Publications by authors named "Nader Rabie"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Continuous Fetal Monitoring During Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Prospective Observation Study.

Int J Womens Health 2021 6;13:1-7. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, Madison, WI, USA.

Objective: The use of electroconvulsive therapy in pregnancy has been limited by concerns about its effects on fetal well-being, despite limited evidence that suggests it is safe and effective. No studies have utilized continuous fetal heart rate monitoring during electroconvulsive therapy sessions. We aimed to describe the fetal heart rate patterns of patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy.

Design: This study is a prospective case series of pregnant patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy with continuous fetal heart rate monitoring.

Setting: University-based hospital.

Population: Pregnant patients with a psychiatric indication for electroconvulsive therapy.

Methods: Patients underwent fetal heart rate monitoring immediately prior, during and immediately after ECT therapy.

Main Outcome Measures: Characterization of the fetal heart rate tracing.

Results: Five subjects underwent 44 electroconvulsive therapy sessions. Continuous fetal monitoring was performed on 34 of the sessions. Transient fetal heart rate decelerations occurred in 4 sessions, all self-resolved and none required intervention.

Conclusion: This case series is the first to report the results of continuous FHR monitoring during electroconvulsive therapy. The most common finding was a transient, self-resolving bradycardia that was not associated with adverse perinatal outcomes. This supports the opinion that electroconvulsive therapy is a safe treatment option in pregnancy in women with severe mental disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJWH.S290934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7797309PMC
January 2021

Nuclear radiation and prevalence of structural birth defects among infants born to women from the Marshall Islands.

Birth Defects Res 2019 10 16;111(16):1192-1204. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Fay W. Boozman College of Public Health, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Arkansas Center for Birth Defects Research and Prevention, Little Rock, Arkansas.

Background: With their unique history of exposure to extensive nuclear testing between 1946 and 1958, descendants of Marshall Island residents may have underappreciated genetic abnormalities, increasing their risk of birth defects.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of resident women with at least one singleton live birth between 1997 and 2013 in northwest Arkansas using state birth certificate data linked to data from the Arkansas Reproductive Health Monitoring System, a statewide birth defects registry. We calculated unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from modified Poisson regression analyses for non-Hispanic (NH) whites, NH-blacks, Hispanics and Marshallese, using NH-whites as the reference group.

Results: Of the 91,662 singleton births during the study period, 2,488 were to Marshallese women. Due to the relatively small number of Marshallese births, we could not calculate prevalence estimates for some defects. Marshallese infants had higher rates of congenital cataracts (PR = 9.3; 95% CI: 3.1, 27.9). Although the number of defects was low, Marshallese infants also had higher rates of truncus arteriosus (PR = 44.0; 95% CI: 2.2, 896.1).

Conclusions: Marshallese infants may have increased risk of specific birth defects, but estimates are unstable because of small sample size so results are inconclusive. Larger population-based studies would allow for further investigation of this potential risk among Marshallese infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdr2.1551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7927675PMC
October 2019

Adverse Pregnancy and Neonatal Outcomes Among Marshallese Women Living in the United States.

Matern Child Health J 2019 Nov;23(11):1525-1535

College of Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Science, Fayetteville, AR, USA.

