Publications by authors named "Nadine Kramann"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Molecular signature of slowly expanding lesions in progressive multiple sclerosis.

Brain 2020 07;143(7):2073-2088

Institute of Neuropathology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

Multiple sclerosis is an immune-mediated chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS that leads to demyelinated lesions in the grey and white matter. Inflammatory, active demyelinating white matter lesions predominate in the relapsing-remitting disease stages, whereas in the progressive stage the so-called slowly expanding lesion is characteristic. These lesions show an accumulation of macrophages/microglia at their borders, mediating the ongoing myelin breakdown and axonal degeneration. The exact pathogenetic mechanisms of lesion progression in chronic multiple sclerosis are still not clear. In the present study, we performed a detailed immunological and molecular profiling of slowly expanding lesions (n = 21) from 13 patients aged between 30 to 74 years (five females and eight males), focusing on macrophage/microglia differentiation. By applying the microglia-specific marker TMEM119, we demonstrate that cells accumulating at the lesion edge almost exclusively belonged to the microglia lineage. Macrophages/microglia can be subdivided into the M1 type, which are associated with inflammatory and degenerative processes, and M2 type, with protective properties, whereby also intermediate polarization phenotypes can be observed. By using a panel of markers characterizing M1- or M2-type macrophages/microglia, we observed a preferential accumulation of M1-type differentiated cells at the lesion edge, indicating a crucial role of these cells in lesion progression. Additionally, unbiased RNA microarray analyses of macrodissected lesion edges from slowly expanding and chronic inactive lesions as well as normal-appearing white matter were performed. In slowly expanding lesions, we identified a total of 165 genes that were upregulated and 35 genes that were downregulated. The upregulated genes included macrophage/microglia-associated genes involved in immune defence and inflammatory processes. Among the upregulated genes were ALOX15B, MME and TNFRSF25. We confirmed increased expression of ALOX15B by quantitative PCR, and of all three genes on the protein level by immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, the present study characterized in detail slowly expanding lesions in progressive multiple sclerosis and demonstrated a preferential accumulation of resident microglia with M1 differentiation at the lesion edge. Microarray analysis showed an increased expression of genes related to immune function, metabolic processes as well as transcription/translation. Thus, these genes may serve as future therapeutic targets to impede lesion progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa158DOI Listing
July 2020

Glial fibrillary acidic protein expression alters astrocytic chemokine release and protects mice from cuprizone-induced demyelination.

Glia 2019 07 23;67(7):1308-1319. Epub 2019 Feb 23.

Institute of Neuropathology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

Enhanced glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression occurs in most diseases of the central nervous system. Thus far, little is known about the effect that GFAP exerts on astrocyte cell signaling. In the present study, we observed that silencing GFAP expression in isolated astrocytes leads to enhanced CCL2 and CXCL10 release, whereas overexpression of GFAP in astrocytes results in a significantly reduced CXCL10 release in vitro. Additionally, we analyzed transgenic mice carrying a full-length copy of the wild-type human GFAP gene. We demonstrate that a persistent GFAP increase alters the astrocytic cell signaling profile, thereby protecting oligodendrocytes, myelin and, subsequently, axons from cuprizone-induced demyelination. Our study revealed that reduced CXCL10 mRNA was accompanied by reduced NF-κB expression in astrocytes. Furthermore, analysis of human tissue from a patient with Alexander disease showed NF-κB activation in astrocytes to be almost completely absent. Our findings indicate that regulation of GFAP expression in astrocytes is crucial for astrocyte signaling and function. Understanding the role of the cytoskeletal protein, GFAP is thus of importance as it is highly regulated in diseases of the central nervous system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/glia.23605DOI Listing
July 2019

Alterations of the Blood-Brain Barrier and Regional Perfusion in Tumor Development: MRI Insights from a Rat C6 Glioma Model.

PLoS One 2016 22;11(12):e0168174. Epub 2016 Dec 22.

Clinic of Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Medical Center, Schleswig Holstein, Christian Albrechts University, Kiel, Germany.

Objectives: Angiogenesis and anti-angiogenetic medications play an important role in progression and therapy of glioblastoma. In this context, in vivo characterization of the blood-brain-barrier and tumor vascularization may be important for individual prognosis and therapy optimization.

Methods: We analyzed perfusion and capillary permeability of C6-gliomas in rats at different stages of tumor-growth by contrast enhanced MRI and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI at 7 Tesla. The analyses included maps of relative cerebral blood volume (CBV) and signal recovery derived from DSC data over a time period of up to 35 days after tumor cell injections.

