Publications by authors named "Na Zhang"

1,609 Publications

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Modification of 5-methylphenanthridium from benzothiazoles to indoles as potent FtsZ inhibitors: Broadening the antibacterial spectrum toward vancomycin-resistant enterococci.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Jul 26;224:113723. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, 44 West Culture Road, Jinan, 250012, China. Electronic address:

The death caused by pathogenic bacteria has always been a severe threat to mankind. The prevalence of drug resistance among bacteria underscores an urgent goal for new antibacterial agents with novel mode of action. Here we first designed and synthesized a class of benzothiazolyl-5-methylphenanthridium derivatives and evaluated their antibacterial activity. On this basis, we further designed and synthesized another class of novel indolyl-5-methylphenanthridium derivatives by optimizing the benzothiazolyl-5-methylphenanthridium core and evaluated their antibacterial activity targeting the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ. The results showed that the indolyl-5-methylphenanthridium derivatives had greatly improved activity against various drug-resistant bacterial strains including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). Among them, compound C5 displayed excellent antibacterial activity against susceptible (MIC = 1 μg/mL), methicillin-resistant and clinical isolated S. aureus (MIC = 2 μg/mL). With low hemolytic activity towards mice red blood cells, C5 exhibited good antibacterial effect in vivo in preliminary pharmacodynamic assay. More importantly, C5 was difficult to induce bacterial resistance. Further mechanism studies proved that C5 could inhibit bacterial cell division by promoting FtsZ polymerization, leading to disorderly polymerization and disordered knots. Therefore, our findings suggest that this class of novel indolyl-5-methylphenanthridium derivatives are promising for future antibacterial agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113723DOI Listing
July 2021

A Temporal Activity of CA1 Neurons Underlying Short-Term Memory for Social Recognition Altered in PTEN Mouse Models of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 15;15:699315. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Key Laboratory of Animal Models and Human Disease Mechanisms, and Laboratory of Learning and Memory, and KIZ-SU Joint Laboratory of Animal Model and Drug Development, Kunming Institute of Zoology, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China.

Memory-guided social recognition identifies someone from previous encounters or experiences, but the mechanisms of social memory remain unclear. Here, we find that a short-term memory from experiencing a stranger mouse lasting under 30 min interval is essential for subsequent social recognition in mice, but that interval prolonged to hours by replacing the stranger mouse with a familiar littermate. Optogenetic silencing of dorsal CA1 neuronal activity during trials or inter-trial intervals disrupted short-term memory-guided social recognition, without affecting the ability of being sociable or long-term memory-guided social recognition. Postnatal knockdown or knockout of autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-associated phosphatase and tensin homolog () gene in dorsal hippocampal CA1 similarly impaired neuronal firing rate and altered firing pattern during social recognition. These PTEN mice showed deficits in social recognition with stranger mouse rather than littermate and exhibited impairment in T-maze spontaneous alternation task for testing short-term spatial memory. Thus, we suggest that a temporal activity of dorsal CA1 neurons may underlie formation of short-term memory to be critical for organizing subsequent social recognition but that is possibly disrupted in ASD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2021.699315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8319669PMC
July 2021

Emotion Regulation Difficulties in Military Fathers Magnify Their Benefit from a Parenting Program.

Prev Sci 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Family Social Science and Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota - Twin Cities, Minneapolis, USA.

Military service members who were exposed to combat-related traumatic events may exhibit emotion regulation problems, which can compromise emotion-related parenting practices (ERPPs). After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools (ADAPT) is a preventive intervention developed for military families to improve parenting behaviors, including ERPPs. Parental emotion regulation difficulties may affect parents' responses to this parenting program. Thus, this study aimed to use a baseline target moderated mediation design to examine the intent-to-treat (ITT) effect of the ADAPT program on deployed fathers' emotion-related parenting practices (ERPPs) at the 1-year follow-up as well as the moderation and mediation effect of fathers' emotion regulation difficulties. The sample consisted of 181 deployed fathers and their 4-13-year-old children. At both baseline and 1 year, fathers' ERPPs (i.e., positive engagement, withdrawal avoidance, reactivity-coercion, and distress avoidance) were observed during a series of structured parent-child interaction tasks. Results of path analyses showed no ITT effects on fathers' ERPPs, but emotion regulation difficulties significantly moderated ITT effects on distress avoidance. Fathers with higher levels of emotion regulation difficulties at baseline showed decreases in distress avoidance behaviors at 1 year if randomized to the intervention condition. Emotion regulation difficulties also significantly mediated the program's effect on reductions in reactivity coercion for fathers with high levels of emotion regulation difficulties at baseline. These findings highlight parental emotion regulation as a key baseline target of the ADAPT program and provide insight into how and for whom a parenting program improves parenting practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11121-021-01287-8DOI Listing
July 2021

Discovery and evolution of 12N-substituted aloperine derivatives as anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents through targeting late entry stage.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Jul 22;115:105196. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Antimicrobial Agents, Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, China. Electronic address:

So far, there is still no specific drug against COVID-19. Taking compound 1 with anti-EBOV activity as the lead, fifty-four 12N-substituted aloperine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for the anti-SARS-CoV-2 activities using pseudotyped virus model. Among them, 8a exhibited the most potential effects against both pseudotyped and authentic SARS-CoV-2, as well as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, indicating a broad-spectrum anti-coronavirus profile. The mechanism study disclosed that 8a might block a late stage of viral entry, mainly via inhibiting host cathepsin B activity rather than directly targeting cathepsin B protein. Also, 8a could significantly reduce the release of multiple inflammatory cytokines in a time- and dose-dependent manner, such as IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8 and MCP-1, the major contributors to cytokine storm. Therefore, 8a is a promising agent with the advantages of broad-spectrum anti-coronavirus and anti-cytokine effects, thus worthy of further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.105196DOI Listing
July 2021

GLYI-4 functions downstream of NAC72 to modulate downy mildew resistance in grapevine.

