Publications by authors named "Na Yuan"

105 Publications

Activation of Autophagy Ameliorates Age-Related Neurogenesis Decline and Neurodysfunction in Adult Mice.

Stem Cell Rev Rep 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Anatomy, Shanxi Medical University, 030001, Taiyuan, People's Republic of China.

Adult neurogenesis is the ongoing generation of functional new neurons from neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the mammalian brain. However, this process declines with aging, which is implicated in the recession of brain function and neurodegeneration. Understanding the mechanism of adult neurogenesis and stimulating neurogenesis will benefit the mitigation of neurodegenerative diseases. Autophagy, a highly conserved process of cellular degradation, is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and normal function. Whether and how autophagy affects adult neurogenesis remains poorly understood. In present study, we revealed a close connection between impaired autophagy and adult neurogenetic decline. Expression of autophagy-related genes and autophagic activity were significantly declined in the middle-adult subventricular/subgranular zone (SVZ/SGZ) homogenates and cultured NPCs, and inhibiting autophagy by siRNA interference resulted in impaired proliferation and differentiation of NPCs. Conversely, stimulating autophagy by rapamycin not only revitalized the viability of middle-adult NPCs, but also facilitated the neurogenesis in middle-adult SVZ/SGZ. More importantly, autophagic activation by rapamycin also ameliorated the olfactory sensitivity and cognitional capacities in middle-adult mice. Taken together, our results reveal that compromised autophagy is involved in the decline of adult neurogenesis, which could be reversed by autophagy activation. It also shed light on the regulation of adult neurogenesis and paves the way for developing a therapeutic strategy for aging and neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12015-021-10265-0DOI Listing
September 2021

Impact of supervised beego, a traditional Chinese water-only fasting, on thrombosis and haemostasis.

BMJ Nutr Prev Health 2021 5;4(1):4-17. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Hematology Center of Cyrus Tang Medical Institute, Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Beego is a traditional Chinese complete water-only fasting practice initially developed for spiritual purposes, later extending to physical fitness purposes. Beego notably includes a psychological induction component that includes meditation and abdominal breathing, light body exercise and ends with a specific gradual refeeding program before returning to a normal diet. Beego has regained its popularity in recent decades in China as a strategy for helping people in subhealthy conditions or with metabolic syndrome, but we are unaware of any studies examining the biological effects of this practice. To address this, we here performed a longitudinal study of beego comprising fasting (7 and 14 day cohorts) and a 7-day programmed refeeding phase. In addition to detecting improvements in cardiovascular physiology and selective reduction of blood pressure in hypertensive subjects, we observed that beego decreased blood triacylglycerol (TG) selectively in TG-high subjects and increased cholesterol in all subjects during fasting; however, the cholesterol levels were normalised after completion of the refeeding program. Strikingly, beego reduced platelet formation, activation, aggregation and degranulation, resulting in an alleviated thrombosis risk, yet maintained haemostasis by sustaining levels of coagulation factors and other haemostatic proteins. Mechanistically, we speculate that downregulation of G6B and MYL9 may influence the observed beego-mediated reduction in platelets. Fundamentally, our study supports that supervised beego reduces thrombosis risk without compromising haemostasis capacity. Moreover, our results support that beego under medical supervision can be implemented as non-invasive intervention for reducing thrombosis risk, and suggest several lines of intriguing inquiry for future studies about this fasting practice (http://www.chictr.org.cn/index.aspx, number, ChiCTR1900027451).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjnph-2020-000183DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258074PMC
January 2021

Determination of Pendimethalin Dynamic Residual Distribution in Crucian Carp Tissues and Associated Risk Assessment.

Int J Anal Chem 2021 2;2021:9984230. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Key Laboratory of Control of Quality and Safety for Aquatic Products (Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs), Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Beijing 100141, China.

Pendimethalin has been considered a moderately to extremely toxic compound for fish and aquatic organism. This study developed the determination of dynamic residual distribution for pendimethalin in crucian carp tissues (muscle, liver, kidney, gill, and blood) under semistatic exposure system by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method. The pendimethalin residues in various fish tissues increased initially and then decreased, and the residue amount of pendimethalin varied from tissue to tissue of crucian carp. Particularly, the pendimethalin accumulation in most fish tissues made significant decreases at two-time points. Pendimethalin was initially absorbed and enriched by fish body, and then partial pendimethalin was discharged into the outside environment through the metabolism function of crucian carp. The residue levels of pendimethalin distributed in crucian carp were ranked in the following decreasing order: liver > kidney > gill or muscle > blood, attributed to the fact that pendimethalin tends to accumulate in lipid-rich tissues of fish. Risk assessment results indicated that the chronic risk from dietary exposure to pendimethalin through crucian carp consumption for Chinese residents was acceptable, along with a lower estimated exposure dose (EED) than acceptable daily intake (ADI) and risk quotient (RQ) < 1. This study performed the first analysis for pendimethalin residual distribution in crucian carp tissues under semistatic exposure condition and provided a reference for pollution control and risk assessment of pendimethalin aimed at aquatic products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9984230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8270702PMC
July 2021

