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7410081PMC
August 2020

Divergent effects of genetic and pharmacological inhibition of Nox2 NADPH oxidase on insulin resistance-related vascular damage.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2020 07 13;319(1):C64-C74. Epub 2020 May 13.

Leeds Institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

Insulin resistance leads to excessive endothelial cell (EC) superoxide generation and accelerated atherosclerosis. The principal source of superoxide from the insulin-resistant endothelium is the Nox2 isoform of NADPH oxidase. Here we examine the therapeutic potential of Nox2 inhibition on superoxide generation in saphenous vein ECs (SVECs) from patients with advanced atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes and on vascular function, vascular damage, and lipid deposition in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE) mice with EC-specific insulin resistance (ESMIRO). To examine the effect of genetic inhibition of Nox2, ESMIRO mice deficient in ApoE and Nox2 (ESMIRO/ApoE/Nox2) were generated and compared with ESMIRO/ApoE/Nox2 littermates. To examine the effect of pharmacological inhibition of Nox2, we administered gp91dstat or scrambled peptide to ESMIRO/ApoE mice. SVECs from diabetic patients had increased expression of Nox2 protein with concomitant increase in superoxide generation, which could be reduced by the Nox2 inhibitor gp91dstat. After 12 wk Western diet, ESMIRO/ApoE/Nox2 mice had reduced EC superoxide generation and greater aortic relaxation to acetylcholine. ESMIRO/ApoE/Nox2 mice developed more lipid deposition in the thoraco-abdominal aorta with multiple foci of elastin fragmentation at the level of the aortic sinus and greater expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Gp91dstat reduced EC superoxide and lipid deposition in the thoraco-abdominal aorta of ESMIRO/ApoE mice without causing elastin fragmentation or increased ICAM-1 expression. These results demonstrate that insulin resistance is characterized by increased Nox2-derived vascular superoxide. Complete deletion of Nox2 in mice with EC insulin resistance exacerbates, whereas partial pharmacological Nox2 inhibition protects against, insulin resistance-induced vascular damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00389.2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7468885PMC
July 2020

IGFBP-1 in Cardiometabolic Pathophysiology-Insights From Loss-of-Function and Gain-of-Function Studies in Male Mice.

J Endocr Soc 2020 Jan 4;4(1):bvz006. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

We have previously reported that overexpression of human insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1 in mice leads to vascular insulin sensitization, increased nitric oxide bioavailability, reduced atherosclerosis, and enhanced vascular repair, and in the setting of obesity improves glucose tolerance. Human studies suggest that low levels of IGFBP-1 are permissive for the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Here we seek to determine whether loss of IGFBP-1 plays a causal role in the predisposition to cardiometabolic disease. Metabolic phenotyping was performed in transgenic mice with homozygous knockout of IGFBP-1. This included glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I tolerance testing under normal diet and high-fat feeding conditions. Vascular phenotyping was then performed in the same mice using vasomotor aortic ring studies, flow cytometry, vascular wire injury, and angiogenesis assays. These were complemented with vascular phenotyping of IGFBP-1 overexpressing mice. Metabolic phenotype was similar in IGFBP-1 knockout and wild-type mice subjected to obesity. Deletion of IGFBP-1 inhibited endothelial regeneration following injury, suggesting that IGFBP-1 is required for effective vascular repair. Developmental angiogenesis was unaltered by deletion or overexpression of IGFBP-1. Recovery of perfusion following hind limb ischemia was unchanged in mice lacking or overexpressing IGFBP-1; however, overexpression of IGFBP-1 stimulated hindlimb perfusion and angiogenesis in insulin-resistant mice. These findings provide new insights into the role of IGFBP-1 in metabolic and vascular pathophysiology. Irrespective of whether loss of IGFBP-1 plays a causal role in the development of cardiometabolic disorders, increasing IGFBP-1 levels appears effective in promoting neovascularization in response to ischemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jendso/bvz006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7074193PMC
January 2020

Fibroblast-specific deletion of interleukin-1 receptor-1 reduces adverse cardiac remodeling following myocardial infarction.

JCI Insight 2019 08 8;5. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Discovery and Translational Science Department, Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

It has been hypothesized that interleukin-1alpha (IL-1α) is released from damaged cardiomyocytes following myocardial infarction (MI) and activates cardiac fibroblasts via its receptor (IL-1R1) to drive the early stages of cardiac remodeling. This study aimed to definitively test this hypothesis using cell type-specific IL-1α and IL-1R1 knockout (KO) mouse models. A floxed Il1α mouse was created and used to generate a cardiomyocyte-specific IL-1α KO mouse line (MIL1AKO). A tamoxifen-inducible fibroblast-specific IL-1R1 hemizygous KO mouse line (FIL1R1KO) was also generated. Mice underwent experimental MI (permanent left anterior descending coronary artery ligation) and cardiac function was determined 4 weeks later by conductance pressure-volume catheter analysis. Molecular markers of remodeling were evaluated at various time points by real-time RT-PCR and histology. MIL1AKO mice showed no difference in cardiac function or molecular markers of remodeling post-MI compared with littermate controls. In contrast, FIL1R1KO mice showed improved cardiac function and reduced remodeling markers post-MI compared with littermate controls. In conclusion, these data highlight a key role for the IL-1R1/cardiac fibroblast signaling axis in regulating post-MI remodeling and provide support for the continued development of anti-IL-1 therapies for improving cardiac function after MI. Cardiomyocyte-derived IL-1α was not an important contributor to post-MI remodeling in this model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.125074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777910PMC
August 2019

TRPC5 ion channel permeation promotes weight gain in hypercholesterolaemic mice.

Sci Rep 2019 01 28;9(1):773. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.

