Publications by authors named "Nadine Spielmann"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Creld1 regulates myocardial development and function.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2021 Mar 24;156:45-56. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Institute of Innate Immunity, Biophysical Imaging, Medical Faculty, University of Bonn, 53127 Bonn, Germany. Electronic address:

CRELD1 (Cysteine-Rich with EGF-Like Domains 1) is a risk gene for non-syndromic atrioventricular septal defects in human patients. In a mouse model, Creld1 has been shown to be essential for heart development, particularly in septum and valve formation. However, due to the embryonic lethality of global Creld1 knockout (KO) mice, its cell type-specific function during peri- and postnatal stages remains unknown. Here, we generated conditional Creld1 KO mice lacking Creld1 either in the endocardium (KO) or the myocardium (KO). Using a combination of cardiac phenotyping, histology, immunohistochemistry, RNA-sequencing, and flow cytometry, we demonstrate that Creld1 function in the endocardium is dispensable for heart development. Lack of myocardial Creld1 causes extracellular matrix remodeling and trabeculation defects by modulation of the Notch1 signaling pathway. Hence, KO mice die early postnatally due to myocardial hypoplasia. Our results reveal that Creld1 not only controls the formation of septa and valves at an early stage during heart development, but also cardiac maturation and function at a later stage. These findings underline the central role of Creld1 in mammalian heart development and function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2021.03.008DOI Listing
March 2021

Mouse mutant phenotyping at scale reveals novel genes controlling bone mineral density.

PLoS Genet 2020 12 28;16(12):e1009190. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

German Mouse Clinic, Institute of Experimental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health GmbH, Neuherberg, Germany.

The genetic landscape of diseases associated with changes in bone mineral density (BMD), such as osteoporosis, is only partially understood. Here, we explored data from 3,823 mutant mouse strains for BMD, a measure that is frequently altered in a range of bone pathologies, including osteoporosis. A total of 200 genes were found to significantly affect BMD. This pool of BMD genes comprised 141 genes with previously unknown functions in bone biology and was complementary to pools derived from recent human studies. Nineteen of the 141 genes also caused skeletal abnormalities. Examination of the BMD genes in osteoclasts and osteoblasts underscored BMD pathways, including vesicle transport, in these cells and together with in silico bone turnover studies resulted in the prioritization of candidate genes for further investigation. Overall, the results add novel pathophysiological and molecular insight into bone health and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1009190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7822523PMC
December 2020

A comprehensive and comparative phenotypic analysis of the collaborative founder strains identifies new and known phenotypes.

Mamm Genome 2020 02 14;31(1-2):30-48. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

German Mouse Clinic, Institute of Experimental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, 85764, Neuherberg, Germany.

The collaborative cross (CC) is a large panel of mouse-inbred lines derived from eight founder strains (NOD/ShiLtJ, NZO/HILtJ, A/J, C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ, CAST/EiJ, PWK/PhJ, and WSB/EiJ). Here, we performed a comprehensive and comparative phenotyping screening to identify phenotypic differences and similarities between the eight founder strains. In total, more than 300 parameters including allergy, behavior, cardiovascular, clinical blood chemistry, dysmorphology, bone and cartilage, energy metabolism, eye and vision, immunology, lung function, neurology, nociception, and pathology were analyzed; in most traits from sixteen females and sixteen males. We identified over 270 parameters that were significantly different between strains. This study highlights the value of the founder and CC strains for phenotype-genotype associations of many genetic traits that are highly relevant to human diseases. All data described here are publicly available from the mouse phenome database for analyses and downloads.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00335-020-09827-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7060152PMC
February 2020

In-depth phenotyping reveals common and novel disease symptoms in a hemizygous knock-in mouse model (Mut-ko/ki) of mut-type methylmalonic aciduria.

Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis 2020 03 23;1866(3):165622. Epub 2019 Nov 23.

