Publications by authors named "Nadezda Ziková"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Elemental and microbiota content in indoor and outdoor air using recuperation unit filters.

Sci Total Environ 2021 May 21;789:147903. Epub 2021 May 21.

Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Wybrzeże Wyspiańskiego 27, 50-370 Wrocław, Poland.

This paper presents the results of a twelve-month measurement campaign conducted at a rural single-family house in Poland. The external and internal filters of a recuperator used to mechanically ventilate the building were used to separate the total suspended particles (TSPs), and the concentrations of fifteen elements and abundance of fungi and bacteria were determined. Lower annual mean concentrations were observed indoors, and the concentrations of most elements did not significantly change between seasons. There were some differences between winter and summer, which may have resulted from changes in the ventilation regimes in the house. The number of bacteria was similar outdoors and indoors, while the amounts of fungi were higher indoors (p < 0.05). The order of metal concentrations outdoors agreed well with observations in other countries, while indoors the metal concentrations order indicated the individual characteristics of the building. The species diversity of fungi was higher than that of bacteria, and different species were found indoors and outdoors, while bacteria were typically present both indoors and outdoors. Different TSP sources were identified indoors and outdoors, suggesting limited penetration between the two environments. However, both environments were affected by traffic. Mechanical ventilation systems with built-in filters (such as recuperators) were useful in assessing the air quality within the building, and the changeable recuperation filters offer an approach to assess the air quality in several houses without any additional cost or discomfort to the residents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147903DOI Listing
May 2021

Atmospheric aerosol growth rates at different background station types.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 12;28(11):13352-13364. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, Na Šabatce 2050/17, 143 06, Prague 4-Komořany, Czech Republic.

Highly time-resolved particle number size distributions (PNSDs) were evaluated during 5 years (2013-2017) at four background stations in the Czech Republic located in different types of environments-urban background (Ústí nad Labem), industrial background (Lom), agricultural background (National Atmospheric Observatory Košetice), and suburban background (Prague-Suchdol). The PNSD data was used for new particle formation event determination as well as growth rate (GR) and condensation sink (CS) calculations. The differences or similarities of these parameters were evaluated from perspectives of the different pollution load, meteorological condition, and regional or long-range transport. The median growth rate (4 nm h) is very similar at all stations, and the most frequent length of growth lasted between 2 and 4 h. Condensation sink reflects the pollution load at the individual station and their connection to the environment type. The highest median, CS = 1.34 × 10 s, was recorded at the urban station (Ústí nad Labem), and the lowest (CS = 0.85 × 10 s) was recorded at the agricultural station (National Atmospheric Observatory Košetice). Conditional probability function polar plots illustrate the influence of source location to GR. These primary potential emission sources involve traffic, operation of a power plant, and domestic heating.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11424-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7943522PMC
March 2021

Spatial-temporal variability of aerosol sources based on chemical composition and particle number size distributions in an urban settlement influenced by metallurgical industry.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Nov 5;27(31):38631-38643. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, 265 Crittenden Boulevard, Rochester, NY, 14642-0708, USA.

The Moravian-Silesian region of the Czech Republic with its capital city Ostrava is a European air pollution hot spot for airborne particulate matter (PM). Therefore, the spatiotemporal variability assessment of source contributions to aerosol particles is essential for the successful abatement strategies implementation. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was applied to highly-time resolved PM chemical composition (1 h resolution) and particle number size distribution (PNSD, 14 nm - 10 μm) data measured at the suburban (Ostrava-Plesná) and urban (Ostrava-Radvanice) residential receptor sites in parallel during an intensive winter campaign. Diel patterns, meteorological variables, inorganic and organic markers, and associations between the chemical composition factors and PNSD factors were used to identify the pollution sources and their origins (local, urban agglomeration and regional). The source apportionment analysis resolved six and four PM sources in Plesná and Radvanice, respectively. In Plesná, local residential combustion sources (coal and biomass combustion) followed by regional combustion sources (residential heating, metallurgical industry) were the main contributors to PM. In Radvanice, local residential combustion and the metallurgical industry were the most important PM sources. Aitken and accumulation mode particles emitted by local residential combustion sources along with common urban sources (residential heating, industry and traffic) were the main contributors to the particle number concentration (PNC) in Plesná. Additionally, accumulation mode particles from local residential combustion sources and regional pollution dominated the particle volume concentration (PVC). In Radvanice, local industrial sources were the major contributors to PNC and local coal combustion was the main contributor to PVC. The source apportionment results from the complementary datasets elucidated the relevance of highly time-resolved parallel measurements at both receptor sites given the specific meteorological conditions produced by the regional orography. These results are in agreement with our previous studies conducted at this site. Graphical abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09694-0DOI Listing
November 2020

Characterization of Equivalent Black Carbon at a regional background site in Central Europe: Variability and source apportionment.