Objective Despite heterogeneity among Pacific Islanders, most studies aggregate them regardless of origin. Thus, limited information is available about perinatal outcomes among various subgroups of Pacific Islanders in the United States, including immigrants from the Republic of the Marshall Islands. We sought to evaluate perinatal outcomes among Marshallese women. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of women with at least one singleton live birth between 1997 and 2013 in two Arkansas counties using birth certificate data from the Arkansas Department of Health. Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated from modified Poisson regression models. Results Of the 91,662 singleton births in both counties during the study period, 2488 were to Marshallese women. In adjusted analyses, Marshallese women had higher prevalence of "other medical risk factors" (PR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.30, 1.65) than NH White women. Marshallese women had higher rates of precipitous labor and fetal distress during labor compared to NH White women (PR = 2.65; 95% CI 2.22, 3.17 and 1.89; 95% CI 1.62, 2.21, respectively). Marshallese were also more likely to have tocolysis (PR = 1.43; 95% CI 1.16, 1.76), forceps (PR = 1.68; 95% CI 1.16, 2.43) or vacuum (PR = 1.89; 95% CI 1.60, 2.22) used in delivery and cesarean section (PR = 1.13; 95% CI 1.01, 1.27). Marshallese infants had higher rates of anemia (PR = 3.10; 95% CI 2.01, 4.77), birth injury (PR = 2.13; 95% CI 1.50, 3.03), assisted ventilation < 30 min (PR = 2.11; 95% CI 1.64, 2.71), preterm birth (PR = 1.67; 95% CI 1.50, 1.83), and small-for-gestational age (PR = 1.25; 95% CI 1.12, 1.39) than NH White infants. Conclusions Marshallese women and infants had higher rates of adverse perinatal outcomes compared to their NH White counterparts. Additional studies are needed to determine if perinatal outcomes among the Marshallese differed from other Pacific Islander subgroups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10995-019-02775-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7239320PMC
November 2019

HSV Hepatitis in Pregnancy: A Review of the Literature.

Obstet Gynecol Surv 2019 Feb;74(2):93-98

Staff Physician, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR.

Importance: Herpes simplex virus (HSV) hepatitis is a rare condition with a high mortality rate. Immunocompromised individuals, including pregnant women, are the most susceptible. When primary infection occurs during pregnancy, risk for disseminated HSV is greatly increased. Disseminated HSV can manifest in the form of HSV hepatitis.

Objective: We aim to review the literature and summarize what is known about HSV hepatitis in pregnancy to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of this condition.

Evidence Acquisition: A literature search of PubMed and Web of Science was performed. A total of 237 citations were found. All citations were independently reviewed. Thirty-eight full-text articles were identified and included in this review. Additional data from 1 unpublished case from our institution was included.

Results: Fifty-six cases were included with average gestational age at diagnosis of 30 weeks. Patients presented with a wide variety of gastrointestinal, respiratory, neurologic, and urogenital symptoms. The most common examination findings were fever and abdominal tenderness. Only 18.2% of patients had a vesicular rash. All patients had a transaminitis, and 85% had positive viral cultures. A multitude of treatments were used with the majority of favorable outcomes occurring after treatment with acyclovir.

Conclusions And Relevance: Although HSV hepatitis is rare, it carries a mortality rate of up to 39% for mothers and neonates. Therefore, it is crucial that HSV hepatitis be included on the differential diagnosis when a patient presents with fever and transaminitis. When HSV hepatitis is suspected, empiric therapy with acyclovir can be initiated with no additional risk to the fetus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/OGX.0000000000000642DOI Listing
February 2019

Association of the Length of the Third Stage of Labor and Blood Loss Following Vaginal Delivery.

South Med J 2018 03;111(3):178-182

From the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, and the Departments of Biostatistics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas.

Objectives: The length of the third stage of labor is correlated with blood loss following a vaginal delivery. We aimed to accurately measure blood loss following a vaginal delivery and examine the relation between blood loss and length of the third stage of labor.

Methods: This was a prospective observational study of singleton pregnancies ≥24 weeks undergoing a vaginal delivery. Blood loss was meticulously measured and the length of the third stage of labor was recorded.

Results: The median blood loss of the 600 women was 125 mL (interquartile range 175) and the median length of the third stage of labor was 5 minutes (interquartile range 4). Total blood loss ( = 0.0263) and length of the third stage of labor ( = 0.0120) were greater in pregnancies ≥37 weeks versus <37 weeks. Women with a third stage of labor ≥15 minutes had a significantly greater risk of blood loss >500 mL (relative risk 5.8, 95% confidence interval 8.36-29.88).