Division of Metabolism and Children's Research Center, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; radiz - Rare Disease Initiative Zurich, Clinical Research Priority Program for Rare Diseases, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; Zurich Center for Integrative Human Physiology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Isolated methylmalonic aciduria (MMAuria) is primarily caused by deficiency of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MMUT or MUT). Biochemically, MUT deficiency results in the accumulation of methylmalonic acid (MMA), propionyl-carnitine (C3) and other metabolites. Patients often exhibit lethargy, failure to thrive and metabolic decompensation leading to coma or even death, with kidney and neurological impairment frequently identified in the long-term. Here, we report a hemizygous mouse model which combines a knock-in (ki) missense allele of Mut with a knock-out (ko) allele (Mut-ko/ki mice) that was fed a 51%-protein diet from day 12 of life, constituting a bespoke model of MMAuria. Under this diet, mutant mice developed a pronounced metabolic phenotype characterized by drastically increased blood levels of MMA and C3 compared to their littermate controls (Mut-ki/wt). With this bespoke mouse model, we performed a standardized phenotypic screen to assess the whole-body impairments associated with this strong metabolic condition. We found that Mut-ko/ki mice show common clinical manifestations of MMAuria, including pronounced failure to thrive, indications of mild neurological and kidney dysfunction, and degenerative morphological changes in the liver, along with less well described symptoms such as cardiovascular and hematological abnormalities. The analyses also reveal so far unknown disease characteristics, including low bone mineral density, anxiety-related behaviour and ovarian atrophy. This first phenotypic screening of a MMAuria mouse model confirms its relevance to human disease, reveals new alterations associated with MUT deficiency, and suggests a series of quantifiable readouts that can be used to evaluate potential treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2019.165622DOI Listing
March 2020

Soft windowing application to improve analysis of high-throughput phenotyping data.

Bioinformatics 2020 03;36(5):1492-1500

European Molecular Biology Laboratory, European Bioinformatics Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, UK.

Motivation: High-throughput phenomic projects generate complex data from small treatment and large control groups that increase the power of the analyses but introduce variation over time. A method is needed to utlize a set of temporally local controls that maximizes analytic power while minimizing noise from unspecified environmental factors.

Results: Here we introduce 'soft windowing', a methodological approach that selects a window of time that includes the most appropriate controls for analysis. Using phenotype data from the International Mouse Phenotyping Consortium (IMPC), adaptive windows were applied such that control data collected proximally to mutants were assigned the maximal weight, while data collected earlier or later had less weight. We applied this method to IMPC data and compared the results with those obtained from a standard non-windowed approach. Validation was performed using a resampling approach in which we demonstrate a 10% reduction of false positives from 2.5 million analyses. We applied the method to our production analysis pipeline that establishes genotype-phenotype associations by comparing mutant versus control data. We report an increase of 30% in significant P-values, as well as linkage to 106 versus 99 disease models via phenotype overlap with the soft-windowed and non-windowed approaches, respectively, from a set of 2082 mutant mouse lines. Our method is generalizable and can benefit large-scale human phenomic projects such as the UK Biobank and the All of Us resources.

Availability And Implementation: The method is freely available in the R package SmoothWin, available on CRAN http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=SmoothWin.

Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btz744DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7115897PMC
March 2020

Cited4 is a sex-biased mediator of the antidiabetic glitazone response in adipocyte progenitors.

EMBO Mol Med 2018 08;10(8)

DKFZ Junior Group Metabolism and Stem Cell Plasticity, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany

Most antidiabetic drugs treat disease symptoms rather than adipose tissue dysfunction as a key pathogenic cause in the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Pharmacological targeting of adipose tissue through the nuclear receptor PPARg, as exemplified by glitazone treatments, mediates efficacious insulin sensitization. However, a better understanding of the context-specific PPARg responses is required for the development of novel approaches with reduced side effects. Here, we identified the transcriptional cofactor Cited4 as a target and mediator of rosiglitazone in human and murine adipocyte progenitor cells, where it promoted specific sets of the rosiglitazone-dependent transcriptional program. In mice, was required for the proper induction of thermogenic expression by Rosi specifically in subcutaneous fat. This phenotype had high penetrance in females only and was not evident in beta-adrenergically stimulated browning. Intriguingly, this specific defect was associated with reduced capacity for systemic thermogenesis and compromised insulin sensitization upon therapeutic rosiglitazone treatment in female but not male mice. Our findings on function reveal novel unexpected aspects of the pharmacological targeting of PPARg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/emmm.201708613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6079535PMC
August 2018

Role of pancreatic cancer-derived exosomes in salivary biomarker development.

