Publications by authors named "Nadia Alkhamis"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Oral Health Status in Alzheimer's Disease Patients: A Descriptive Study in an Italian Population.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2018 May 1;19(5):483-489. Epub 2018 May 1.

Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences Dental School, Alma Mater Studiorum, Universita di Bologna Bologna, Italy.

Aim: To evaluate the oral health status in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients.

Materials And Methods: A descriptive study was performed on 120 AD patients (60 institutionalized in a public institute and 60 attended a daytime center), from September 2013 to January 2014. About 103 subjects formed the control group. The following medical and dental data were collected: dementia severity, pharmacological therapy, physical status (American Society of Anesthesiologists [ASA]), decayed (D), filled (F), and remaining natural teeth (T), DF/T ratio, community periodontal index (CPI), and gingival index (GI). A t-test for independent samples and the Spearman's correlation test were used to evaluate all variables. The significance level was set at 0.05.

Results: Statistically more AD patients (91.7%) were under pharmacological therapy and their physical status was more severe (ASA 2, ASA 3) compared with control subjects (p < 0.001). Moreover, they presented numbers of D, CPI, and GI significantly higher (p ≤ 0.005). In the institutionalized subgroup, statistically more moderate and severe AD cases were detected and more patients were edentulous (p < 0.001). Noninstitutionalized patients presented DF/T ratio, CPI, and GI significantly lower (p ≤ 0.024). A significant weak negative correlation (r = -0.121 to -0.372) between epidemiologic indices and AD severity was observed.

Conclusion: Alzheimer's disease patients show a low oral health status that decreases progressively as the disease severity aggravates. Therefore, further studies are necessary to investigate oral health care interventions for AD patients.

Clinical Significance: It would be beneficial to introduce trained professional figures in specialized elderly institutions for regular follow-up visits and professional oral hygiene procedures. This task has to be coordinated with the treating physician, family members, and/or caregivers. Knowing that the severity of AD has a negative effect on the oral health status and the type of institutionalization exacerbates it.
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May 2018

Effects of audiovisual distraction in children with special healthcare needs during dental restorations: a randomized crossover clinical trial.

Int J Paediatr Dent 2018 Jan 11;28(1):111-120. Epub 2017 Apr 11.

Department of Biomedical and NeuroMotor Sciences (DiBiNeM), Unit of Dental Care for Special Needs Patients and Paediatric Dentistry, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Background: Audiovisual distraction using video eyeglasses is useful in managing distress and reducing fear and anxiety in healthy children during dental treatments.

Aim: To evaluate the effect of audiovisual distraction on behavior and self-reported pain of children with special healthcare needs (SHCN) without intellectual disability during dental restorations and its influence on the operator stress and the time of the appointment.

Material And Methods: This randomized controlled crossover trial comprised 48 children with SHCN requiring at least two dental restorations. One restoration was done wearing the video eyeglasses and one wearing conventional behavior management techniques. Subjective and objective pain was evaluated using the Faces Pain Scale - Revised (FPS-R) and the revised Face, Leg, Activity, Cry, and Consolability scale (r-FLACC). The operator stress using a VAS, the time of the appointment, and the child satisfaction were recorded.

Results: The use of video eyeglasses significantly reduced the operator stress. The bivariate analysis showed that the mean FPS-R score and the mean r-FLACC score were significantly lower using the video eyeglasses only during the second clinical session.

Conclusion: Audiovisual distraction could be useful in managing distress in SHCN children without intellectual disability but cannot replace the conventional behavior management techniques.
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January 2018

Oro-dental features of Pallister-Killian syndrome: Evaluation of 21 European probands.

Am J Med Genet A 2016 09 29;170(9):2357-64. Epub 2016 Jun 29.