Results: In all rats tumor progression was accompanied by temporal and spatial changes in CBV and capillary permeability. A leakage of the blood-brain barrier (slow contrast enhancement) was observed as soon as the tumor became detectable on T2-weighted images. Interestingly, areas of strong capillary permeability (fast signal enhancement) were predominantly localized in the center of the tumor. In contrast, the tumor rim was dominated by an increased CBV and showed the highest vessel density compared to the tumor center and the contralateral hemisphere as confirmed by histology.

Conclusion: Substantial regional differences in the tumor highlight the importance of parameter maps in contrast or in addition to region-of-interest analyses. The data vividly illustrate how MRI including contrast-enhanced and DSC-MRI may contribute to a better understanding of tumor development.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0168174PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5179246PMC
July 2017

Laquinimod prevents cuprizone-induced demyelination independent of Toll-like receptor signaling.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2016 Jun 17;3(3):e233. Epub 2016 May 17.

Institute of Neuropathology (N.K., L.M., U.-K.H., W.B.), University Medical Center Göttingen, Germany; and Teva Pharmaceutical Industries (L.H.), Netanya, Israel.

Objective: To test whether Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling plays a key role for reduced nuclear factor B (NF-κB) activation after laquinimod treatment in the model of cuprizone-induced demyelination, oligodendrocyte apoptosis, inflammation, and axonal damage.

Methods: Ten-week-old C57BL/6J, TLR4(-/-), and MyD88(-/-) mice received 0.25% cuprizone for 6 weeks and were treated daily with 25 mg/kg laquinimod or vehicle. After 6 weeks of demyelination, extent of demyelination, oligodendrocyte density, microglia infiltration, and axonal damage were analyzed in the corpus callosum. Additionally, we analyzed primary mouse astrocytes from C57BL/6J, TLR4(-/-), MyD88(-/-), and TRIF(-/-) mice for alteration in NF-κB signaling.

Results: Vehicle-treated controls from C57BL/6J, TLR4(-/-), and MyD88(-/-) mice displayed extensive callosal demyelination as well as microglial activation. In contrast, mice treated with 25 mg/kg laquinimod showed mainly intact callosal myelin. The demyelination score was significantly higher in all untreated mice compared to mice treated with laquinimod. There were significantly fewer APP-positive axonal spheroids, Mac3-positive macrophages/microglia, and less oligodendrocyte apoptosis in the corpus callosum of laquinimod-treated mice in comparison to untreated controls. Stimulated primary mouse astrocytes from laquinimod-treated groups show reduced NF-κB activation compared to vehicle-treated controls.

Conclusions: Our results confirm that laquinimod prevents demyelination in the cuprizone mouse model for multiple sclerosis via downregulation of NF-κB activation. This laquinimod effect, however, does not involve upstream Toll-like receptor signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/NXI.0000000000000233DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4871804PMC
June 2016

Increased Meningeal T and Plasma Cell Infiltration is Associated with Early Subpial Cortical Demyelination in Common Marmosets with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

Brain Pathol 2015 May 12;25(3):276-86. Epub 2014 Sep 12.

Institute of Neuropathology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

Subpial cortical demyelination (SCD) accounts for the greatest proportion of demyelinated cortex in multiple sclerosis (MS). SCD is already found in biopsy cases with early MS and in marmosets with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), but the pathogenesis of SCD is not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate whether and, if so, which meningeal inflammatory cells were associated with early SCD in marmosets with EAE. Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyze brain samples from eight control animals and eight marmosets immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. Meningeal T, B and plasma cells were quantified adjacent to SCD, normal-appearing EAE cortex (NAC) and control marmoset cortex. SCD areas appeared mostly hypocellular with low-grade microglial activation. In marmosets with EAE, meninges adjacent to SCD showed significantly increased T cells paralleled by elevated plasma cells, but unaltered B cell numbers compared with NAC. The elevation of meningeal T and plasma cells was a specific finding topographically associated with SCD, as the meninges overlying NAC displayed similarly low T, B and plasma cell numbers as control cortex. These findings suggest that local meningeal T and plasma cell infiltration contributes to the pathogenesis of SCD in marmosets with EAE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12180DOI Listing
May 2015

B-RAF and its novel negative regulator reticulocalbin 1 (RCN1) modulates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

Cardiovasc Res 2014 Apr 2;102(1):88-96. Epub 2014 Feb 2.

Department of Cardiology and Pulmonology, University Medical Centre Göttingen, Robert-Koch-Straße 40, 37075 Göttingen, Germany.