Conclusions: The median blood loss following a vaginal delivery is 125 mL and the median length of the third stage of labor is 5 minutes. Total blood loss and the length of the third stage of labor are greater in pregnancies >37 weeks. Women with a third stage of labor >15 minutes are 15.8 times more likely to have total blood loss ≥500 mL. As such, it is prudent to consider manual extraction of the placenta at 15 minutes rather than 30 minutes to minimize the risk of excessive blood loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14423/SMJ.0000000000000778DOI Listing
March 2018

Teleultrasound: How Accurate Are We?

J Ultrasound Med 2017 Nov 29;36(11):2329-2335. Epub 2017 Jun 29.

University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA.

Objectives: Ultrasound serves an important role in the prenatal diagnosis of fetal structural anomalies. Recently, there has been increased use of teleultrasound protocols. We aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and accuracy of teleultrasound.

Methods: We conducted an Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective cohort study determining the sensitivity and accuracy of teleultrasound. In addition, we evaluated the number of ultrasound examinations required to complete an anatomic survey. Only ultrasound examinations performed for anatomic surveys were included. Studies were excluded if performed before 16 completed weeks' gestation, if they had multiple gestations, or for reasons other than anatomy (eg, Doppler studies and fluid assessment). Prenatal diagnoses were compared with postnatal diagnoses obtained from a robust mandatory birth defects surveillance program that records all birth defects in the entire state, from deliveries before 20 weeks' gestation through infants up to 2 years of age.

Results: A total of 2499 studies were evaluated; 2368 were included. The teleultrasound cohort had a congenital anomaly prevalence of 5.66%. The sensitivity of teleultrasound was 57.46%; the specificity was 98.21%; and the accuracy was 95.9%. Anatomic surveys were completed after 1 visit in 82% of patients, whereas 63% and 61% of the remaining patients required 2 and 3 visits, respectively.

Conclusions: Teleultrasound for prenatal diagnosis has similar sensitivity and accuracy as the published literature for on-site ultrasound. Further studies are needed to compare the sensitivity and accuracy within the same population and further validate this potentially cost-saving modality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jum.14304DOI Listing
November 2017

Normal amniotic fluid volume across gestation: Comparison of statistical approaches in 1190 normal amniotic fluid volumes.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2017 Jul 15;43(7):1122-1131. Epub 2017 May 15.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Arkansas for the Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA.

Aim: Ultrasound estimation and evaluation of amniotic fluid volume (AFV) is an important component of pregnancy surveillance and fetal well-being. The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast four statistical methods used to construct gestational age-specific reference intervals for the assessment of AFV.

Methods: A total of 1095 normal AFV derived from four studies that measured AFV using dye-dilution or direct measurement at the time of hysterotomy were used to construct reference intervals using polynomial regression, quantile regression, Royston and Wright mean and SD, and Cole's lambda mu sigma (LMS) methods. The 2.5th, 5th, 50th, 95th, and 97.5th centiles were derived for each statistical method.

Results: AFV increased curvilinearly from 15 gestational weeks and onward. Based on the 50th centile, the maximum value occurred at 30 weeks' gestation for the polynomial regression and mean and SD methods while the maximum was achieved at week 31 for the quantile regression and LMS methods. When data were sparse, the quantile regression method produced dramatically different estimates at the higher centile.

Conclusion: The four statistical methods produced similar results at gestational ages in which AFV was high. The quantile regression approach, however, produces results that are more reflective of the data when the data are sparse. Given the flexibility and robustness of the quantile regression method, we recommend its use in constructing reference intervals when the interest lies in the tails of the reference distribution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jog.13332DOI Listing
July 2017

Incarceration of the Gravid Uterus.

Obstet Gynecol Surv 2016 Oct;71(10):613-619

Professor, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR.

Objective: The aim of this review was to describe the risk factors, clinical and radiographic criteria, and management of this rare complication of pregnancy.

Methods: A PubMed, Web of Science, and CINAHL search was undertaken with no limitations on the number of years searched.