Department of Biomedical and NeuroMotor Sciences (DiBiNeM), Unit of Dental Care for Special Needs Patients and Paediatric Dentistry, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Pallister-Killian syndrome (PKS) is a rare sporadic multi-systemic developmental disorder caused by a mosaic tetrasomy of the short arm of chromosome 12. A wide range of clinical characteristics including intellectual disability, seizures, and congenital malformations has previously been described. Individuals with PKS show a characteristic facial phenotype with frontal bossing, alopecia, sparse eyebrows, depressed nasal bridge, long philtrum, telecanthus, and posteriorly rotated ears. Oro-dental features, such as "Pallister lip," macroglossia, delayed eruption of primary teeth, high arched-palate, prognathism, and cleft palate have been occasionally reported in the medical literature. The aim of the study was to assess the oro-dental phenotype of PKS and to describe the oral health status in a cohort participating in the First European Workshop on PKS. A clinical dental examination was performed in 21 Caucasian probands and data regarding medical and dental history collected. Twelve probands (57%) showed an atypical dental pattern, with multiple missing teeth (primarily the first permanent molars) and 2 (10%) a double teeth. The severity of gingivitis and dental caries increased with age and gingival overgrowth was a common finding. A characteristic occlusive phenotype was found: a high-arched palate with mandibular prognathism associated with an anterior openbite and crossbite and with posterior crossbite (unilateral or bilateral). The prevalence of oral habits (non-nutritive sucking, mouth breathing, bruxism) was high, even in older probands. This study suggests that individuals affected by PKS should be observed closely for oro-dental diseases and a multidisciplinary approach is needed to implement the right preventive measures. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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September 2016

Fear of dental pain in Italian children: child personality traits and parental dental fear.

J Public Health Dent 2016 06 27;76(3):179-83. Epub 2015 Nov 27.

Department of Oral Science, Unit of Dentistry for Special Needs Patients, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Objectives: Dental anxiety could impede dental treatment in children. Evidence shows that parents' fear of dentists contributes to children's anxiety towards dentists. The aim of the present study was to determine whether and to what extent: a) parents' anxiety and depression personality traits, b) parent's dental fear, and c) child personality traits can predict children's dental anxiety in an Italian population.

Methods: One hundred and four children (5-14 years old) and one of their parents participated in the study. Well-known and validated questionnaires were administered to children (MCDASf, CFSS-DS, TAD) and parents (FDPQ, STAI Y1, Y2, and BDI-II).

Result: Dental anxiety is significantly associated with the anxiety personality trait and depression of the child and with parental fear of dental pain. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that, regardless of age and gender, the best predictor of child dental anxiety is parent's fear of dental pain, rather than relatively stable temperaments of the child.

Conclusions: In line with the literature concerning adults, these findings highlight the children dental anxiety as a complex phenomena consisting of different components, including the child's personality traits (anxiety trait and depression) and parents' dental fear. Clinical implications of this evidence are discussed.
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June 2016

X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets: enamel abnormalities and oral clinical findings.

Scanning 2014 Jul-Aug;36(4):456-61. Epub 2014 Mar 27.

Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences (DIBINEM), Dentistry for Special Need Patients Division, Dental School, Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is a genetic disorder related to alterations in bones and teeth formation, due to low levels of phosphate in blood. Oral findings in XLH have been enamel and dentine abnormalities, high pulp horns, large pulp chambers, and some cases of periapical abscesses related to teeth without caries or traumatic injuries. The aim of our study was to assess the presence of enamel alterations, such as microclefts and/or structure defects in patients with XLH and give guidelines of prevention of XLH dental complications. History taking, oral clinical and radiological examination in 10 young patients affected by XLH (average age of 9) and in 6 patients without XLH (average age of 8). Impressions were performed on the vestibular surfaces of teeth in order to obtain replicas. The replicas were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and compared to replicas of control group. The images of replicas of XLH patients showed deep microclefts and irregular enamel surface structure compared to replicas of control group. The replica of a patient with spontaneous periapical abscesses showed numerous enamel crater-shaped depressions and deep microcleavages penetrating into the enamel thickness. In absence of caries or fractures, the abscesses pathogenesis may be related to microcleavages of the enamel and dentin, which allow bacterial invasion of the pulp. There could be a relationship between XLH disease and enamel abnormalities.
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April 2015