Plant J 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, P.R. China.

Glyoxalase I (GLYI) is part of the glyoxalase system and its the major function is the detoxification of α-ketoaldehydes, including the potent and cytotoxic methylglyoxal (MG). MG disrupts mitochondrial respiration and increases production of reactive oxygen species, which increased during pathogen infection of plant tissues, but few studies relating the glyoxalase system on plant pathogen response. We used the promoter of the VvGLYI-4 to screen the upstream transcription factors and reported a NAC (NAM/ATAF/CUC) domain-containing transcription factor VvNAC72 in grapevine, which was localized to the nucleus. Our results showed that VvNAC72 expression was induced by downy mildew Plasmopara viticola, whereas the transcript level of VvGLYI-4 decreased. Following analysis revealed that VvNAC72 can directly bind to the promoter region of VvGLYI-4 via CACGTG element, leading to the inhibition of VvGLYI-4 transcription. Further stable overexpression of VvNAC72 in grapevine and tobacco showed decreased expression level of VvGLYI-4, increased contents of MG and ROS, as well as stronger resistance to pathogen stress. Taken together, these results demonstrate that grapevine VvNAC72 negatively modulates MG detoxification through repression of VvGLYI-4, and finally enhances resistance to downy mildew, at least in part, via the modulation of MG-associated ROS homeostasis through salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defense pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15447DOI Listing
July 2021

Distance to highway and factory density related to lung cancer death and associated spatial heterogeneity in effects in Jiading District, Shanghai.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Fudan University School of Public Health, Building 8, 130 Dong'An Road, Xuhui District, Shanghai, 200032, China.

This study aimed to determine the spatial effects of traffic- and industrial-related pollution on the mortality for lung cancer (LC). We conducted a retrospective cohort study by using the data from LC registry in Jiading District for the period from 2002 to 2012. Standard parametric model with Weibull distribution was used for spatial survival analysis. Shorter distance to highway (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.30) and higher factory density (aOR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.05-1.37) were significantly associated with an increased risk of LC death, and there was a spatial difference in the associations between northern and southern areas of Jiading District. The risk was high in suburbs as compared with urban areas. Traffic- and industrial-related pollution were significantly associated with an increased risk of LC death, which showed a spatial variation. Further studies are needed to better understand the current LC status in the suburbs and to reduce health disparities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15438-5DOI Listing
July 2021

Visualized Analysis of Heavy Ion Radiotherapy: Development, Barriers and Future Directions.

Front Oncol 2021 9;11:634913. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Evidence-Based Social Science Research Center, School of Public Health, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.

Background: Heavy ion radiotherapy (HIRT) has great advantages as tumor radiotherapy.

Methods: Based on 1,558 literatures from core collections of Web of Science from 1980 to 2020, this study visually analyzes the evolution of HIRT research, and sorts out the hotspots and trends of HIRT research using CiteSpace software.

Results: Research on HIRT has received more extensive attention over the last 40 years. The development of HIRT is not only closely related to radiation and oncology, but also closely related to the development of human society. In terms of citation frequency, "International Journal of Radiation Oncology*Biology*Physics" was the top journal. In terms of influence, "Radiotherapy and Oncology" was the top journal. "Radiation therapy" and "carbon ion radiotherapy" were the two most frequently used keywords in this field.

Conclusion: The evolution of the HIRT research has occurred in approximately three stages, including technological exploration, safety and effectiveness research and technological breakthroughs. Finally, some suggestions for future research are put forward.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.634913DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8300564PMC
July 2021

Standardizing and optimizing acupuncture treatment for irritable bowel syndrome: A Delphi expert consensus study.

Integr Med Res 2021 Sep 24;10(3):100728. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

International Acupuncture and Moxibustion Innovation Institute, School of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.

Background: Acupuncture has been widely utilized for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, heterogeneity is large among therapeutic strategies and protocols. The aim of this study was to propose some down-to-earth recommendations and establish an optimized protocol for acupuncture practice in IBS.

Methods: A panel of 74 traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) acupuncturists participated in clinical issue investigation. Subsequently, systematic reviews concerning acupuncture for IBS were screened within 3 databases. An initial consensus questionnaire was formed from the results of clinical issue investigation and literature review. Ultimately, a Delphi vote was carried out to determine these issues. 30 authoritative experts with extensive experience were requested to respond with agreement, neutrality, or disagreement for the items. Consensus achievement on a given item was defined as greater than 80% agreement.

Results: Following a 2-round Delphi survey, there were 19 items reaching consensus; of which 5 items (26.32%) achieved thorough consensus, and significant agreement was reached for the other 14 items. These items can be classified into the 3 major domains: 1) clinical outcomes that acupuncture can bring for favorable intervention population (5 items), 2) suitable therapeutic principles and parameters of acupuncture (13 items), 3) possible adverse events in the treatment (1 item).