J Biol Chem 2013 Sep 23;288(37):26888-97. Epub 2013 Jul 23.

From the Dental Research Institute, UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, California 90095.

Recent studies have demonstrated that discriminatory salivary biomarkers can be readily detected upon the development of systemic diseases such as pancreatic cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer, and ovarian cancer. However, the utility of salivary biomarkers for the detection of systemic diseases has been undermined due to the absence of the biological and mechanistic rationale as to why distal diseases from the oral cavity would lead to the development of discriminatory biomarkers in saliva. Here, we examine the hypothesis that pancreatic tumor-derived exosomes are mechanistically involved in the development of pancreatic cancer-discriminatory salivary transcriptomic biomarkers. We first developed a pancreatic cancer mouse model that yielded discriminatory salivary biomarkers by implanting the mouse pancreatic cancer cell line Panc02 into the pancreas of the syngeneic host C57BL/6. The role of pancreatic cancer-derived exosomes in the development of discriminatory salivary biomarkers was then tested by engineering a Panc02 cell line that is suppressed for exosome biogenesis, implanting into the C56BL/6 mouse, and examining whether the discriminatory salivary biomarker profile was ablated or disrupted. Suppression of exosome biogenesis results in the ablation of discriminatory salivary biomarker development. This study supports that tumor-derived exosomes provide a mechanism in the development of discriminatory biomarkers in saliva and distal systemic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M113.452458DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3772238PMC
September 2013

The human salivary RNA transcriptome revealed by massively parallel sequencing.

Clin Chem 2012 Sep 6;58(9):1314-21. Epub 2012 Jul 6.

Dental Research Institute, UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: Evaluation of the salivary transcriptome is an emerging diagnostic technology with discriminatory power for disease detection. This study explored massively parallel sequencing for providing nucleotide-level sequence information for each RNA in saliva.

Methods: Transcriptome profiling with the SOLiD™ system was applied to RNA isolated from unstimulated cell-free saliva (CFS) and whole saliva (WS) from healthy human volunteers. Sequenced reads were aligned to human genome build 18 and the Human Oral Microbiome Database (HOMD).

Results: Massively parallel sequencing enabled the acquisition of complete sequence information for each nucleotide position of the human salivary transcriptome through alignment to multiple sequence databases. Approximately 20%-25% of the sequenced reads from CFS aligned to the human genome, and approximately 30% of the sequenced reads aligned to the HOMD. We detected the expression of >4000 coding and noncoding genes in CFS and WS. Gene expression at different genome loci showed that the structural integrity of the transcripts for the annotated genes was preserved in saliva.

Conclusions: A single measurement provided RNA sequence information of gene transcript abundance for both coding and noncoding RNAs and identified sequences from >400 different microbial species within a single sample. Contrary to previous data suggesting that salivary RNA is highly fragmented, in our study the structural integrity of RNA was preserved. The high degree of sequence alignment to annotated exons and introns for each of the respective reference genomes, with sequence coverage spanning the full length of the genes, provides strong evidence that the salivary transcriptome is a complex RNA network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2011.176941DOI Listing
September 2012

Salivary diagnostics: moving to the next level.

Dent Today 2012 Jun;31(6):54, 56-7; quiz 58-9

University of California at Los Angeles, Dental Research Institute, USA.

The evolution of salivary diagnostics has reached a new level toward the goal of using saliva as a powerful fluid for early detection and the first line of diagnosis for life-threatening diseases such as cancer, metabolic disorders, infections, and inflammatory diseases. Newly developed tools such as the novel saliva-based POCT and the SKB are helping to realize the goal of making salivary diagnostics available to clinicians worldwide. This is a unique moment where dentistry may be paving a new path for primary healthcare.
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June 2012

Oral squamous cell carcinoma detection by salivary biomarkers in a Serbian population.

Oral Oncol 2011 Jan 24;47(1):51-5. Epub 2010 Nov 24.

