Publications by authors named "Nadezda Ivanova"

2 Publications

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White matter inflammation and cognitive function in a co-morbid metabolic syndrome and prodromal Alzheimer's disease rat model.

J Neuroinflammation 2020 Jan 21;17(1):29. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Department of Anatomy & Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, Western University, London, ON, N6A 5C1, Canada.

Background: Metabolic syndrome, the development of which is associated with high-caloric Western diet (HCD) intake, represent a risk factor for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD) later in life. This study aimed to investigate the effect of diet-induced metabolic disturbances on white matter neuroinflammation and cognitive function in a transgenic (TG) Fischer 344 rat carrying a human β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene with Swedish and Indiana mutations (APP21 TG), a model of pre-AD and MCI.

Methods: TG and wildtype (WT) rats received either a HCD with 40% kJ from fat supplemented with 20% corn syrup drink or a standard diet for 12 weeks. Body weight, caloric intake, and blood pressure were measured repeatedly. End-point changes in glucose and lipid metabolism were also assessed. Open field task was used for assessment of activity; Morris water maze was used to assess spatial learning and memory. Cerebral white matter microglia and astrocytes, hippocampal neurons, and neuronal synapses were examined using immunohistochemistry.

Results: Rats maintained on the HCD developed significant obesity, visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia, and hyperinsulinemia, but did not become hypertensive. Impaired glucose tolerance was observed only in WT rats on the HCD. Total microglia number, activated OX-6+ microglia, as well as GFAP+ astrocytes located predominantly in the white matter were greater in the APP21 TG rat model in comparison to WT rats. HCD-driven metabolic perturbations further exacerbated white matter microgliosis and microglia cell activation in the APP21 TG rats and led to detectable changes in spatial reference memory in the comorbid prodromal AD and metabolic syndrome group compared to WT control rats. Neuronal density in the CA1 subregion of the hippocampus was not different between the experimental groups. Synaptic density in the CA1 and CA3 hippocampal subregions was lower in the TG rats compared to WT rats; however, there was no additional effect of the co-morbidity on this measure.

Conclusions: These results suggest that white matter neuroinflammation might be one of the possible processes of early interaction of metabolic syndrome with MCI and pre-AD and could be one of the early brain pathologies contributing to cognitive deficits observed in mild cognitive impairment and dementia, including AD cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12974-020-1698-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6975033PMC
January 2020

Variability of the tick-borne encephalitis virus genome in the 5' noncoding region derived from ticks Ixodes persulcatus and Ixodes pavlovskyi in Western Siberia.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2010 May;10(4):365-75

State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology "Vector ," Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Region, Russia.

We report the prevalence of Siberian and Far Eastern subtypes of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in Ixodes persulcatus and Ix. pavlovskyi ticks collected in Tomsk and its suburbs during 2006-2008. The TBEV was detected in 5.7% ticks collected in the city, where Ix. pavlovskyi ticks were dominated and 7.5% ticks from suburban foci with prevalence Ix. persulcatus ticks. Genotyping of the virus showed that Siberian subtype (89.5%) is predominant in individual ticks of Tomsk suburbs; however, the proportion of Far Eastern subtype in two urban sites reached 47%. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that Siberian subtype variants from individual ticks were quite divergent and original. Only one subclade was found to be similar to Zausaev strain of TBEV, which is the etiological agent of lethal chronic form of tick-borne encephalitis infection. The average level of homology of 5' noncoding region (5'-NCR) of TBEV in the individual ticks was 95% for Far Eastern subtype and 89% for Siberian subtype of TBEV. Multiple substitutions in 5'-NCR were found in viral RNA derived from individual ticks. The A2 and C1 elements of Y-shaped structure and putative site for viral RNA polymerase were most variable regions for TBEV 5'-NCR. The B1 and B2 elements and the start codon were practically conserved. The viral RNA from three TBEV-infected pig kidney embryo cells after three passages (out of 21 polymerase chain reaction-positive ticks) were found to multiple substitutions in 5'-NCR in comparison with viral RNA from individual parent tick. However, these three variants did not replicate efficiently in pig kidney embryo cells that may be connected with a considerable modification of Y-shaped structure of 5'-NCR. The efficiently replicating isolate Kolarovo had only seven substitutions in the 5'-NCR and typical Y-shaped structure for Siberian subtype of TBEV. Our data support the idea that hypervariability of the 5'-NCR reflects viral strategy to select the fittest RNA molecule for productive viral infection in mammalian and tick cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2009.0064DOI Listing
May 2010