Conclusion: Without any ready-made guidelines and lacking of homogeneity in the published literatures, such expert consensus could be valuable for TCM acupuncturists in daily practice and patients with IBS to obtain appropriate and standardized acupuncture treatment. In addition, it also points out the clinical focus which need to be further explored in future trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imr.2021.100728DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8296086PMC
September 2021

Clinical significance of sFRP5, RBP-4 and NT-proBNP in patients with chronic heart failure.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(6):6305-6311. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Chengde Health Commission Chengde, Hebei Province, China.

Objective: This study was designed to investigate the levels and clinical significance of secretory frizzled-related protein 5 (sFRP5), retinol binding protein 4 (RBP-4) and N-terminal (NT)-pro hormone BNP (NT-proBNP) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF).

Methods: Eighty-nine patients with CHF treated in our hospital were included as the observation group. Seventy-five healthy volunteers who underwent physical examination in our hospital during the same period were selected as the control group. The subjects in the observation group were divided into NYHA class II (n=23), NYHA class III (n=34) and NYHA class IV (n=32) according to NYHA classification, and the levels of sFRP5, RBP-4 and NT-proBNP as well as left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were compared in the three groups. Spearman correlation was used to analyze the relationship between sFRP5, RBP-4, NT-proBNP and LVEDD, LVEF. The ROC curves of sFRP5, RBP-4 and NT-proBNP for the diagnosis of CHF were plotted. Patients in the observation group were divided into a death group (n=30) and a survival group (n=59) according to the 1-year follow-up outcome, and the levels of sFRP5, RBP-4, and NT-proBNP were compared between the two groups.

Results: The observation group showed significantly higher levels of sFRP5, RBP-4, NT-proBNP and LVEDD, and a significantly lower level of LVEF than the control group. Spearman's correlation analysis showed that sFRP5, RBP-4, NT-proBNP were correlated with LVEDD and LVEF in CHF patients ( < 0.05). The ROC curve showed that the AUC of sFRP5, RBP-4 and NT-proBNP for CHF diagnosis were 0.9378, 0.9133, and 0.9375, respectively. sFRP5, RBP-4, and NT-proBNP in the death group were all higher than those in the survival group ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: sFRP5, RBP-4, and NT-proBNP showed a close correlation with CHF. It is worthy of using this method as a clinical index for the diagnosis and prognosis of CHF.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290780PMC
June 2021

Investigation of Intravenous Zoledronic Acid Therapy on Circulating Lymphocyte Subpopulation in Patients with Primary Osteoporosis: A Pilot Study.

Curr Ther Res Clin Exp 2021 10;94:100634. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Pain Medicine, Jinan Central Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, People's Republic of China.

Background: Several studies have investigated the immunomodulating properties of zoledronic acid on T lymphocytes, but the causal relationship between the function of T cells and the efficacy of zoledronic acid has not been elucidated.

Objective: To investigate the causal relationship between the function of zoledronic acid and T cells.

Methods: We conducted an observational perspective study to observe the effect of intravenous zoledronic acid once yearly for 2 years on lymphocyte subsets in patients with primary osteoporosis through observing the blood cells analysis and the level of lymphocyte subpopulations before and on day 1, 2, and 3 after first and second administration of intravenous zoledronic acid and bone mineral destiny 1 year after a single administration of zoledronic acid.

Results: White blood cell count and neutrophils increased, whereas lymphocytes and eosinophils decreased after the first and second zoledronic acid infusion. The count of CD3+T cells, CD3+CD4+T cells, and CD16+CD56+ natural killer lymphocytes decreased from day 1 to day 3 after the first and second zoledronic acid infusion, but the results of second infusion showed no significance.

Conclusions: Further, larger size, more in-depth studies are indicated to examine whether the short-term changes in white blood cells and lymphocyte subtypes noted after 2 once-yearly zoledronic acid injections in this small population of adult patients is associated with the stimulation of immune mechanisms. (Curr Ther Res Clin Exp. 2021; 82:XXX-XXX).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.curtheres.2021.100634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8296081PMC
May 2021

Evaluation of ibuprofen contamination in local urban rivers and its effects on immune parameters of juvenile grass carp.

Fish Physiol Biochem 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Center for Informational Biology, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, 610054, People's Republic of China.

Ibuprofen as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug can be detected in the aquatic environments all over the world. This study evaluated the effects of ibuprofen on the immune parameters of juvenile grass carp at the concentration in real environments which were determined by detecting its concentrations in the surface water of local rivers. The concentration of ibuprofen ranged from 13.2 to 95.5 ng/L with a mean value of 47.9 ng/L in the surface water of local rivers detected by solid-phase extraction followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. Accordingly, juvenile grass carp were exposed to 4.8, 48.0 and 480.0 ng/L of ibuprofen for 14 days. The serum lysozyme activity of these fish decreased, while the serum creatinine levels were not affected after the exposure. Moreover, the mRNA expression of interleukin 6 in the skin and interleukin 1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha in the gills was enhanced by this exposure. These results collectively suggest that ibuprofen at environmentally relevant concentration can affect the immune parameters of juvenile grass carp, providing an insight into the possibility of this contaminant to modify the immunostatus of fish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10695-021-00987-wDOI Listing
July 2021

MiR-532-3p suppresses cell viability, migration and invasion of clear cell renal cell carcinoma through targeting TROAP.

Cell Cycle 2021 Jul 21:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Urology, Tangshan Central Hospital, Tangshan, Hebei, P.R. China.