Aim: Activation of the kinase RAF and its downstream targets leads to cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. It has been hypothesized that B-RAF might be the main activator of MEK in various cell types. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of B-RAF and its modulating factors in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

Methods And Results: Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were pre-treated with and without the specific B-RAF inhibitor SB590885 and then stimulated with phenylephrine to induce hypertrophy. Inhibition of B-RAF completely impeded the hypertrophic response and led to a significant reduction of MEK1/2 phosphorylation. By applying a eukaryotic cDNA expression screen, based on a dual-luciferase reporter assay for B-RAF activity measurement, we identified RCN1 as a new negative modulator of B-RAF activity. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of reticulocalbin 1 (RCN1) completely impeded phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy and led to significantly reduced MEK1/2 phosphorylation. Conversely, adenoviral knockdown of RCN1 with a specific synthetic miRNA induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and significantly increased MEK1/2 phosphorylation.

Conclusions: In summary, our results show that the inhibition of B-RAF abolishes cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and we identified RCN1 as novel negative modulator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling cascade. Our results show that B-RAF kinase activity is essential for cardiac hypertrophy and RCN1, its newly identified negative regulator, abolishes hypertrophic response of cardiomyocytes in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvu024DOI Listing
April 2014

Reduced astrocytic NF-κB activation by laquinimod protects from cuprizone-induced demyelination.

Acta Neuropathol 2012 Sep 6;124(3):411-24. Epub 2012 Jul 6.

Department of Neuropathology, University Medical Center, Robert-Koch-Str. 40, 37099, Göttingen, Germany.

Laquinimod (LAQ) is a new oral immunomodulatory compound that reduces relapse rate, brain atrophy and disability progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). LAQ has well-documented effects on inflammation in the periphery, but little is known about its direct activity within the central nervous system (CNS). To elucidate the impact of LAQ on CNS-intrinsic inflammation, we investigated the effects of LAQ on cuprizone-induced demyelination in mice in vivo and on primary CNS cells in vitro. Demyelination, inflammation, axonal damage and glial pathology were evaluated in LAQ-treated wild type and Rag-1-deficient mice after cuprizone challenge. Using primary cells we tested for effects of LAQ on oligodendroglial survival as well as on cytokine secretion and NF-κB activation in astrocytes and microglia. LAQ prevented cuprizone-induced demyelination, microglial activation, axonal transections, reactive gliosis and oligodendroglial apoptoses in wild type and Rag-1-deficient mice. LAQ significantly decreased pro-inflammatory factors in stimulated astrocytes, but not in microglia. Oligodendroglial survival was not affected by LAQ in vitro. Astrocytic, but not microglial, NF-κB activation was markedly reduced by LAQ as evidenced by NF-κB reporter assay. LAQ also significantly decreased astrocytic NF-κB activation in cuprizone-treated mice. Our data indicate that LAQ prevents cuprizone-induced demyelination by attenuating astrocytic NF-κB activation. These effects are CNS-intrinsic and not mediated by peripheral immune cells. Therefore, LAQ downregulation of the astrocytic pro-inflammatory response may be an important mechanism underlying its protective effects on myelin, oligodendrocytes and axons. Modulation of astrocyte activation may be an attractive therapeutic target to prevent tissue damage in MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-012-1009-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3422618PMC
September 2012

Pelota interacts with HAX1, EIF3G and SRPX and the resulting protein complexes are associated with the actin cytoskeleton.

BMC Cell Biol 2010 Apr 20;11:28. Epub 2010 Apr 20.

Institute of Human Genetics, Georg-August-University, Göttingen, Germany.

Background: Pelota (PELO) is an evolutionary conserved protein, which has been reported to be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and stem cell self-renewal. Recent studies revealed the essential role of PELO in the No-Go mRNA decay, by which mRNA with translational stall are endonucleotically cleaved and degraded. Further, PELO-deficient mice die early during gastrulation due to defects in cell proliferation and/or differentiation.

Results: We show here that PELO is associated with actin microfilaments of mammalian cells. Overexpression of human PELO in Hep2G cells had prominent effect on cell growth, cytoskeleton organization and cell spreading. To find proteins interacting with PELO, full-length human PELO cDNA was used as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screening assay. Partial sequences of HAX1, EIF3G and SRPX protein were identified as PELO-interacting partners from the screening. The interactions between PELO and HAX1, EIF3G and SRPX were confirmed in vitro by GST pull-down assays and in vivo by co-immunoprecipitation. Furthermore, the PELO interaction domain was mapped to residues 268-385 containing the c-terminal and acidic tail domain. By bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay (BiFC), we found that protein complexes resulting from the interactions between PELO and either HAX1, EIF3G or SRPX were mainly localized to cytoskeletal filaments.

Conclusion: We could show that PELO is subcellularly localized at the actin cytoskeleton, interacts with HAX1, EIF3G and SRPX proteins and that this interaction occurs at the cytoskeleton. Binding of PELO to cytoskeleton-associated proteins may facilitate PELO to detect and degrade aberrant mRNAs, at which the ribosome is stalled during translation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2121-11-28DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2867792PMC
April 2010