Transient Receptor Potential Canonical 5 (TRPC5) is a subunit of a Ca-permeable non-selective cationic channel which negatively regulates adiponectin but not leptin in mice fed chow diet. Adiponectin is a major anti-inflammatory mediator and so we hypothesized an effect of TRPC5 on the inflammatory condition of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis was studied in aorta of ApoE mice fed western-style diet. Inhibition of TRPC5 ion permeation was achieved by conditional transgenic expression of a dominant negative ion pore mutant of TRPC5 (DNT5). Gene expression analysis in adipose tissue suggested that DNT5 increases transcript expression for adiponectin while decreasing transcript expression of the inflammatory mediator Tnfα and potentially decreasing Il6, Il1β and Ccl2. Despite these differences there was mild or no reduction in plaque coverage in the aorta. Unexpectedly DNT5 caused highly significant reduction in body weight gain and reduced adipocyte size after 6 and 12 weeks of western-style diet. Steatosis and circulating lipids were unaffected but mild effects on regulators of lipogenesis could not be excluded, as indicated by small reductions in the expression of Srebp1c, Acaca, Scd1. The data suggest that TRPC5 ion channel permeation has little or no effect on atherosclerosis or steatosis but an unexpected major effect on weight gain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-37299-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6349875PMC
January 2019

Attenuation of oxidative stress-induced lesions in skeletal muscle in a mouse model of obesity-independent hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis through the inhibition of Nox2 activity.

Free Radic Biol Med 2018 12 17;129:504-519. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Molecular Physiology Laboratory, Centre for Atherothrombotic & Metabolic Disease, Hull York Medical School, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Obesity leading to hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis is recognised to induce morphological and metabolic changes in many tissues. However, hyperlipidaemia can occur in the absence of obesity. The impact of the latter scenario on skeletal muscle and liver is not understood sufficiently. In this regard, we used the Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE) mouse model, an established model of hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis, that does not become obese when subjected to a high-fat diet, to determine the impact of Western-type diet (WD) and ApoE deficiency on skeletal muscle morphological, metabolic and biochemical properties. To establish the potential of therapeutic targets, we further examined the impact of Nox2 pharmacological inhibition on skeletal muscle redox biology. We found ectopic lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle and the liver, and altered skeletal muscle morphology and intramuscular triacylglycerol fatty acid composition. WD and ApoE deficiency had a detrimental impact in muscle metabolome, followed by perturbed gene expression for fatty acid uptake and oxidation. Importantly, there was enhanced oxidative stress in the skeletal muscle and development of liver steatosis, inflammation and oxidative protein modifications. Pharmacological inhibition of Nox2 decreased reactive oxygen species production and protein oxidative modifications in the muscle of ApoE mice subjected to a Western-type diet. This study provides key evidence to better understand the pathophysiology of skeletal muscle in the context of hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis and identifies Nox2 as a potential target for attenuating oxidative stress in skeletal muscle in a mouse model of obesity-independent hyperlipidaemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2018.10.422DOI Listing
December 2018

Effects of obesity on insulin: insulin-like growth factor 1 hybrid receptor expression and Akt phosphorylation in conduit and resistance arteries.

Diab Vasc Dis Res 2019 03 8;16(2):160-170. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

1 Division of Cardiovascular and Diabetes Research, Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine (LICAMM), School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 stimulate specific responses in arteries, which may be disrupted by diet-induced obesity. We examined (1) temporal effects of high-fat diet compared to low-fat diet in mice on insulin receptor, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, insulin receptor/insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor hybrid receptor expression and insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1-mediated Akt phosphorylation in aorta; and (2) effects of high-fat diet on insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1-mediated Akt phosphorylation and vascular tone in resistance arteries. Medium-term high-fat diet (5 weeks) decreased insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor expression and increased hybrid expression (~30%) only. After long-term (16 weeks) high-fat diet, insulin receptor expression was reduced by ~30%, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor expression decreased a further ~40% and hybrid expression increased a further ~60%. Independent correlates of hybrid receptor expression were high-fat diet, duration of high-fat diet and plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (all p < 0.05). In aorta, insulin was a more potent activator of Akt than insulin-like growth factor-1, whereas in resistance arteries, insulin-like growth factor-1 was more potent than insulin. High-fat diet blunted insulin-mediated vasorelaxation ( p < 0.01) but had no effect on insulin-like growth factor-1-mediated vasorelaxation in resistance arteries. Our findings support the possibility that hybrid receptor level is influenced by nutritional and metabolic cues. Moreover, vessel-dependent effects of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 on vascular tone and Akt activation may have implications in treating obesity-related vascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1479164118802550DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6484231PMC
March 2019

Endothelial Insulin Receptor Restoration Rescues Vascular Function in Male Insulin Receptor Haploinsufficient Mice.

Endocrinology 2018 08;159(8):2917-2925

Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, LIGHT Laboratories, The University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

Reduced systemic insulin signaling promotes endothelial dysfunction and diminished endogenous vascular repair. We investigated whether restoration of endothelial insulin receptor expression could rescue this phenotype. Insulin receptor knockout (IRKO) mice were crossed with mice expressing a human insulin receptor endothelial cell-specific overexpression (hIRECO) to produce IRKO-hIRECO progeny. No metabolic differences were noted between IRKO and IRKO-hIRECO mice in glucose and insulin tolerance tests. In contrast with control IRKO littermates, IRKO-hIRECO mice exhibited normal blood pressure and aortic vasodilatation in response to acetylcholine, comparable to parameters noted in wild type littermates. These phenotypic changes were associated with increased basal- and insulin-stimulated nitric oxide production. IRKO-hIRECO mice also demonstrated normalized endothelial repair after denuding arterial injury, which was associated with rescued endothelial cell migration in vitro but not with changes in circulating progenitor populations or culture-derived myeloid angiogenic cells. These data show that restoration of endothelial insulin receptor expression alone is sufficient to prevent the vascular dysfunction caused by systemically reduced insulin signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2018-00215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6047419PMC
August 2018

A fibrin biofilm covers blood clots and protects from microbial invasion.