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is a subtype of renal cell cancer with the highest mortality, infiltration, and metastasis rate, threatening human health. Despite oncogenic role of TROAP in various cancers, its function in ccRCC remains to be unraveled. The differentially expressed mRNAs (DEmRNAs) and miRNAs (DEmiRNAs) were obtained by analyzing the related data sets of ccRCC in TCGA. The expression levels of mRNAs and miRNAs in the cell were detected by qRT-PCR, while the protein levels were characterized by western blot. The viability, migratory and invasive abilities of ccRCC cells were determined by MTT, wound healing and cell invasion assays. The combination of miRNA target site prediction and dual-luciferase reporter gene assay verified the binding relationship between miR-532-3p and TROAP. Research on ccRCC displayed that TROAP expression was upregulated, while miR-532-3p was down-regulated. Besides, upregulation of TROAP could accelerate viability, migratory and invasive potentials of ccRCC cells. On the contrary, miR-532-3p could downregulate TROAP level, but TROAP upregulation reversed the viability, migration, and invasion of ccRCC cells. MiR-532-3p could attenuate the viability, migration and invasion of ccRCC cells by targeting TROAP. This may generate novel insights into molecular therapeutic targets for ccRCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15384101.2021.1953767DOI Listing
July 2021

Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anesthesia Under Sedation for Radical Mastectomy in an SAS Patient: A Case Report.

Front Oncol 2021 30;11:631003. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Anesthesiology, Qilu Hospital (Qingdao), Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Qingdao, China.

Radical mastectomy is commonly performed under general anesthesia, and regional block is often used as assisted or postoperative analgesia. We herein report a case of successful radical mastectomy with severe aortic stenosis (SAS) by using ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia under sedation. A 66-year-old female with an American Society of Anesthesiology physical status IV; limited functional capacity with <4 metabolic equivalents; a lump (10 cm × 8 cm) in the right breast with skin breakage and infection; and a history of hypertension, diabetes, atrial fibrillation, and SAS, underwent lump-resection and rapid pathological examination by biopsy. Considering a high-risk of significant mortality, we used ultrasound-guided regional block to avoid general anesthesia. We performed the right thoracic paravertebral nerve block (TPVB), subclavicular brachial plexus block, and pectoralis plane block (PECS 1). Patient tolerated the procedure well with no significant hemodynamic changes. Nevertheless, when the axillary lymph nodes were wiped, discharge was observed from the patient's upper limbs. We inserted the laryngeal mask airway combined with low-dose sevoflurane inhalation sedation. The operation was successfully completed, and the patient was revived with steady hemodynamics and good prognosis. In the present case, radical mastectomy with SAS was performed successfully using ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia under sevoflurane sedation. Despite some potential limitations, this case report can serve as a reference for other anesthetists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.631003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8278145PMC
June 2021

Chemometric QSAR modeling of acute oral toxicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) to rat using simple 2D descriptors and interspecies toxicity modeling with mouse.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Oct 15;222:112525. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

National Engineering Laboratory for Advanced Municipal Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Technology, College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Environment and Life, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, PR China.

The information of the acute oral toxicity for most polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mammals are lacking due to limited experimental resources, leading to a need to develop reliable in silico methods to evaluate the toxicity endpoint. In this study, we developed the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models by genetic algorithm (GA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) for the rat acute oral toxicity (LD) of PAHs following the strict validation principles of QSAR modeling recommended by OECD. The best QSAR model comprised eight simple 2D descriptors with definite physicochemical meaning, which showed that maximum atom-type electrotopological state, van der Waals surface area, mean atomic van der Waals volume, and total number of bonds are main influencing factors for the toxicity endpoint. A true external set (554 compounds) without rat acute oral toxicity values, and 22 limit test compounds, were firstly predicted along with reliability assessment. We also compared our proposed model with the OPERA predictions and recently published literature to prove the prediction reliability. Furthermore, the interspecies toxicity (iST) models of PAHs between rat and mouse were also established, validated and employed for filling data gap. Overall, our developed models should be applicable to new or untested or not yet synthesized PAHs falling within the applicability domain (AD) of the models for rapid acute oral toxicity prediction, thus being important for environmental or personal exposure risk assessment under regulatory frameworks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112525DOI Listing
October 2021

A tubby-like protein CsTLP8 acts in the ABA signaling pathway and negatively regulates osmotic stresses tolerance during seed germination.

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Jul 17;21(1):340. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Growth and Developmental Regulation for Protected Vegetable Crops, College of Horticulture, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

Background: TLPs (Tubby-like proteins) are widespread in eukaryotes and highly conserved in plants and animals. TLP is involved in many biological processes, such as growth, development, biotic and abiotic stress responses, while the underlying molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. In this paper we characterized the biological function of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) Tubby-like protein 8 (CsTLP8) in Arabidopsis.

Results: In cucumber, the expression of the tubby-like protein CsTLP8 was induced by NaCl treatment, but reduced by PEG (Polyethylene Glycol) and ABA (Abscisic Acid) treatment. Subcellular localization and transcriptional activation activity analysis revealed that CsTLP8 possessed two characteristics of classical transcription factors: nuclear localization and trans-activation activity. Yeast two-hybrid assay revealed interactions of CsTLP8 with CsSKP1a and CsSKP1c, suggesting that CsTLP8 might function as a subunit of E3 ubiquitin ligase. The growth activity of yeast with ectopically expressed CsTLP8 was lower than the control under NaCl and mannitol treatments. Under osmotic and salt stresses, overexpression of CsTLP8 inhibited seed germination and the growth of Arabidopsis seedlings, increased the content of MDA (Malondialdehyde), and decreased the activities of SOD (Superoxide Dismutase), POD (Peroxidase) and CAT (Catalase) in Arabidopsis seedlings. Overexpression of CsTLP8 also increased the sensitivity to ABA during seed germination and ABA-mediated stomatal closure.