Results: There were 60 articles identified, with 53 articles being the basis of this review. Multiple risk factors have been suggested in the literature including retroverted uterus in the first trimester, deep sacral concavity with an overlying sacral promontory, endometriosis, previous abdominal or pelvic surgery, pelvic or uterine adhesions, ovarian cysts, leiomyomas, multifetal gestation, uterine anomalies, uterine prolapse, and uterine incarceration in a prior pregnancy. The diagnosis is difficult to make owing to the nonspecific presenting symptoms. The diagnosis is clinical and confirmed by imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging is superior to ultrasound to accurately diagnose and elucidate the distorted maternal anatomy. Treatment is dictated by gestational age at diagnosis based on risks and benefits. The recommended route of delivery is cesarean delivery when uterine polarity cannot be corrected.

Conclusions: Incarceration of the gravid uterus is a rare but serious complication of pregnancy. The diagnosis is clinical and confirmed with imaging, with magnetic resonance imaging being superior to delineate the distorted maternal anatomy. Reduction of the incarcerated uterus should be attempted to restore polarity and avoid unnecessary cesarean delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/OGX.0000000000000362DOI Listing
October 2016

Intra-Amniotic Hemorrhage Imitating Gastroschisis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

Am J Case Rep 2016 Oct 20;17:766-769. Epub 2016 Oct 20.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, USA.

BACKGROUND A spontaneous intra-amniotic hemorrhage is rarely encountered during pregnancy. The correct diagnosis and management are problematic because of the infrequency of this condition and the high likelihood of a misdiagnosis. CASE REPORT A primigravida with an uncomplicated pregnancy and a normal targeted ultrasound presented late in the second trimester of pregnancy with antepartum bleeding of unknown origin. A repeat ultrasound was suggestive of an abdominal wall defect (gastroschisis). The patient continued to have antepartum bleeding and developed uterine contractions and abdominal pain necessitating frequent visits to labor and delivery. An MRI ruled out gastroschisis and diagnosed intra-amniotic hematoma. The patient presented with acute abdominal pain and was clinically considered to be having an abruption, and was delivered by cesarean. Old blood was noted in the abdominal cavity and within the uterine cavity. At the time of the cesarean, an area of intra-amniotic hematoma was identified, as well as a retroplacental blood clot. CONCLUSIONS An intra-amniotic hematoma is unusual and may be misdiagnosed. MRI may be helpful in determining the correct diagnosis and subsequent management.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5077291PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.12659/ajcr.900114DOI Listing
October 2016

Uncomplicated Pregnancies and Ultrasounds for Fetal Growth Restriction: A Pilot Randomized Clinical Trial.

AJP Rep 2016 Mar 16;6(1):e83-90. Epub 2015 Nov 16.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, Virginia.

Objective The purpose of this multicenter pilot study was to determine the feasibility of randomizing uncomplicated pregnancies (UPs) to have third trimester ultrasonographic exams (USE) versus routine prenatal care (RPNC) to improve the detection of small for gestational age (SGA; birth weight < 10% for GA). Material and Methods At three referral centers, 50 UPs were randomized after gestational diabetes was ruled out. Women needed to screen, consenting, and loss to follow-up was ascertained, as was the detection rate of SGA in the two groups. Results During the study period at the three centers, there were 7,680 births, of which 64% were uncomplicated. Of the 234 women approached for randomization, 36% declined. We recruited 149 women and had follow-up delivery data on 97%. The antenatal detection rate of SGA in the intervention group was 67% (95% confidence intervals 31-91%) and 9% (0.5-43%) in control. Conclusion The pilot study provides feasibility data for a multicenter randomized clinical trial to determine if third trimester USE, compared with RPNC, improves the detection of SGA and composite neonatal morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0035-1567857DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4737635PMC
March 2016

Pregnancy and Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Multidisciplinary Approach.