Environ Pollut 2020 May 20;260:113771. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

CzechGlobe - Global Change Research Institute CAS, Brno, 60300, Czech Republic; Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Brno, 62500, Czech Republic.

Characterizing Black Carbon (BC) at regional background areas is important for better understanding its impact on climate forcing and health effects. The variability and sources of Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) in PM (atmospheric particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) have been investigated during a 5-year measurement period at the National Atmospheric Observatory Košetice (NAOK), Czech Republic. Ground based measurements were performed from September 2012 to December 2017 with a 7-wavelength aethalometer (AE31, Magee Scientific). The contributions of fossil fuel (EBC) and biomass burning (EBC) were estimated using the aethalometer model. Seasonal, diurnal and weekly variations of EBC were observed that can be related to the sources fluctuations and transport characteristic of pollutants predominantly associated with regional air masses recirculating over the Czech Republic and neighboring countries. The absorption Ångström exponent (α-value) estimated in summer (1.1 ± 0.2) was consistent with reported value for traffic, while the mean highest value (1.5 ± 0.2) was observed in winter due to increased EBC accounting for about 50% of the total EBC. This result is in agreement with the strong correlation between EBC and biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan and mannosan) in winter. During this season, the concentrations of EBC and Delta-C (proxy for biomass burning) reached a maximum in the evening when increasing emissions of wood burning in domestic heating devices (woodstoves/heating system) is expected, especially during the weekend. The diurnal profile of EBC displays a typical morning peak during the morning traffic rush hour and shows a decreasing concentration during weekends due to lower the traffic emission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113771DOI Listing
May 2020

Hourly land-use regression models based on low-cost PM monitor data.

Environ Res 2018 11 4;167:7-14. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA; Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Land-use regression (LUR) models provide location and time specific estimates of exposure to air pollution and thereby improve the sensitivity of health effects models. However, they require pollutant concentrations at multiple locations along with land-use variables. Often, monitoring is performed over short durations using mobile monitoring with research-grade instruments. Low-cost PM monitors provide an alternative approach that increases the spatial and temporal resolution of the air quality data. LUR models were developed to predict hourly PM concentrations across a metropolitan area using PM concentrations measured simultaneously at multiple locations with low-cost monitors. Monitors were placed at 23 sites during the 2015/16 heating season. Monitors were externally calibrated using co-located measurements including a reference instrument (GRIMM particle spectrometer). LUR models for each hour of the day and weekdays/weekend days were developed using the deletion/substitution/addition algorithm. Coefficients of determination for hourly PM predictions ranged from 0.66 and 0.76 (average 0.7). The hourly-resolved LUR model results will be used in epidemiological studies to examine if and how quickly, increases in ambient PM concentrations trigger adverse health events by reducing the exposure misclassification that arises from using less time resolved exposure estimates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.06.052DOI Listing
November 2018

Estimating Hourly Concentrations of PM across a Metropolitan Area Using Low-Cost Particle Monitors.

Sensors (Basel) 2017 Aug 21;17(8). Epub 2017 Aug 21.

Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699, USA.

There is concern regarding the heterogeneity of exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) across urban areas leading to negatively biased health effects models. New, low-cost sensors now permit continuous and simultaneous measurements to be made in multiple locations. Measurements of ambient PM were made from October to April 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 to assess the spatial and temporal variability in PM and the relative importance of traffic and wood smoke to outdoor PM concentrations in Rochester, NY, USA. In general, there was moderate spatial inhomogeneity, as indicated by multiple pairwise measures including coefficient of divergence and signed rank tests of the value distributions. Pearson correlation coefficients were often moderate (~50% of units showed correlations >0.5 during the first season), indicating that there was some coherent variation across the area, likely driven by a combination of meteorological conditions (wind speed, direction, and mixed layer heights) and the concentration of PM being transported into the region. Although the accuracy of these PM sensors is limited, they are sufficiently precise relative to one another and to research grade instruments that they can be useful is assessing the spatial and temporal variations across an area and provide concentration estimates based on higher-quality central site monitoring data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s17081922DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5579734PMC
August 2017

Markers of nucleic acids and proteins oxidation among office workers exposed to air pollutants including (nano)TiO2 particles.

Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2016 Dec;37(Suppl1):13-16

Charles University and General University Hospital in Prague, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Department of Occupational Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic.

Objectives: Experimental studies using nanoscale TiO2 have documented lung injury, inflammation, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity. Human health data are extremely scarce.

Methods: In exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and urine of 22 office employees occupationally exposed to TiO2 during their visit in the production workshops for average 14±9 min/day a panel of biomarkers of nucleic acids and proteins oxidation was studied, specifically 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHG), 5-hydroxymethyl uracil (5-OHMeU), o-tyrosine (o-Tyr), 3-chlorotyrosine (3-ClTyr), and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NOTyr). Examination was performed also in 14 comparable controls.

Results: The median respirable TiO2 mass concentration in the workshops was 0.40 mg/m3, median number concentration was 2.32×104 particles/cm3 with 80% of the particles being <100 nm in diameter. All 6 markers of oxidation were elevated in EBC in factory office employees relative to controls (p<0.01). Significant association was found between their job in TiO2 production plant and 5 markers of oxidation (except 3-NOTyr) in the EBC in multivariate analysis. No elevation of markers was detected in the urine.

Conclusion: This pilot study suggests that even short nanoTiO2 exposure may lead to pulmonary oxidative stress; however this effect may be short-term and reversible. The clinical significance of these findings is unclear and more studies are needed.
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December 2016

Markers of lipid oxidative damage in the exhaled breath condensate of nano TiO production workers.

Nanotoxicology 2017 02 9;11(1):52-63. Epub 2016 Dec 9.

h UMass Lowell, Department of Public Health , College of Health Sciences , Lowell, MA , USA.

Nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO) is a commercially important nanomaterial. Animal studies have documented lung injury and inflammation, oxidative stress, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Yet, human health data are scarce and quantitative risk assessments and biomonitoring of exposure are lacking. NanoTiO is classified by IARC as a group 2B, possible human carcinogen. In our earlier studies we documented an increase in markers of inflammation, as well as DNA and protein oxidative damage, in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of workers exposed nanoTiO. This study focuses on biomarkers of lipid oxidation. Several established lipid oxidative markers (malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy-trans-hexenal, 4-hydroxy-trans-nonenal, 8-isoProstaglandin F2α and aldehydes C-C) were studied in EBC and urine of 34 workers and 45 comparable controls. The median particle number concentration in the production line ranged from 1.98 × 10 to 2.32 × 10 particles/cm with ∼80% of the particles <100 nm in diameter. Mass concentration varied between 0.40 and 0.65 mg/m. All 11 markers of lipid oxidation were elevated in production workers relative to the controls (p < 0.001). A significant dose-dependent association was found between exposure to TiO and markers of lipid oxidation in the EBC. These markers were not elevated in the urine samples. Lipid oxidation in the EBC of workers exposed to (nano)TiO complements our earlier findings on DNA and protein damage. These results are consistent with the oxidative stress hypothesis and suggest lung injury at the molecular level. Further studies should focus on clinical markers of potential disease progression. EBC has reemerged as a sensitive technique for noninvasive monitoring of workers exposed to engineered nanoparticles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17435390.2016.1262921DOI Listing
February 2017

Markers of lipid oxidative damage among office workers exposed intermittently to air pollutants including nanoTiO2 particles.