Conclusion: Under osmotic stress, CsTLP8 might inhibit seed germination and seedling growth by affecting antioxidant enzymes activities. CsTLP8 acts as a negative regulator in osmotic stress and its effects may be related to ABA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-021-03126-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8286588PMC
July 2021

Losartan prevents tumor-induced hearing loss and augments radiation efficacy in NF2 schwannoma rodent models.

Sci Transl Med 2021 07;13(602)

Edwin L. Steele Laboratories, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

Hearing loss is one of the most common symptoms of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) caused by vestibular schwannomas (VSs). Fibrosis in the VS tumor microenvironment (TME) is associated with hearing loss in patients with NF2. We hypothesized that reducing the fibrosis using losartan, an FDA-approved antihypertensive drug that blocks fibrotic and inflammatory signaling, could improve hearing. Using NF2 mouse models, we found that losartan treatment normalized the TME by (i) reducing neuroinflammatory IL-6/STAT3 signaling and preventing hearing loss, (ii) normalizing tumor vasculature and alleviating neuro-edema, and (iii) increasing oxygen delivery and enhancing efficacy of radiation therapy. In preparation to translate these exciting findings into the clinic, we used patient samples and data and demonstrated that IL-6/STAT3 signaling inversely associated with hearing function, that elevated production of tumor-derived IL-6 was associated with reduced viability of cochlear sensory cells and neurons in ex vivo organotypic cochlear cultures, and that patients receiving angiotensin receptor blockers have no progression in VS-induced hearing loss compared with patients on other or no antihypertensives based on a retrospective analysis of patients with VS and hypertension. Our study provides the rationale and critical data for a prospective clinical trial of losartan in patients with VS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abd4816DOI Listing
July 2021

Genome-wide association study uncovers new genetic loci and candidate genes underlying seed chilling-germination in maize.

PeerJ 2021 28;9:e11707. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Maize Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

As one of the major crops, maize ( L.) is mainly distributed in tropical and temperate regions. However, with the changes of the environments, chilling stress has become a significantly abiotic stress affecting seed germination and thus the reproductive and biomass accumulation of maize. Herein, we investigated five seed germination-related phenotypes among 300 inbred lines under low-temperature condition (10 °C). By combining 43,943 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a total of 15 significant ( < 2.03 ×  10) SNPs were identified to correlate with seed germination under cold stress based on the FarmCPU model in GWAS, among which three loci were repeatedly associated with multiple traits. Ten gene models were closely linked to these three variations, among which , , and were further verified by candidate gene association study and expression pattern analysis. Importantly, these candidate genes were previously reported to involve plant tolerance to chilling stress and other abiotic stress. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying chilling germination in maize.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.11707DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247712PMC
June 2021

T-Weighted Whole-Brain Intracranial Vessel Wall Imaging at 3 Tesla With Cerebrospinal Fluid Suppression.

Front Neurosci 2021 25;15:665076. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Paul C. Lauterbur Research Center for Biomedical Imaging, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China.

Background: T-weighted (Tw) intracranial vessel wall imaging (IVWI) provides good contrast to differentiate intracranial vasculopathies and discriminate various important plaque components. However, the strong cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) signal in Tw images interferes with depicting the intracranial vessel wall. In this study, we propose a T-prepared sequence for whole-brain IVWI at 3T with CSF suppression.

Methods: A preparation module that combines T preparation and inversion recovery (TIR) was used to suppress the CSF signal and was incorporated into the commercial three-dimensional (3D) turbo spin echo sequence-Sampling Perfection with Application optimized Contrast using different flip angle Evolution (SPACE). This new technique (hereafter called TIR-SPACE) was evaluated on nine healthy volunteers and compared with two other commonly used 3D T-weighted sequences: Tw-SPACE and FLAIR-SPACE (FLAIR: fluid-attenuated inversion recovery). The signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of the vessel wall (VW) and CSF and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) between them were measured and compared among these three T-weighted sequences. Subjective wall visualization of the three T-weighted sequences was scored blindly and independently by two radiologists using a four-point scale followed by inter-rater reproducibility analysis. A pilot study of four stroke patients was performed to preliminarily evaluate the diagnostic value of this new sequence, which was compared with two conventional T-weighted sequences.

Results: TIR-SPACE had the highest CNR (11.01 ± 6.75) compared with FLAIR-SPACE (4.49 ± 3.15; < 0.001) and Tw-SPACE (-56.16 ± 18.58; < 0.001). The subjective wall visualization score of TIR-SPACE was higher than those of FLAIR-SPACE and Tw-SPACE (TIR-SPACE: 2.35 ± 0.59; FLAIR-SPACE: 0.52 ± 0.54; Tw-SPACE: 1.67 ± 0.58); the two radiologists' scores showed excellent agreement (ICC = 0.883).