J Clin Invest 2018 08 25;128(8):3356-3368. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Thrombosis and Tissue Repair Group, Discovery and Translational Science Department, Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

Hemostasis requires conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin fibers that generate a characteristic network, interact with blood cells, and initiate tissue repair. The fibrin network is porous and highly permeable, but the spatial arrangement of the external clot face is unknown. Here we show that fibrin transitioned to the blood-air interface through Langmuir film formation, producing a protective film confining clots in human and mouse models. We demonstrated that only fibrin is required for formation of the film, and that it occurred in vitro and in vivo. The fibrin film connected to the underlying clot network through tethering fibers. It was digested by plasmin, and formation of the film was prevented with surfactants. Functionally, the film retained blood cells and protected against penetration by bacterial pathogens in a murine model of dermal infection. Our data show a remarkable aspect of blood clotting in which fibrin forms a protective film covering the external surface of the clot, defending the organism against microbial invasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI98734DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6063501PMC
August 2018

Tau pathology and neurochemical changes associated with memory dysfunction in an optimised murine model of global cerebral ischaemia - A potential model for vascular dementia?

Neurochem Int 2018 09 10;118:134-144. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Discovery and Translational Science Department, Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK. Electronic address:

Cerebral ischemia is known to be a major cause of death and the later development of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. However, ischemia induced cellular damage that initiates these diseases remain poorly understood. This is primarily due to lack of clinically relevant models that are highly reproducible. Here, we have optimised a murine model of global cerebral ischaemia with multiple markers to determine brain pathology, neurochemistry and correlated memory deficits in these animals. Cerebral ischaemia in mice was induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. Following reperfusion, the mice were either fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde or decapitated under anaesthesia. Brains were processed for Western blotting or immunohistochemistry for glial (GLT1) and vesicular (VGLUT1, VGLUT2) glutamate transporters and paired helical filament (PHF1) tau. The PHF1 tau is the main component of neurofibrillary tangle, which is the pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. The novel object recognition behavioural assay was used to investigate the functional cognitive consequences in these mice. The results show consistent and selective neuronal and glial cell changes in the hippocampus and the cortex together with significant reductions in GLT1 (***P < 0.001), VGLUT1 (**P < 0.01) and VGLUT2 (***P < 0.001) expressions in the hippocampus in occluded mice as compared to sham-operated animals. These changes are associated with increased PHF1 (***P < 0.0001) protein and a significant impairment of performance (*p < 0.0006, N = 6/group) in the novel object recognition test. This model represents a useful tool for investigating cellular, biochemical and molecular mechanisms of global cerebral ischaemia and may be an ideal preclinical model for vascular dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2018.04.004DOI Listing
September 2018

Insulinlike Growth Factor-Binding Protein-1 Improves Vascular Endothelial Repair in Male Mice in the Setting of Insulin Resistance.

Endocrinology 2018 02;159(2):696-709

Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine and Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

Insulin resistance is associated with impaired endothelial regeneration in response to mechanical injury. We recently demonstrated that insulinlike growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP1) ameliorated insulin resistance and increased nitric oxide generation in the endothelium. In this study, we hypothesized that IGFBP1 would improve endothelial regeneration and restore endothelial reparative functions in the setting of insulin resistance. In male mice heterozygous for deletion of insulin receptors, endothelial regeneration after femoral artery wire injury was enhanced by transgenic expression of human IGFBP1 (hIGFBP1). This was not explained by altered abundance of circulating myeloid angiogenic cells. Incubation of human endothelial cells with hIGFBP1 increased integrin expression and enhanced their ability to adhere to and repopulate denuded human saphenous vein ex vivo. In vitro, induction of insulin resistance by tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) significantly inhibited endothelial cell migration and proliferation. Coincubation with hIGFBP1 restored endothelial migratory and proliferative capacity. At the molecular level, hIGFBP1 induced phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase, activated RhoA and modulated TNFα-induced actin fiber anisotropy. Collectively, the effects of hIGFBP1 on endothelial cell responses and acceleration of endothelial regeneration in mice indicate that manipulating IGFBP1 could be exploited as a putative strategy to improve endothelial repair in the setting of insulin resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2017-00572DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5776633PMC
February 2018

Piezo1 channels sense whole body physical activity to reset cardiovascular homeostasis and enhance performance.

Nat Commun 2017 08 24;8(1):350. Epub 2017 Aug 24.

Schools of Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.

Mammalian biology adapts to physical activity but the molecular mechanisms sensing the activity remain enigmatic. Recent studies have revealed how Piezo1 protein senses mechanical force to enable vascular development. Here, we address Piezo1 in adult endothelium, the major control site in physical activity. Mice without endothelial Piezo1 lack obvious phenotype but close inspection reveals a specific effect on endothelium-dependent relaxation in mesenteric resistance artery. Strikingly, the Piezo1 is required for elevated blood pressure during whole body physical activity but not blood pressure during inactivity. Piezo1 is responsible for flow-sensitive non-inactivating non-selective cationic channels which depolarize the membrane potential. As fluid flow increases, depolarization increases to activate voltage-gated Ca channels in the adjacent vascular smooth muscle cells, causing vasoconstriction. Physical performance is compromised in mice which lack endothelial Piezo1 and there is weight loss after sustained activity. The data suggest that Piezo1 channels sense physical activity to advantageously reset vascular control.The mechanisms that regulate the body's response to exercise are poorly understood. Here, Rode et al. show that the mechanically activated cation channel Piezo1 is a molecular sensor of physical exercise in the endothelium that triggers endothelial communication to mesenteric vessel muscle cells, leading to vasoconstriction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-00429-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5571199PMC
August 2017

Endothelial SHIP2 Suppresses Nox2 NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Vascular Oxidative Stress, Endothelial Dysfunction, and Systemic Insulin Resistance.

Diabetes 2017 11 22;66(11):2808-2821. Epub 2017 Aug 22.

Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, Leeds Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Leeds, Leeds, U.K.