Rev Environ Health 2017 Mar;32(1-2):193-200

Nanoscale titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2) is a commercially important nanomaterial used in numerous applications. Experimental studies with nanotitania have documented lung injury and inflammation, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity. Production workers in TiO2 manufacturing with a high proportion of nanoparticles and a mixture of other air pollutants, such as gases and organic aerosols, had increased markers of oxidative stress, including DNA and protein damage, as well as lipid peroxidation in their exhaled breath condensate (EBC) compared to unexposed controls. Office workers were observed to get intermittent exposures to nanoTiO2 during their process monitoring. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of such short-term exposures on the markers of health effects in office workers relative to production workers from the same factory. Twenty-two office employees were examined. They were occupationally exposed to (nano)TiO2 aerosol during their daily visits of the production area for an average of 14±9 min/day. Median particle number concentration in office workers while in the production area was 2.32×104/cm3. About 80% of the particles were <100 nm in diameter. A panel of biomarkers of lipid oxidation, specifically malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-trans-hexenal (HHE), 4-hydroxy-trans-nonenal (HNE), 8-isoprostaglandin F2α (8-isoprostane), and aldehydes C6-C12, were studied in the EBC and urine of office workers and 14 unexposed controls. Nine markers of lipid oxidation were elevated in the EBC of office employees relative to controls (p<0.05); only 8-isoprostane and C11 were not increased. Significant association was found in the multivariate analysis between their employment in the TiO2 production plant and EBC markers of lipid oxidation. No association was seen with age, lifestyle factors, or environmental air contamination. The EBC markers in office employees reached about 50% of the levels measured in production workers, and the difference between production workers and office employees was highly significant (p<0.001). None of these biomarkers were elevated in urine. The approach presented here seems to be very sensitive and useful for non-invasive monitoring of employees exposed to air pollutants, including gases, organic aerosols, and nanoTiO2, and may prove useful for routine biomonitoring purposes. Among them, aldehydes C6, C8, C9, and C10 appear to be the most sensitive markers of lipid oxidation in similar occupational cohorts. One major challenge with sensitive biomonitoring techniques, however, is their non-specificity and difficulty in interpreting the meaning of their physiological values in the context of chronic disease development and damage-repair kinetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2016-0030DOI Listing
March 2017

Leukotrienes in exhaled breath condensate and fractional exhaled nitric oxide in workers exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles.

J Breath Res 2016 06 30;10(3):036004. Epub 2016 Jun 30.

Department of Occupational Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and General University Hospital in Prague, Na Bojišti 1, 128 00 Prague 2, Czech Republic.

Human health data regarding exposure to nanoparticles are extremely scarce and biomonitoring of exposure is lacking in spite of rodent pathological experimental data. Potential markers of the health-effects of engineered nanoparticles were examined in 30 workers exposed to TiO2 aerosol, 22 office employees of the same plant, and 45 unexposed controls. Leukotrienes (LT) B4, C4, E4, and D4 were analysed in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and urine via liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and spirometry was also measured. The median particle number concentration of the aerosol in the production ranged from 1.98  ×  10(4) to 2.32  ×  10(4) particles cm(-3); about 80% of the particles were  <100 nm in diameter. Median total mass concentration varied between 0.4 and 0.65 mg m(-3). All LT levels in workers' EBC were elevated relative to the controls (p  <  0.01). LTs in the EBC sample were correlated with titanium levels. Urinary LTs were not elevated in the workers and office employees. Office workers had higher LTB4 in EBC (p  <  0.05), and higher levels of FeNO (p  <  0.01). FeNO was higher in office employees with allergic diseases and was negatively correlated with smoking (p  <  0.01). In spirometry significant impairment in the workers was seen only for %VCIN and %PEF (both p  <  0.01). Multiple regression analysis confirmed a significant association between production of TiO2 and all cysteinyl LTs in EBC (p  <  0.01) and impaired %VCIN and %PEF (both p  <  0.01). LTB4 was also associated with smoking (p  <  0.01). LT levels complemented our earlier findings of DNA, protein, and lipid damage in the EBC of workers with nanoTiO2 exposures. Cysteinyl LTs in EBC analysis suggest inflammation and potential fibrotic changes in the lungs; they may be helpful for monitoring the biological effect of (nano)TiO2 on workers. Spirometry was not sensitive enough.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1752-7155/10/3/036004DOI Listing
June 2016

Oxidative stress markers are elevated in exhaled breath condensate of workers exposed to nanoparticles during iron oxide pigment production.

J Breath Res 2016 Feb 1;10(1):016004. Epub 2016 Feb 1.

Charles University in Prague and General University Hospital in Prague, First Faculty of Medicine, Department of Occupational Medicine, Na Bojišti 1, 128 00 Prague 2, Czech Republic.