Conclusion: The TIR preparation module markedly suppressed the CSF signal without much SNR loss of the other tissues (i.e., vessel wall, white matter, and gray matter) compared with the IR pulse. Our results suggest that TIR-SPACE is a potential alternative T-weighted sequence for assessing intracranial vascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.665076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8267868PMC
June 2021

C-C chemokine receptor type 6 modulates the biological function of osteoblastogenesis by altering the expression levels of Osterix and OPG/RANKL.

Biosci Trends 2021 Jul 11. Epub 2021 Jul 11.

Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Circulating inflammatory factors affect osteoblast and osteoclast formation and activity in osteoporosis. Estrogen affects the migration of Th17 cells via the C-C chemokine receptor type 6 (CCR6) and C-C chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) signaling pathways to modulate bone metabolism; however, it is unclear whether and how CCR6 modulates bone homeostasis. In the present study, CCR6 knockout (CCR6) mice were selected to investigate the effects of CCR6 in the regulation of homeostasis of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Primary osteoblasts were isolated from the calvarium of newborn CCR6 or wild-type mice, followed by osteoblastic differentiation culture in vitro. CCR6 deletion reduced osteoblast activity in terms of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and inhibited osteoblast mineralization according to the results of Alizarin Red S staining, whereas it did not affect the proliferation of osteoblasts. CCR6 deletion inhibited Osterix mRNA expression in osteoblasts during the late stage of mineralization in vitro, while it did not affect mRNA expression levels of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) and Collagen-1. The ratio of osteoprotegerin (OPG) /receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-Β ligand (RANKL) mRNA level in osteoblasts was decreased by CCR6 deficiency in the culture treated with 1,25(OH)2D3/PGE2, while there was no effect observed in the normal culture environment. The results provide novel insights, such as that CCR6 deletion suppresses osteoblast differentiation by downregulating the expression levels of the transcription factor Osterix, and indirectly promotes osteoclast production by increasing transcription of RANKL. This may be one of the mechanisms via which CCR6 deletion regulates bone metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5582/bst.2021.01199DOI Listing
July 2021

Manipulation of TAMs functions to facilitate the immune therapy effects of immune checkpoint antibodies.

J Control Release 2021 Jul 9;336:621-634. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, 44 Wenhua Xi Road, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012, China. Electronic address:

Immune checkpoint antibodies have emerged as novel therapeutics, while many patients are refractory. Researchers had identified tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) is the pivotal factor involved in immune resistance and that manipulation of TAMs functions would improve the immunotherapies effectively. NF-κB pathway was one of the master regulators in TAMs manipulation. Inhibition of NF-κB pathway could achieve both re-polarization M2 TAMs and downregulation the expression of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) ligand 1 (PD-L1) on TAMs to improve the effect of immunotherapies. Here, IMD-0354, inhibitor of NF-κB pathway was loaded in mannose modified lipid nanoparticles (M-IMD-LNP). Then, PD-1 antibody and M-IMD-LNP were co-loaded in matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) responsive and tumor target nanogels (P/ML-NNG). P/ML-NNG could co-deliver drugs to tumor site, disintegrated by MMP2 and release drugs to different targets. Evaluation of PD-1 expression, inhibition of NF-κB pathway, expression of PD-L1 on M2 TAMs and M2 TAMs re-polarization demonstrated that P/ML-NNG could block the PD-1/PD-L1 and NF-κB pathways simultaneously. Evaluation of CD4 T cells, CD8 T cells, Tregs, cytokines and antitumor immunity confirmed that IMD-0354 could improve the immunotherapies effectively. Those results provided forceful references for tumor immunetherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2021.07.009DOI Listing
July 2021

Outcomes and Complications of Aggressive Resection Strategy for Pituitary Adenomas in Knosp Grade 4 With Transsphenoidal Endoscopy.

Front Oncol 2021 21;11:693063. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, China.

Surgery for pituitary adenomas (PAs) with cavernous sinus (CS) invasion in Knosp grade 4 is a great challenge and whether to adopt a conservative or aggressive surgical strategy is controversial. The aim of this study is to provide the outcomes and complications of an aggressive resection strategy for Knosp grade 4 PAs with transsphenoidal endoscopic surgery. Outcomes and complications were retrospectively analyzed in 102 patients with Knosp grade 4 PAs. Among them, primary PAs were seen in 60 patients and recurrent PAs were seen in 42 cases. Gross total resection (GTR) of the entire tumor was achieved in 72 cases (70.6%), subtotal tumor resection (STR) in 18 cases (17.6%), and partial tumor resection (PTR) in 12 cases (11.8%). Additionally, GTR of the tumor within the CS was achieved in 82 patients (80.4%), STR in 17 patients (16.7%), and PTR in 3 patients (2.9%). Statistical analyses showed that both recurrent tumors and firm consistency tumors were adverse factors for complete resection (P<0.05). Patients with GTR of the entire tumor were more likely to have favorable endocrine and visual outcomes than those with incomplete resection (P<0.05). Overall, the most common surgical complication was new cranial nerve palsy (n=7, 6.8%). The incidence of internal carotid artery (ICA) injury and postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage was 2.0% (n=2) and 5.9% (n=6), respectively. Six patients (5.9%) experienced tumor recurrence postoperatively. For experienced neuroendoscopists, an aggressive tumor resection strategy transsphenoidal endoscopic surgery may be an effective and safe option for Knosp grade 4 PAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.693063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255811PMC
June 2021

Reference ranges of fetal heart function using a Modified Myocardial Performance Index: a prospective multicentre, cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2021 07 7;11(7):e049640. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Ultrasound, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China

Objectives: The primary aim of this study was to establish the normal reference ranges of the fetal left ventricular (LV) Modified Myocardial Performance Index (Mod-MPI). A secondary aim was to evaluate the agreement between manual and automatic measurements for fetal Mod-MPI.