Shc homology 2-containing inositol 5' phosphatase-2 (SHIP2) is a lipid phosphatase that inhibits insulin signaling downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K); its role in vascular function is poorly understood. To examine its role in endothelial cell (EC) biology, we generated mice with catalytic inactivation of one SHIP2 allele selectively in ECs (ECSHIP2). Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamping studies revealed that ECSHIP2 was resistant to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle compared with littermate controls. ECs from ECSHIP2 mice had increased basal expression and activation of PI3K downstream targets, including Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase, although incremental activation by insulin and shear stress was impaired. Insulin-mediated vasodilation was blunted in ECSHIP2 mice, as was aortic nitric oxide bioavailability. Acetylcholine-induced vasodilation was also impaired in ECSHIP2 mice, which was exaggerated in the presence of a superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic. Superoxide abundance was elevated in ECSHIP2 ECs and was suppressed by PI3K and NADPH oxidase 2 inhibitors. These findings were phenocopied in healthy human ECs after SHIP2 silencing. Our data suggest that endothelial SHIP2 is required to maintain normal systemic glucose homeostasis and prevent oxidative stress-induced endothelial dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db17-0062DOI Listing
November 2017

Role of glutamine and interlinked asparagine metabolism in vessel formation.

EMBO J 2017 08 28;36(16):2334-2352. Epub 2017 Jun 28.

Laboratory of Angiogenesis and Vascular Metabolism, Department of Oncology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium

Endothelial cell (EC) metabolism is emerging as a regulator of angiogenesis, but the precise role of glutamine metabolism in ECs is unknown. Here, we show that depriving ECs of glutamine or inhibiting glutaminase 1 (GLS1) caused vessel sprouting defects due to impaired proliferation and migration, and reduced pathological ocular angiogenesis. Inhibition of glutamine metabolism in ECs did not cause energy distress, but impaired tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle anaplerosis, macromolecule production, and redox homeostasis. Only the combination of TCA cycle replenishment plus asparagine supplementation restored the metabolic aberrations and proliferation defect caused by glutamine deprivation. Mechanistically, glutamine provided nitrogen for asparagine synthesis to sustain cellular homeostasis. While ECs can take up asparagine, silencing asparagine synthetase (ASNS, which converts glutamine-derived nitrogen and aspartate to asparagine) impaired EC sprouting even in the presence of glutamine and asparagine. Asparagine further proved crucial in glutamine-deprived ECs to restore protein synthesis, suppress ER stress, and reactivate mTOR signaling. These findings reveal a novel link between endothelial glutamine and asparagine metabolism in vessel sprouting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/embj.201695518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5556263PMC
August 2017

Inhibition of plasmin-mediated TAFI activation may affect development but not progression of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

PLoS One 2017 4;12(5):e0177117. Epub 2017 May 4.

Thrombosis and Tissue Repair Group, Division of Cardiovascular and Diabetes Research, Leeds institute for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

Objective: Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) reduces the breakdown of fibrin clots through its action as an indirect inhibitor of plasmin. Studies in TAFI-deficient mice have implicated a potential role for TAFI in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) disease. The role of TAFI inhibition on AAA formation in adult ApoE-/- mice is unknown. The aim of this paper was to investigate the effects of TAFI inhibition on AAA development and progression.

Methods: Using the Angiotensin II model of AAA, male ApoE-/- mice were infused with Angiotensin II 750ng/kg/min with or without a monoclonal antibody inhibitor of plasmin-mediated activation of TAFI, MA-TCK26D6, or a competitive small molecule inhibitor of TAFI, UK-396082.

Results: Inhibition of TAFI in the Angiotensin II model resulted in a decrease in the mortality associated with AAA rupture (from 40.0% to 16.6% with MA-TCK26D6 (log-rank Mantel Cox test p = 0.16), and 8.3% with UK-396082 (log-rank Mantel Cox test p = 0.05)). Inhibition of plasmin-mediated TAFI activation reduced the incidence of AAA from 52.4% to 30.0%. However, late treatment with MA-TCK26D6 once AAA were already established had no effect on the progression of AAA in this model.

Conclusions: The formation of intra-mural thrombus is responsible for the dissection and early rupture in the angiotensin II model of AAA, and this process can be prevented through inhibition of TAFI. Late treatment with a TAFI inhibitor does not prevent AAA progression. These data may indicate a role for inhibition of plasmin-mediated TAFI activation in the early stages of AAA development, but not in its progression.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0177117PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5417566PMC
September 2017

Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1 Could Improve Glucose Regulation and Insulin Sensitivity Through Its RGD Domain.

Diabetes 2017 02 10;66(2):287-299. Epub 2016 Nov 10.

Division of Cardiovascular and Diabetes Research, Leeds Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, Leeds, West Yorkshire, U.K.

Low circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP-1) are associated with insulin resistance and predict the development of type 2 diabetes. IGFBP-1 can affect cellular functions independently of IGF binding through an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) integrin-binding motif. Whether causal mechanisms underlie the favorable association of high IGFBP-1 levels with insulin sensitivity and whether these could be exploited therapeutically remain unexplored. We used recombinant IGFBP-1 and a synthetic RGD-containing hexapeptide in complementary in vitro signaling assays and in vivo metabolic profiling in obese mice to investigate the effects of IGFBP-1 and its RGD domain on insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and whole-body glucose regulation. The RGD integrin-binding domain of IGFBP-1, through integrin engagement, focal adhesion kinase, and integrin-linked kinase, enhanced insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in C2C12 myotubes and INS-1 832/13 pancreatic β-cells. Both acute administration and chronic infusion of an RGD synthetic peptide to obese C57BL/6 mice improved glucose clearance and insulin sensitivity. These favorable effects on metabolic homeostasis suggest that the RGD integrin-binding domain of IGFBP-1 may be a promising candidate for therapeutic development in the field of insulin resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db16-0997DOI Listing
February 2017

Selective Enhancement of Insulin Sensitivity in the Endothelium In Vivo Reveals a Novel Proatherosclerotic Signaling Loop.