School of Dentistry and Dental Research Institute, University of California - Los Angeles, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, 73-029 CHS, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Early detection of oral squamous cell cancer (OSCC) is the key to improve the low 5-year survival rate. Using proteomic and genomic technologies we have previously discovered and validated salivary OSCC markers in American patients. The question arises whether these biomarkers are discriminatory in cohorts of different ethnic background. Six transcriptome (DUSP1, IL8, IL1B, OAZ1, SAT1, and S100P) and three proteome (IL1B, IL8, and M2BP) biomarkers were tested on 18 early and 17 late stage OSCC patients and 51 healthy controls with quantitative PCR and ELISA. Four transcriptome (IL8, IL1B, SAT1, and S100P) and all proteome biomarkers were significantly elevated (p<0.05) in OSCC patients. The combination of markers yielded an AUC of 0.86, 0.85 and 0.88 for OSCC total, T1-T2, and T3-T4, respectively. The sensitivity/specificity for OSCC total was 0.89/0.78, for T1-T2 0.67/0.96, and for T3-T4 0.82/0.84. In conclusion, seven of the nine salivary biomarkers (three proteins and four mRNAs) were validated and performed strongest in late stage cancer. Patient-based salivary diagnostics is a highly promising approach for OSCC detection. This study shows that previously discovered and validated salivary OSCC biomarkers are discriminatory and reproducible in a different ethnic cohort. These findings support the feasibility to implement multi-center, multi-ethnicity clinical trials towards the pivotal validation of salivary biomarkers for OSCC detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.oraloncology.2010.10.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3032819PMC
January 2011

Time trends of syphilis and HSV-2 co-infection among men who have sex with men in the German HIV-1 seroconverter cohort from 1996-2007.

Sex Transm Infect 2010 Oct;86(5):331-6

Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, HIV/AIDS, STI Unit, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin 13086, Germany.

Objectives: Numbers of newly diagnosed HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Germany increased after the year 2000. We sought to explore trends in STI co-infections around the time of HIV seroconversion in patients from the German HIV-1 seroconverter cohort from 1996-2007.

Methods: MSM from the cohort were included for secondary analysis, if seroconversion occurred between 1996 and 2007 and if a blood sample taken within 2 y after HIV infection was available for further testing. Samples were tested for antibodies against Treponema pallidum and HSV-2. A classification system was developed to assign the chronology of syphilis and HIV-1 infection.

Results: Data of 1052 MSM were eligible for analysis. Overall seroprevalence of syphilis markers was 26%, increasing from 10% (1996-1999) to 35% (2005). Among HIV seroconverters with positive syphilis antibodies, 32% (n=88) were rated as having had coincident infections with HIV and syphilis. Coincident syphilis infection at HIV diagnosis increased substantially (p<0.001) from 2.3% in 2000 to 16.9% in 2003; and thereafter declined to 4.3% in 2007. Mean HSV-2 antibody prevalence was 40.5%, mean anti-HSV-2 IgM prevalence was 11.2%, with no significant change over time.

Discussion: We found a stable prevalence of HSV-2 infection and increasing prevalence of syphilis infection around the time of HIV acquisition among MSM in Germany. Time course and rate of co-infections suggest that a re-emerging syphilis co-epidemic among MSM after 2000 could have contributed to an increase of HIV incidence by enhancing HIV transmission probability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sti.2009.040857DOI Listing
October 2010

Angiotensin II response in afferent arterioles of mice lacking either the endothelial or neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase.

Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2008 Feb 24;294(2):R429-37. Epub 2007 Oct 24.

Institut für Vegetative Physiologie, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Universitätsklinikum Charité, Tucholskystrasse 2, 10117 Berlin.

The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and neuronal NOS (nNOS) on the angiotensin II response in afferent arterioles (Af). Dose responses were assessed for angiotensin II in microperfused Af of mice homozygous for disruption of the eNOS gene [eNOS(-/-)], or nNOS gene [nNOS(-/-)], and their wild-type controls, eNOS(+/+) and nNOS(+/+). Angiotensin II at 10(-8) and 10(-6) mol/l reduced the lumen to 69% and 68% in eNOS(+/+), and to 59% and 50% in nNOS(+/+). N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) did not change basal arteriolar diameters, but augmented angiotensin II contraction, reducing diameters to 23% and 13% in eNOS(+/+), and 7% and 10% in nNOS(+/+) at 10(-8) and 10(-6) mol/l. The response to angiotensin II was enhanced in nNOS(-/-) mice (41% and 25% at 10(-8) and 10(-6) mol/l) and even more enhanced in eNOS(-/-) mice (12% and 9%) compared with nNOS(+/+) and eNOS(+/+). L-NAME led to complete constriction of Af in these groups. Media-to-lumen ratios of Af did not differ between controls and gene-deficient mice. mRNA expression of angiotensin II receptor types 1A and 1B and type 2 also did not differ. The results reveal that angiotensin II-induced release of NO from both eNOS and nNOS significantly contributes to the control of Af. Results also suggest that eNOS-derived NO is of greater importance than nNOS-derived NO in this isolated arteriolar preparation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00482.2007DOI Listing
February 2008