J ECT 2016 Jun;32(2):104-12

From the *Departments of Psychiatry, †Obstetrics and Gynecology, ‡Anesthesiology, and §Pediatrics, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR.

Objective: To scrutinize a series of pregnant women treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) at a tertiary treatment center and combine these data with a literature review to refine the treatment guidelines for ECT during pregnancy.

Methods: A retrospective chart review of mentally ill pregnant patients treated with ECT since the establishment of a formal women's mental health program.

Results: A total of 8 pregnant women treated with ECT were identified from January 2012 to August 2014. Information was extracted from the medical records of a total of 30 ECT treatments across this group. Subjects received an average of 3.75 ECT treatments (range, 1-7). All women were diagnosed as having a mood disorder (either unipolar or bipolar), and 5 of the 8 women had suicidal ideation. The treatment team for ECT was consistent across all treatments. Two women experienced significant complications after the initial treatment: 1) an acute episode of complete heart block; and 2) acute onset of mania after ECT. Obstetrical complications included 2 women with preterm delivery-one secondary to premature rupture of membranes. No other complications or adverse outcomes were recorded. The 5 women with suicidal ideation had symptom resolution, and significant symptom improvement was noted in 6 of the 8 women.

Conclusions: Electroconvulsive therapy is a safe and effective treatment during pregnancy and of particular benefit in the acute treatment of suicidal ideation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/YCT.0000000000000297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4877273PMC
June 2016

Prenatal diagnosis and telemedicine consultation of fetal urologic disorders.

J Telemed Telecare 2016 Jun 21;22(4):234-7. Epub 2015 Jul 21.

University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, USA.

In Arkansas, telemedicine is used commonly in obstetrics through Antenatal and Neonatal Guidelines, Education and Learning System (ANGELS), the existing statewide telemedicine network. This network is used primarily for tele-ultrasound and maternal-fetal medicine consultation. This study is a retrospective case series, describing all the patients who had a prenatally diagnosed urologic anomaly that required prenatal urologic consultation. From 2009-2013, approximately 1300 anomalies were recorded in the Arkansas Fetal Diagnosis and Management (AFDM) database, 14% of which were urologic anomalies. Twenty-six cases required prenatal urologic consultation, 25 of which were conducted via telemedicine. Teleconsultation allowed patients to combine maternal-fetal medicine and urologic consultations in one visit, saving time and effort and ultimately, for most patients, providing reassurance that delivery could be accomplished locally with postnatal follow-up already arranged. While there are several studies reporting the use of telemedicine for various subspecialty consultations, to our knowledge, this is the first to describe the use of telemedicine for prenatal urology consultation. Future research could randomize patients prospectively to allow comparison of both the outcomes as well as the patient experience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1357633X15595556DOI Listing
June 2016

Fetal Mortality in the Delta.

South Med J 2015 Jul;108(7):389-92

From the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Arkansas for the Medical Sciences, Little Rock, and the Department of Healthcare Organization and Policy, University of Alabama-Birmingham.

Objectives: To compare the fetal mortality rate in the Delta counties of a state in the Mississippi Delta region of the United States with that of the non-Delta counties of the same state.

Methods: Hospital discharge data for maternal hospitalizations were linked to fetal death and birth certificates for 2004-2010. Data on maternal characteristics and comorbidities and pregnancy characteristics and outcomes were evaluated. The frequency of characteristics of pregnant women and pregnancy outcomes between Delta and non-Delta areas of the state was compared.

Results: There were a total of 248,255 singleton births, of which 35,605 occurred in the Delta counties. Delta patients were more likely to be younger than 20 years old, African American, multigravida, Medicaid recipients, smokers, and not married (P < 0.001) when compared with the non-Delta patients. The overall odds of fetal death within Delta counties are 1.40 times (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.22-1.61) higher than the non-Delta counties, and the odds of fetal death at ≤28 weeks are 1.56 times (95% CI 1.28-1.91) higher. After controlling for maternal age, race/ethnicity, level of prenatal care, and maternal comorbidities, the odds of fetal death remained 1.21 times higher (95% CI 1.05-1.41) and 1.28 times higher at ≤28 weeks' gestational age (95% CI 1.03-1.60).