Circ Res 2017 Mar 5;120(5):784-798. Epub 2016 Dec 5.

From the Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, University of Leeds, United Kingdom (H.V., N.Y.Y., A.S., H.I., N.H., A.M.N.W., A.S., N.M., S.G., P. Shah, P. Sukumar, K.E.P., P.J.G., J.L., D.J.B., S.B.W., R.M.C., M.T.K.); Division of Medicine, Department of Metabolism & Experimental Therapeutics, University College London, United Kingdom (M.C.G.); and British Heart Foundation Centre of Research Excellence, King's College London, United Kingdom (A.M.S., C.X.C.S.).

Rationale: In the endothelium, insulin stimulates endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) to generate the antiatherosclerotic signaling radical NO. Insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with reduced NO availability and accelerated atherosclerosis. The effect of enhancing endothelial insulin sensitivity on NO availability is unclear.

Objective: To answer this question, we generated a mouse with endothelial cell (EC)-specific overexpression of the human insulin receptor (hIRECO) using the Tie2 promoter-enhancer.

Methods And Results: hIRECO demonstrated significant endothelial dysfunction measured by blunted endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation to acetylcholine, which was normalized by a specific Nox2 NADPH oxidase inhibitor. Insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of protein kinase B was increased in hIRECO EC as was Nox2 NADPH oxidase-dependent generation of superoxide, whereas insulin-stimulated and shear stress-stimulated eNOS activations were blunted. Phosphorylation at the inhibitory residue Y657 of eNOS and expression of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 that phosphorylates this residue were significantly higher in hIRECO EC. Inhibition of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 improved insulin-induced and shear stress-induced eNOS activation in hIRECO EC.

Conclusions: Enhancing insulin sensitivity specifically in EC leads to a paradoxical decline in endothelial function, mediated by increased tyrosine phosphorylation of eNOS and excess Nox2-derived superoxide. Increased EC insulin sensitivity leads to a proatherosclerotic imbalance between NO and superoxide. Inhibition of proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 restores insulin-induced and shear stress-induced NO production. This study demonstrates for the first time that increased endothelial insulin sensitivity leads to a proatherosclerotic imbalance between NO and superoxide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.116.309678DOI Listing
March 2017

VEGF-A isoforms program differential VEGFR2 signal transduction, trafficking and proteolysis.

Biol Open 2016 May 15;5(5):571-83. Epub 2016 May 15.

Endothelial Cell Biology Unit, School of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK

Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) binding to the receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR2 triggers multiple signal transduction pathways, which regulate endothelial cell responses that control vascular development. Multiple isoforms of VEGF-A can elicit differential signal transduction and endothelial responses. However, it is unclear how such cellular responses are controlled by isoform-specific VEGF-A-VEGFR2 complexes. Increasingly, there is the realization that the membrane trafficking of receptor-ligand complexes influences signal transduction and protein turnover. By building on these concepts, our study shows for the first time that three different VEGF-A isoforms (VEGF-A165, VEGF-A121 and VEGF-A145) promote distinct patterns of VEGFR2 endocytosis for delivery into early endosomes. This differential VEGFR2 endocytosis and trafficking is linked to VEGF-A isoform-specific signal transduction events. Disruption of clathrin-dependent endocytosis blocked VEGF-A isoform-specific VEGFR2 activation, signal transduction and caused substantial depletion in membrane-bound VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 levels. Furthermore, such VEGF-A isoforms promoted differential patterns of VEGFR2 ubiquitylation, proteolysis and terminal degradation. Our study now provides novel insights into how different VEGF-A isoforms can bind the same receptor tyrosine kinase and elicit diverse cellular outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/bio.017434DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4874356PMC
May 2016

Orai3 Surface Accumulation and Calcium Entry Evoked by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2015 Sep 9;35(9):1987-94. Epub 2015 Jul 9.

From the Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, School of Medicine (J.L., A.-F.B., B.H., B.R., P.J.W., M.A.B., H.L.A., N.K.M., J.E.R., N.Y.Y., S.T., M.Q., L.M., H.T., K.E.P., D.J.B.) and School of Chemistry (R.F.), University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom; Departments of Hepatobiliary and Transplant Surgery (K.R.P.) and Colorectal Surgery (D.B.), St. James's University Hospital, Leeds, United Kingdom; and Yorkshire Heart Centre, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds, United Kingdom (D.O.R.).

Objective: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) acts, in part, by triggering calcium ion (Ca(2+)) entry. Here, we sought understanding of a Synta66-resistant Ca(2+) entry pathway activated by VEGF.

Approach And Results: Measurement of intracellular Ca(2+) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells detected a Synta66-resistant component of VEGF-activated Ca(2+) entry that occurred within 2 minutes after VEGF exposure. Knockdown of the channel-forming protein Orai3 suppressed this Ca(2+) entry. Similar effects occurred in 3 further types of human endothelial cell. Orai3 knockdown was inhibitory for VEGF-dependent endothelial tube formation in Matrigel in vitro and in vivo in the mouse. Unexpectedly, immunofluorescence and biotinylation experiments showed that Orai3 was not at the surface membrane unless VEGF was applied, after which it accumulated in the membrane within 2 minutes. The signaling pathway coupling VEGF to the effect on Orai3 involved activation of phospholipase Cγ1, Ca(2+) release, cytosolic group IV phospholipase A2α, arachidonic acid production, and, in part, microsomal glutathione S-transferase 2, an enzyme which catalyses the formation of leukotriene C4 from arachidonic acid. Shear stress reduced microsomal glutathione S-transferase 2 expression while inducing expression of leukotriene C4 synthase, suggesting reciprocal regulation of leukotriene C4-synthesizing enzymes and greater role of microsomal glutathione S-transferase 2 in low shear stress.