Design: A prospective, multicentre, cross-sectional study.

Participants: Normal singleton pregnancies.

Methods: The LV functions of normal singleton pregnancies were assessed in nine centres covering eight provinces in China using unified ultrasound protocols and settings and standardised measurements by pulsed Doppler at 20-24, 28-32 and 34-38 weeks of gestation. The isovolumetric relaxation time (IRT), isovolumetric contraction time, ejection time (ET) and Mod-MPI were measured both automatically and manually.

Results: This cross-sectional study included 2081 fetuses, and there was a linear correlation between gestational age (GA) and Mod-MPI (0.416+0.001×GA (weeks), p<0.001, r=0.013), IRT (36.201+0.162× GA (weeks), p<0.001, r=0.021) and ET (171.418-0.078*GA (weeks), p<0.001, r=0.002). This finding was verified using longitudinal data in a subgroup of 610 women. The agreement between the manual and automated measurements for Mod-MPI was good.

Conclusions: We constructed normal reference values of fetal LV Mod-MPI. Automatic measurement can be considered for ease of measurement in view of the good agreement between the automatic and manual values.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-049640DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8264880PMC
July 2021

Gut Microbiota: A Novel Regulator of Cardiovascular Disease and Key Factor in the Therapeutic Effects of Flavonoids.

Front Pharmacol 2021 16;12:651926. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Pharmacy, Baotou Medical College, Baotou, China.

Cardiovascular disease is the main cause of death worldwide, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors cannot fully explain the occurrence of the disease. In recent years, the relationship between gut microbiota and its metabolites and cardiovascular disease has been a hot study topic. The changes in gut microbiota and its metabolites are related to the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and hypertension. The mechanisms by which gut microbiota and its metabolites influence cardiovascular disease have been reported, although not comprehensively. Additionally, following ingestion, flavonoids are decomposed into phenolic acids that are more easily absorbed by the body after being processed by enzymes produced by intestinal microorganisms, which increases flavonoid bioavailability and activity, consequently affecting the onset of cardiovascular disease. However, flavonoids can also inhibit the growth of harmful microorganisms, promote the proliferation of beneficial microorganisms, and maintain the balance of gut microbiota. Hence, it is important to study the relationship between gut microbiota and flavonoids to elucidate the protective effects of flavonoids in cardiovascular diseases. This article will review the role and mechanism of gut microbiota and its metabolites in the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and hypertension. It also discusses the potential value of flavonoids in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease following their transformation through gut microbiota metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.651926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8241904PMC
June 2021

Structural plasticity of mumps virus nucleocapsids with cryo-EM structures.

Commun Biol 2021 07 2;4(1):833. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

iHuman Institute and School of Life Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai, China.

Mumps virus (MuV) is a highly contagious human pathogen and frequently causes worldwide outbreaks despite available vaccines. Similar to other mononegaviruses such as Ebola and rabies, MuV uses a single-stranded negative-sense RNA as its genome, which is enwrapped by viral nucleoproteins into the helical nucleocapsid. The nucleocapsid acts as a scaffold for genome condensation and as a template for RNA replication and transcription. Conformational changes in the MuV nucleocapsid are required to switch between different activities, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive due to the absence of high-resolution structures. Here, we report two MuV nucleoprotein-RNA rings with 13 and 14 protomers, one stacked-ring filament and two nucleocapsids with distinct helical pitches, in dense and hyperdense states, at near-atomic resolutions using cryo-electron microscopy. Structural analysis of these in vitro assemblies indicates that the C-terminal tail of MuV nucleoprotein likely regulates the assembly of helical nucleocapsids, and the C-terminal arm may be relevant for the transition between the dense and hyperdense states of helical nucleocapsids. Our results provide the molecular mechanism for structural plasticity among different MuV nucleocapsids and create a possible link between structural plasticity and genome condensation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-02362-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8253768PMC
July 2021

Towards a High Rejection Desalination Membrane: The Confined Growth of Polyamide Nanofilm Induced by Alkyl-Capped Graphene Oxide.

Membranes (Basel) 2021 Jun 29;11(7). Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Center for Membrane and Water Science & Technology, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014, China.

In this paper, we used an octadecylamine functionalized graphene oxide ([email protected]) to induce the confined growth of a polyamide nanofilm in the organic and aqueous phase during interfacial polymerization (IP). The [email protected], fully dispersed in the organic phase, was applied as a physical barrier to confine the amine diffusion and therefore limiting the IP reaction close to the interface. The morphology and crosslinking degree of the PA nanofilm could be controlled by doping different amounts of [email protected] (therefore adjusting the diffusion resistance). At standard seawater desalination conditions (32,000 ppm NaCl, ~55 bar), the flux of the resultant thin film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane reached 59.6 L m h, which was approximately 17% more than the virgin TFC membrane. Meanwhile, the optimal salt rejection at seawater conditions (i.e., 32,000 ppm NaCl) achieved 99.6%. Concurrently, the boron rejection rate was also elevated by 13.3% compared with the TFC membrane without confined growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/membranes11070488DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8304696PMC
June 2021

Involvement of ABA Responsive Genes in the Regulation of Trichome Formation in Arabidopsis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 24;22(13). Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Key Laboratory of Molecular Epigenetics of MOE, School of Life Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China.