Conclusions: Fetal mortality is significantly greater in the Delta counties compared with the non-Delta counties, with a 21% increase in the odds of overall fetal death in the Delta counties compared with non-Delta counties and a 28% increase in the odds of fetal death at ≤28 weeks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14423/SMJ.0000000000000305DOI Listing
July 2015

Arkansas fetal diagnosis and management: identifying and coordinating care for anomalous fetuses.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2016 8;29(1):46-50. Epub 2014 Dec 8.

a Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology , University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences , Little Rock , AR , USA.

Objective: Describe a novel system of coordinating the identification and management of fetal anomalies in a rural state, where there is a large proportion of impoverished and Medicaid eligible patients, and centralization of the majority of tertiary care resources.

Methods: The Arkansas Fetal Diagnosis and Management program was initiated to coordinate the care of anomalous fetuses. Data from the beginning of the program (2009) to 2013 was collected and analyzed. The data is reported in a descriptive fashion, to report the outcomes of this program. The specific type and number of anomalies diagnosed and managed were tabulated and analyzed.

Results: From 2009 to 2013, data from 1300 pregnancies was collected. From 2009 to 2013, there were 7.9%, 10.9%, 15.0%, 18.6%, and 22.3% of ultrasound referrals with fetal anomalies. The anomalies were grouped by physiologic system, and despite the total numbers increasing each year, the frequency and distribution of anomalies remained constant.

Conclusions: The Arkansas Fetal Diagnosis and Management Program streamlined the coordination of care for pregnancies affected by anomalous fetuses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/14767058.2014.986448DOI Listing
September 2016

Human chronic gonadotropin concentrations in very early pregnancy and subsequent preeclampsia.

Womens Health (Lond) 2014 Sep;10(5):483-5

Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 77205-77199, USA.

Evaluation of: Asvold BO, Vatten LJ, Tanbo TG, Eskild A. Concentrations of human chorionic gonadotrophin in very early pregnancy and subsequent pre-eclampsia: a cohort study. Hum. Reprod. 29(6), 1153-1160 (2014). A total of 2405 consecutive singleton pregnancies were followed to determine if early HCG levels were associated with the development of preeclampsia. All pregnancies were conceived by in vitro fertilization, which allowed very accurate gestational age dating. HCG levels were obtained on day 12, and grouped into 4 categories (<50, 50-99, 100-149, ≥ 150). HCG levels less than 50 were associated with an odds ratio of 2.3 (95% CI: 1.2-4.7) for preeclampsia and and odds ratio of 4.2 (95% CI: 1.4-12.2) for severe preeclampsia. Early HCG levels may serve as a marker for the detection of preeclampsia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/whe.14.39DOI Listing
September 2014

Unintended pregnancies among U.S. active-duty women.

Womens Health (Lond) 2013 May;9(3):229-31

Division of Maternal Fetal Medicine, University of Arkansas for the Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 77205-7199, USA.

Evaluation of: Grindlay K, Grossman D. Unintended pregnancy among active-duty women in the United States military, 2008. Obstetr. Gynecol. 121(2), 241-246 (2013). This is a study comparing the unintended pregnancy rates of active-duty women in 2008 with those rates in 2005 and the general US population. The data were obtained from the results of the Department of Defense Survey of Health-Related Behaviors among active-duty military personnel in 2005 and 2008. The 2008 survey had data from over 7000 surveys, and the 2005 survey had data from over 3000 surveys. The authors found that the unintended pregnancy rate increased from 2005 to 2008, and is approximately 50% greater than that of the US general population. Investigators also found that pregnancy rates were similar amongst women who were recently deployed. There were higher rates among younger, less educated, nonwhite and married/cohabitating women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/whe.13.21DOI Listing
May 2013
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