Conclusions: VEGF signaling via arachidonic acid and arachidonic acid metabolism causes Orai3 to accumulate at the cell surface to mediate Ca(2+) entry and downstream endothelial cell remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.115.305969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4548547PMC
September 2015

Oxidized LDL activates blood platelets through CD36/NOX2-mediated inhibition of the cGMP/protein kinase G signaling cascade.

Blood 2015 Apr 20;125(17):2693-703. Epub 2015 Feb 20.

Centre for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, Hull-York Medical School, Thrombosis Research Laboratory (013/014), University of Hull, Hull, United Kingdom;

Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) promotes unregulated platelet activation in dyslipidemic disorders. Although oxLDL stimulates activatory signaling, it is unclear how these events drive accelerated thrombosis. Here, we describe a mechanism for oxLDL-mediated platelet hyperactivity that requires generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Under arterial flow, oxLDL triggered sustained generation of platelet intracellular ROS, which was blocked by CD36 inhibitors, mimicked by CD36-specific oxidized phospholipids, and ablated in CD36(-/-) murine platelets. oxLDL-induced ROS generation was blocked by the reduced NAD phosphate oxidase 2 (NOX2) inhibitor, gp91ds-tat, and absent in NOX2(-/-) mice. The synthesis of ROS by oxLDL/CD36 required Src-family kinases and protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent phosphorylation and activation of NOX2. In functional assays, oxLDL abolished guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP)-mediated signaling and inhibited platelet aggregation and arrest under flow. This was prevented by either pharmacologic inhibition of NOX2 in human platelets or genetic ablation of NOX2 in murine platelets. Platelets from hyperlipidemic mice were also found to have a diminished sensitivity to cGMP when tested ex vivo, a phenotype that was corrected by infusion of gp91ds-tat into the mice. This study demonstrates that oxLDL and hyperlipidemia stimulate the generation of NOX2-derived ROS through a CD36-PKC pathway and may promote platelet hyperactivity through modulation of cGMP signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2014-05-574491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4408294PMC
April 2015

Piezo1 integration of vascular architecture with physiological force.

Nature 2014 Nov 10;515(7526):279-282. Epub 2014 Aug 10.

School of Medicine and Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.

The mechanisms by which physical forces regulate endothelial cells to determine the complexities of vascular structure and function are enigmatic. Studies of sensory neurons have suggested Piezo proteins as subunits of Ca(2+)-permeable non-selective cationic channels for detection of noxious mechanical impact. Here we show Piezo1 (Fam38a) channels as sensors of frictional force (shear stress) and determinants of vascular structure in both development and adult physiology. Global or endothelial-specific disruption of mouse Piezo1 profoundly disturbed the developing vasculature and was embryonic lethal within days of the heart beating. Haploinsufficiency was not lethal but endothelial abnormality was detected in mature vessels. The importance of Piezo1 channels as sensors of blood flow was shown by Piezo1 dependence of shear-stress-evoked ionic current and calcium influx in endothelial cells and the ability of exogenous Piezo1 to confer sensitivity to shear stress on otherwise resistant cells. Downstream of this calcium influx there was protease activation and spatial reorganization of endothelial cells to the polarity of the applied force. The data suggest that Piezo1 channels function as pivotal integrators in vascular biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13701DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4230887PMC
November 2014

Haploinsufficiency of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor enhances endothelial repair and favorably modifies angiogenic progenitor cell phenotype.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2014 Sep 10;34(9):2051-8. Epub 2014 Jul 10.

From the Division of Cardiovascular and Diabetes Research, Leeds Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

Objectives: Defective endothelial regeneration predisposes to adverse arterial remodeling and is thought to contribute to cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We recently demonstrated that the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) is a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity and nitric oxide bioavailability. In this report, we examined partial deletion of the IGF1R as a potential strategy to enhance endothelial repair.

Approach And Results: We assessed endothelial regeneration after wire injury in mice and abundance and function of angiogenic progenitor cells in mice with haploinsufficiency of the IGF1R (IGF1R(+/-)). Endothelial regeneration after arterial injury was accelerated in IGF1R(+/-) mice. Although the yield of angiogenic progenitor cells was lower in IGF1R(+/-) mice, these angiogenic progenitor cells displayed enhanced adhesion, increased secretion of insulin-like growth factor-1, and enhanced angiogenic capacity. To examine the relevance of IGF1R manipulation to cell-based therapy, we transfused IGF1R(+/-) bone marrow-derived CD117(+) cells into wild-type mice. IGF1R(+/-) cells accelerated endothelial regeneration after arterial injury compared with wild-type cells and did not alter atherosclerotic lesion formation.

Conclusions: Haploinsufficiency of the IGF1R is associated with accelerated endothelial regeneration in vivo and enhanced tube forming and adhesive potential of angiogenic progenitor cells in vitro. Partial deletion of IGF1R in transfused bone marrow-derived CD117(+) cells enhanced their capacity to promote endothelial regeneration without altering atherosclerosis. Our data suggest that manipulation of the IGF1R could be exploited as novel therapeutic approach to enhance repair of the arterial wall after injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.114.304121DOI Listing
September 2014

Restoring Akt1 activity in outgrowth endothelial cells from South Asian men rescues vascular reparative potential.

Stem Cells 2014 Oct;32(10):2714-23

Leeds Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Centre, LIGHT Laboratories, The University of Leeds, Clarendon Way, Leeds, United Kingdom.