Trichome formation in Arabidopsis is regulated by several key regulators, and plants hormones such as gibberellin, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and cytokinins have been shown to regulate trichome formation by affecting the transcription or activities of the key regulators. We report here the identification of two abscisic acid (ABA) responsive genes, () and as trichome formation regulator genes in Arabidopsis. The expression levels of and were increased in response to ABA treatment, their expression levels were reduced in the ABA biosynthesis mutant , and they have similar expression pattern. In addition to the trichome defects reported previously for the single mutant, we found that even though the trichome numbers were largely unaffected in both the and single mutants generate by using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing, the trichome numbers were greatly reduced in the double mutants. On the other hand, trichome numbers were increased in or overexpression plants. RT-PCR results show that the expression of the trichome formation key regulator gene () was affected in the double mutants. Our results suggest that and are ABA responsive genes, and SVB and SVB2 function redundantly to regulate trichome formation in Arabidopsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22136790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8268597PMC
June 2021

The formation, determination and health implications of polar compounds in edible oils: Current status, challenges and perspectives.

Food Chem 2021 Jun 24;364:130451. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, 22 Xinong Road, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, PR China. Electronic address:

To effectively control the quality of edible oil, polar compounds in edible oils have been studied extensively in the past few decades, particularly in the field of frying. This article critically reviews the formation, determination, and health implications of the polar compounds in edible oils via comprehensive literature research. The challenges and perspectives of polar compounds in edible oils are also discussed. Three chemical reactions, including oxidation, hydrolysis, and polymerization, elaborate polar compound formation. Many techniques are used to determine the total polar compound content of edible oils, with comparative analysis; Fourier transform infrared technique is a relatively ideal method. A major obstacle for nutritional studies focused on polar compounds formed during frying is that few pure compounds have been quantified. To inhibit the formation of the polar compounds effectively, investigations into the applications of enzymatic method in developing new lipophilized antioxidants may be a new direction in research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130451DOI Listing
June 2021

Chinese breast cancer patients with CYP2D6*10 mutant genotypes have a better prognosis with toremifene than with tamoxifen.

Asia Pac J Clin Oncol 2021 Jun 30. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Breast Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital of China Medical University, Liaoning Cancer Hospital & Institute, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, P. R. China.

Purpose: To evaluate the prognosis of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients with CYP2D6*10 mutant genotypes under tamoxifen or toremifen therapy.

Methods: Estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients were selected and CYP2D6*10 genotypes (C/C, C/T, and T/T) were determined by Sanger sequencing. Patients were divided into tamoxifen, toremifene, or tamoxifen + toremifene groups according to prior therapy. The correlation between CYP2D6*10 genotype and disease-free survival was analyzed.

Results: In total, 293 estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen or toremifene between 2008 and 2017 were studied. Median follow-up was 39 months (10-141). Of these, 107 (36.52%), 112 (38.23%), and 74 (25.26%) patients had C/C, C/T, and T/T genotypes, respectively. Genotype was significantly associated with disease-free survival in tamoxifen patients. Patients with C/T and T/T genotypes showed worse disease-free survival than patients with a C/C genotype. Genotype and disease-free survival in toremifene and tamoxifen+toremifene patients were not correlated. Of patients with a C/T genotype, toremifene or tamoxifen+toremifene groups showed better disease-free survival than tamoxifen patients. Although disease-free survival of patients with a T/T genotype in the three groups was not statistically different, tamoxifen patients showed worse disease-free survival. There was no correlation between different treatments and disease-free survival in patients with a C/C genotype. Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed toremifene patients had a better prognosis than tamoxifen patients; toremifene was an independent protective factoremifene for disease-free survival.

Conclusions: Tamoxifen was less effective in patients with CYP2D6*10 C/T and T/T genotypes. Estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients with a CYP2D6*10 mutation genotype have a better prognosis with toremifen than tamoxifen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajco.13571DOI Listing
June 2021

Impacts of chlorine chemistry and anthropogenic emissions on secondary pollutants in the Yangtze river delta region.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 23;287:117624. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control, Collaborative Innovation Center of Atmospheric Environment and Equipment Technology, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology, Nanjing, 210044, China.

Multiphase chemistry of chlorine is coupled into a 3D regional air quality model (CMAQv5.0.1) to investigate the impacts on the atmospheric oxidation capacity, ozone (O), as well as fine particulate matter (PM) and its major components over the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region. The developed model has significantly improved the simulated hydrochloric acid (HCl), particulate chloride (PCl), and hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxyl (HO) radicals. O is enhanced in the high chlorine emission regions by up to 4% and depleted in the rest of the region. PM is enhanced by 2-6%, mostly due to the increases in PCl, ammonium, organic aerosols, and sulfate. Nitrate exhibits inhomogeneous variations, by up to 8% increase in Shanghai and 2-5% decrease in most of the domain. Radicals show different responses to the inclusion of the multiphase chlorine chemistry during the daytime and nighttime. Both OH and HO are increased throughout the day, while nitrate radicals (NO) and organic peroxy radicals (RO) show an opposite pattern during the daytime and nighttime. Higher HCl and PCl emissions can further enhance the atmospheric oxidation capacity, O, and PM. Therefore, the anthropogenic chlorine emission inventory must be carefully evaluated and constrained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117624DOI Listing
June 2021
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