Markers of oxidative stress and inflammation were analysed in the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and urine samples of 14 workers (mean age 43  ±  7 years) exposed to iron oxide aerosol for an average of 10  ±  4 years and 14 controls (mean age 39  ±  4 years) by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) after solid-phase extraction. Aerosol exposure in the workplace was measured by particle size spectrometers, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS), and by aerosol concentration monitors, P-TRAK and DustTRAK DRX. Total aerosol concentrations in workplace locations varied greatly in both time and space. The median mass concentration was 0.083 mg m(-3) (IQR 0.063-0.133 mg m(-3)) and the median particle concentration was 66 800 particles cm(-3) (IQR 16,900-86,900 particles cm(-3)). In addition, more than 80% of particles were smaller than 100 nm in diameter. Markers of oxidative stress, malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxy-trans-hexenale (HHE), 4-hydroxy-trans-nonenale (HNE), 8-isoProstaglandin F2α (8-isoprostane) and aldehydes C6-C12, in addition to markers of nucleic acid oxidation, including 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-OHG), 5-hydroxymethyl uracil (5-OHMeU), and of proteins, such as o-tyrosine (o-Tyr), 3-chlorotyrosine (3-ClTyr), and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NOTyr) were analysed in EBC and urine by LC-ESI-MS/MS. Almost all markers of lipid, nucleic acid and protein oxidation were elevated in the EBC of workers comparing with control subjects. Elevated markers were MDA, HNE, HHE, C6-C10, 8-isoprostane, 8-OHdG, 8-OHG, 5-OHMeU, 3-ClTyr, 3-NOTyr, o-Tyr (all p  <  0.001), and C11 (p  <  0.05). Only aldehyde C12 and the pH of samples did not differ between groups. Markers in urine were not elevated. These findings suggest the adverse effects of nano iron oxide aerosol exposure and support the utility of oxidative stress biomarkers in EBC. The analysis of urine oxidative stress biomarkers does not support the presence of systemic oxidative stress in iron oxide pigment production workers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1752-7155/10/1/016004DOI Listing
February 2016

Raman microspectroscopy of exhaled breath condensate and urine in workers exposed to fine and nano TiO2 particles: a cross-sectional study.

J Breath Res 2015 Jul 14;9(3):036008. Epub 2015 Jul 14.

Charles University in Prague and General University Hospital in Prague, First Faculty of Medicine, Department of Occupational Medicine, Na Bojisti 1, 128 00 Prague 2, Czech Republic.

The health effects of engineered nanoparticles in humans are not well-understood; however experimental data support the theory of oxidative stress promoting fibrogenesis and carcinogenicity. The aim of this study was to detect TiO2 particles in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and urine samples to ascertain their presence and potential persistence and excretion in urine.EBC and urine samples were collected from 20 workers exposed to TiO2 aerosol; among them, 16 had a higher risk level of exposure (production workers) and four had medium risk level (research workers); in addition to 20 controls. Titanium levels in EBC and urine were analysed using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. A Raman microspectroscopic analysis was performed in EBC and urine to identify the phase composition of TiO2 particles observed. Aerosol exposure in the workplaces was measured using SMPS and APS spectrometers and P-TRAK and DustTRAK DRX monitors.The median concentration of TiO2 aerosol was 1.98 × 10(4) particles cm(-3), the interquartile range (IQR) was 1.50 × 10(4) - 3.01 × 10(4) particles cm(-3) and the median mass concentration was 0.65 mg m(-3) (IQR 0.46-.0.83 mg m(-3)); 70-82% of the particles were smaller than 100 nm in diameter. In any part of the plant, the median TiO2 air concentration did not exceed the national airborne exposure limit of 10 mg m(-3) for inert dust. Particles of rutile and/or anatase were found in the EBC of exposed workers in 8/20 (40%) of the pre-shift and 14/20 (70%) of the post-shift samples. In the urine of workers, TiO2 particles were detected in 2/20 post-shift urine samples only. The mean concentration of titanium in the EBC in production workers was 24.1 ± 1.8 µg/l. In the research workers the values were below the limit of quantitation; LOQ = 4.0 ± 0.2 µg/l), as well as in the controls. In the urine samples of all of the subjects, titanium was under the limit of detection (LOD = 1.2 µg/l). Raman microanalysis of EBC in the workers confirmed the presence of TiO2 anatase and/or rutile crystal phases in the pre-shift samples and their persistence from previous shifts in the workers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1752-7155/9/3/036008DOI Listing
July 2015