Recent data suggest reduced indices of vascular repair in South Asian men, a group at increased risk of cardiovascular events. Outgrowth endothelial cells (OEC) represent an attractive tool to study vascular repair in humans and may offer potential in cell-based repair therapies. We aimed to define and manipulate potential mechanisms of impaired vascular repair in South Asian (SA) men. In vitro and in vivo assays of vascular repair and angiogenesis were performed using OEC derived from SA men and matched European controls, prior defining potentially causal molecular mechanisms. SA OEC exhibited impaired colony formation, migration, and in vitro angiogenesis, associated with decreased expression of the proangiogenic molecules Akt1 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Transfusion of European OEC into immunodeficient mice after wire-induced femoral artery injury augmented re-endothelialization, in contrast with SA OEC and vehicle; SA OEC also failed to promote angiogenesis after induction of hind limb ischemia. Expression of constitutively active Akt1 (E17KAkt), but not green fluorescent protein control, in SA OEC increased in vitro angiogenesis, which was abrogated by a NOS antagonist. Moreover, E17KAkt expressing SA OEC promoted re-endothelialization of wire-injured femoral arteries, and perfusion recovery of ischemic limbs, to a magnitude comparable with nonmanipulated European OEC. Silencing Akt1 in European OEC recapitulated the functional deficits noted in SA OEC. Reduced signaling via the Akt/eNOS axis is causally linked with impaired OEC-mediated vascular repair in South Asian men. These data prove the principle of rescuing marked reparative dysfunction in OEC derived from these men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/stem.1766DOI Listing
October 2014

Endothelium-specific insulin resistance leads to accelerated atherosclerosis in areas with disturbed flow patterns: a role for reactive oxygen species.

Atherosclerosis 2013 Sep 29;230(1):131-9. Epub 2013 Jun 29.

Division of Cardiovascular and Diabetes Research, Leeds Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Leeds, United Kingdom.

Objective: Systemic insulin resistance is associated with a portfolio of risk factors for atherosclerosis development. We sought to determine whether insulin resistance specifically at the level of the endothelium promotes atherosclerosis and to examine the potential involvement of reactive oxygen species.

Methods: We cross-bred mice expressing a dominant negative mutant human insulin receptor specifically in the endothelium (ESMIRO) with ApoE(-/-) mice to examine the effect of endothelium-specific insulin resistance on atherosclerosis.

Results: ApoE(-/-)/ESMIRO mice had similar blood pressure, plasma lipids and whole-body glucose tolerance, but blunted endothelial insulin signalling, in comparison to ApoE(-/-) mice. Atherosclerosis was significantly increased in ApoE(-/-)/ESMIRO mice at the aortic sinus (226 ± 16 versus 149 ± 24 × 10(3) μm(2), P = 0.01) and lesser curvature of the aortic arch (12.4 ± 1.2% versus 9.4 ± 0.9%, P = 0.035). Relaxation to acetylcholine was blunted in aorta from ApoE(-/-)/ESMIRO mice (Emax 65 ± 41% versus 103 ± 6%, P = 0.02) and was restored by the superoxide dismutase mimetic MnTMPyP (Emax 112 ± 15% versus 65 ± 41%, P = 0.048). Basal generation of superoxide was increased 1.55 fold (P = 0.01) in endothelial cells from ApoE(-/-)/ESMIRO mice and was inhibited by the NADPH oxidase inhibitor gp91ds-tat (-12 ± 0.04%, P = 0.04), the NO synthase inhibitor L-NMMA (-8 ± 0.02%, P = 0.001) and the mitochondrial specific inhibitor rotenone (-23 ± 0.04%, P = 0.006).

Conclusions: Insulin resistance specifically at the level of the endothelium leads to acceleration of atherosclerosis in areas with disturbed flow patterns such as the aortic sinus and the lesser curvature of the aorta. We have identified a potential role for increased generation of reactive oxygen species from multiple enzymatic sources in promoting atherosclerosis in this setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2013.06.017DOI Listing
September 2013

Nox2 NADPH oxidase has a critical role in insulin resistance-related endothelial cell dysfunction.

Diabetes 2013 Jun 24;62(6):2130-4. Epub 2013 Jan 24.

Division of Cardiovascular and Diabetes Research, Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK

Insulin resistance is characterized by excessive endothelial cell generation of potentially cytotoxic concentrations of reactive oxygen species. We examined the role of NADPH oxidase (Nox) and specifically Nox2 isoform in superoxide generation in two complementary in vivo models of human insulin resistance (endothelial specific and whole body). Using three complementary methods to measure superoxide, we demonstrated higher levels of superoxide in insulin-resistant endothelial cells, which could be pharmacologically inhibited both acutely and chronically, using the Nox inhibitor gp91ds-tat. Similarly, insulin resistance-induced impairment of endothelial-mediated vasorelaxation could also be reversed using gp91ds-tat. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Nox2, which was specifically elevated in insulin-resistant endothelial cells, significantly reduced superoxide levels. Double transgenic mice with endothelial-specific insulin resistance and deletion of Nox2 showed reduced superoxide production and improved vascular function. This study identifies Nox2 as the central molecule in insulin resistance-mediated oxidative stress and vascular dysfunction. It also establishes pharmacological inhibition of Nox2 as a novel therapeutic target in insulin resistance-related vascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db12-1294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3661635PMC
June 2013

A heat-shock protein axis regulates VEGFR2 proteolysis, blood vessel development and repair.

PLoS One 2012 6;7(11):e48539. Epub 2012 Nov 6.

Endothelial Cell Biology Unit, School for Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) binds to the VEGFR2 receptor tyrosine kinase, regulating endothelial function, vascular physiology and angiogenesis. However, the mechanism underlying VEGFR2 turnover and degradation in this response is unclear. Here, we tested a role for heat-shock proteins in regulating the presentation of VEGFR2 to a degradative pathway. Pharmacological inhibition of HSP90 stimulated VEGFR2 degradation in primary endothelial cells and blocked VEGF-A-stimulated intracellular signaling via VEGFR2. HSP90 inhibition stimulated the formation of a VEGFR2-HSP70 complex. Clathrin-mediated VEGFR2 endocytosis is required for this HSP-linked degradative pathway for targeting VEGFR2 to the endosome-lysosome system. HSP90 perturbation selectively inhibited VEGF-A-stimulated human endothelial cell migration in vitro. A mouse femoral artery model showed that HSP90 inhibition also blocked blood vessel repair in vivo consistent with decreased endothelial regeneration. Depletion of either HSP70 or HSP90 caused defects in blood vessel formation in a transgenic zebrafish model. We conclude that perturbation of the HSP70-HSP90 heat-shock protein axis stimulates degradation of endothelial VEGFR2 and modulates VEGF-A-stimulated intracellular signaling, endothelial cell migration, blood vessel development and repair.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0048539PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3491040PMC
April 2013

Novel role of the IGF-1 receptor in endothelial function and repair: studies in endothelium-targeted IGF-1 receptor transgenic mice.