Genome-wide linkage scan for submaximal exercise heart rate in the HERITAGE family study.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2007 Dec 5;293(6):H3366-71. Epub 2007 Oct 5.

Pennington Biomedical Research Center, 6400 Perkins Road, Baton Rouge, LA 70808-4124, USA.

The purpose of this study was to identify regions of the human genome linked to submaximal exercise heart rates in the sedentary state and in response to a standardized 20-wk endurance training program in blacks and whites of the HERITAGE Family Study. A total of 701 polymorphic markers covering the 22 autosomes were used in the genome-wide linkage scan, with 328 sibling pairs from 99 white nuclear families and 102 pairs from 115 black family units. Steady-state heart rates were measured at the relative intensity of 60% maximal oxygen uptake (HR60) and at the absolute intensity of 50 W (HR50). Baseline phenotypes were adjusted for age, sex, and baseline body mass index (BMI) and training responses (posttraining minus baseline, Delta) were adjusted for age, sex, baseline BMI, and baseline value of the phenotype. Two analytic strategies were used, a multipoint variance components and a regression-based multipoint linkage analysis. In whites, promising linkages (LOD > 1.75) were identified on 18q21-q22 for baseline HR50 (LOD = 2.64; P = 0.0002) and DeltaHR60 (LOD = 2.10; P = 0.0009) and on chromosome 2q33.3 for DeltaHR50 (LOD = 2.13; P = 0.0009). In blacks, evidence of promising linkage for baseline HR50 was detected with several markers within the chromosomal region 10q24-q25.3 (peak LOD = 2.43, P = 0.0004 with D10S597). The most promising regions for fine mapping in the HERITAGE Family Study were found on 2q33 for HR50 training response in whites, on 10q25-26 for baseline HR60 in blacks, and on 18q21-22 for both baseline HR50 and DeltaHR60 in whites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00042.2007DOI Listing
December 2007

CETP genotypes and HDL-cholesterol phenotypes in the HERITAGE Family Study.

Physiol Genomics 2007 Sep 22;31(1):25-31. Epub 2007 May 22.

Human Genomics Laboratory, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70808-4124, USA.

Associations between cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) polymorphisms and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) levels before and after 20 wk of endurance training were investigated in the HERITAGE Family Study. Plasma HDL-c, HDL(2)-c, HDL(3)-c, and apolipoprotein (apo)A1 levels were measured, and 13 CETP single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 265 blacks and 486 whites. Three haplotypes defined by SNPs at the -1337, -971, and -629 sites were strongly associated with baseline HDL-c levels in whites. Both C-1337T and C-629A were associated with baseline HDL-c (P < 0.001) and apoA1 (P < 0.01) when tested separately. However, only C-629A remained significant in a combined model. G-971A was not associated with HDL phenotypes, but showed significant interactions with C-629A (P = 0.002) on baseline traits. Genotype-by-sex interactions were observed at the -629 locus for HDL(3)-c (P = 0.004) and apoA1 (P = 0.02) training responses in whites. In women, the -629 A/A homozygotes showed greater increases in HDL(3)-c (P = 0.02) and apoA1 (P = 0.02) levels than the other genotypes. Finally, apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and the CETP C-629A locus contributed independently and in additive fashion to the HDL traits, explaining 6.0-8.8% of the variance. The CETP -1337T and -629A alleles are associated with higher baseline HDL-c and apoA1 levels. The beneficial effects of endurance training on plasma HDL(3)-c and apoA1 levels are evident in white women homozygous for the -629A allele. The CETP and APOE genotypes account for up to 9% of the variance in HDL-c phenotypes in the HERITAGE Family Study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/physiolgenomics.00281.2006DOI Listing
September 2007