Diabetes 2012 Sep 25;61(9):2359-68. Epub 2012 Jun 25.

Division of Cardiovascular and Diabetes Research, Multidisciplinary Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

We recently demonstrated that reducing IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) numbers in the endothelium enhances nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and endothelial cell insulin sensitivity. In the present report, we aimed to examine the effect of increasing IGF-1R on endothelial cell function and repair. To examine the effect of increasing IGF-1R in the endothelium, we generated mice overexpressing human IGF-1R in the endothelium (human IGF-1R endothelium-overexpressing mice [hIGFREO]) under direction of the Tie2 promoter enhancer. hIGFREO aorta had reduced basal NO bioavailability (percent constriction to N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine [mean (SEM) wild type 106% (30%); hIGFREO 48% (10%)]; P < 0.05). Endothelial cells from hIGFREO had reduced insulin-stimulated endothelial NO synthase activation (mean [SEM] wild type 170% [25%], hIGFREO 58% [3%]; P = 0.04) and insulin-stimulated NO release (mean [SEM] wild type 4,500 AU [1,000], hIGFREO 1,500 AU [700]; P < 0.05). hIGFREO mice had enhanced endothelium regeneration after denuding arterial injury (mean [SEM] percent recovered area, wild type 57% [2%], hIGFREO 47% [5%]; P < 0.05) and enhanced endothelial cell migration in vitro. The IGF-1R, although reducing NO bioavailability, enhances in situ endothelium regeneration. Manipulating IGF-1R in the endothelium may be a useful strategy to treat disorders of vascular growth and repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db11-1494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3425420PMC
September 2012

Increasing circulating IGFBP1 levels improves insulin sensitivity, promotes nitric oxide production, lowers blood pressure, and protects against atherosclerosis.

Diabetes 2012 Apr 22;61(4):915-24. Epub 2012 Feb 22.

Division of Cardiovascular and Diabetes Research, MultidisciplinaryCardiovascular Research Centre, University of Leeds, Leeds, U.K.

Low concentrations of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-1 (IGFBP1) are associated with insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. We investigated whether increasing IGFBP1 levels can prevent the development of these disorders. Metabolic and vascular phenotype were examined in response to human IGFBP1 overexpression in mice with diet-induced obesity, mice heterozygous for deletion of insulin receptors (IR(+/-)), and ApoE(-/-) mice. Direct effects of human (h)IGFBP1 on nitric oxide (NO) generation and cellular signaling were studied in isolated vessels and in human endothelial cells. IGFBP1 circulating levels were markedly suppressed in dietary-induced obese mice. Overexpression of hIGFBP1 in obese mice reduced blood pressure, improved insulin sensitivity, and increased insulin-stimulated NO generation. In nonobese IR(+/-) mice, overexpression of hIGFBP1 reduced blood pressure and improved insulin-stimulated NO generation. hIGFBP1 induced vasodilatation independently of IGF and increased endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity in arterial segments ex vivo, while in endothelial cells, hIGFBP1 increased eNOS Ser(1177) phosphorylation via phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. Finally, in ApoE(-/-) mice, overexpression of hIGFBP1 reduced atherosclerosis. These favorable effects of hIGFBP1 on insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, NO production, and atherosclerosis suggest that increasing IGFBP1 concentration may be a novel approach to prevent cardiovascular disease in the setting of insulin resistance and diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db11-0963DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3314358PMC
April 2012

Insulin resistance impairs circulating angiogenic progenitor cell function and delays endothelial regeneration.

Diabetes 2011 Apr 11;60(4):1295-303. Epub 2011 Feb 11.

Division of Cardiovascular and Diabetes Research, Leeds Institute of Genetics, Health and Therapeutics, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

Objective: Circulating angiogenic progenitor cells (APCs) participate in endothelial repair after arterial injury. Type 2 diabetes is associated with fewer circulating APCs, APC dysfunction, and impaired endothelial repair. We set out to determine whether insulin resistance adversely affects APCs and endothelial regeneration.

Research Design And Methods: We quantified APCs and assessed APC mobilization and function in mice hemizygous for knockout of the insulin receptor (IRKO) and wild-type (WT) littermate controls. Endothelial regeneration after femoral artery wire injury was also quantified after APC transfusion.

Results: IRKO mice, although glucose tolerant, had fewer circulating Sca-1(+)/Flk-1(+) APCs than WT mice. Culture of mononuclear cells demonstrated that IRKO mice had fewer APCs in peripheral blood, but not in bone marrow or spleen, suggestive of a mobilization defect. Defective vascular endothelial growth factor-stimulated APC mobilization was confirmed in IRKO mice, consistent with reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression in bone marrow and impaired vascular eNOS activity. Paracrine angiogenic activity of APCs from IRKO mice was impaired compared with those from WT animals. Endothelial regeneration of the femoral artery after denuding wire injury was delayed in IRKO mice compared with WT. Transfusion of mononuclear cells from WT mice normalized the impaired endothelial regeneration in IRKO mice. Transfusion of c-kit(+) bone marrow cells from WT mice also restored endothelial regeneration in IRKO mice. However, transfusion of c-kit(+) cells from IRKO mice was less effective at improving endothelial repair.

Conclusions: Insulin resistance impairs APC function and delays endothelial regeneration after arterial injury. These findings support the hypothesis that insulin resistance per se is sufficient to jeopardize endogenous vascular repair. Defective endothelial repair may be normalized by transfusion of APCs from insulin-sensitive animals but not from insulin-resistant animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db10-1080DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3064103PMC
April 2011