A novel class of tsRNA signatures as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of pancreatic cancer.

Mol Cancer 2021 07 17;20(1):95. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Center of Molecular Diagnostic and Therapy, Chemistry and Biomedicine Innovation Center (ChemBIC), State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Department of Physiology, Jiangsu Engineering Research Center for MicroRNA Biology and Biotechnology, NJU Advanced Institute of Life Sciences (NAILS), School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210023, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12943-021-01389-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8285832PMC
July 2021

MiR-186-3p attenuates tumorigenesis of cervical cancer by targeting IGF1.

World J Surg Oncol 2021 Jul 12;19(1):207. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Radiotherapy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hebei North University, No. 36, Changqing Road, Zhangjiakou, 075000, Hebei, China.

Background: Mounting evidence in the cancer literature suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) influence the progression of human cancer cells by targeting protein-coding genes. How insulin-like growth factor 1(IGF1) and miR-186-3p contribute to the development of cervical cancer (CC) remains unclear. This study examined the regulatory roles of miR-186-3p and IGF1 in CC development.

Methods: Gene expression levels were determined by qRT-PCR. Proliferation, migration, and apoptosis of CC and normal cells were determined by MTT, Transwell, and caspase-3 activity assays, respectively. Dual-luciferase reporter activity and RNA pull-down assays were performed to identify the target gene of miR-186-3p.

Results: IGF1 was the target of miR-186-3p. The expression of miR-186-3p inhibited cell proliferation and migration abilities of CC cell lines, but induced the apoptosis rate of CC cells. IGF1 could restore the inhibitory effects of miR-186-3p on the proliferation, migration, and apoptosis abilities of CC cells. Experimental results revealed that miR-186-3p could inhibit IGF1 expression, thereby reducing the viability of CC cells.

Conclusions: The data suggest that targeting of IGF1 by miR-186-3p could be crucial in regulating the progression of CC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12957-021-02317-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8276452PMC
July 2021

Aberrant expression of HIF3A in plasma of patients with non-small cell lung cancer and its clinical significance.

J Clin Lab Anal 2021 Aug 10;35(8):e23889. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, The No.8 People's Hospital of Qingdao, Qingdao, China.

Background: Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) have been evaluated in various cancers and diseases. However, the specific role of hypoxia-inducible factor 3 alpha (HIF3A) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains controversial.

Materials And Methods: We investigated HIF3A mRNA expression in the plasma and tumor tissues of patients with NSCLC and explored its clinical significance. Plasma samples from 103 cases of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and 96 cases of lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC), and tumor-adjacent normal tissues from 58 LUAD and 62 LUSC cases were retrospectively evaluated at the No.8 People's Hospital of Qing Dao. HIF3A expression was explored using RT-qPCR. The clinical significance of HIF3A was evaluated in the plasma and tumor tissues using the receiver operating curve (ROC) and the area under the curve (AUC).

Results: Hypoxia-inducible factor 3 alpha expression was notably downregulated in the plasma or tumor tissues of patients with LUAD and LUSC, compared with the healthy control group or adjacent normal tissues. Furthermore, HIF3A expression had a significant positive correlation in the plasma and tumor tissues of LUAD and LUSC patients. Meanwhile, the ROC-AUCs achieved a significantly higher range, from 0.84 to 0.93, with the plasma or tumor tissues of NSCLC patients. Thus, HIF3A expression was not only correlated with plasma and tumor tissues, but also showed potential significance in NSCLC.

Conclusion: Hypoxia-inducible factor 3 alpha is aberrantly detectable in NSCLC patients in the plasma and tumor tissues. HIF3A may be involved in hypoxic responses during the development and occurrence of NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.23889DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8373323PMC
August 2021

Database mining of plant peptide homologues.

Plant Biotechnol (Tokyo) 2021 Mar;38(1):137-143

Faculty of Advanced Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555, Japan.

In plant-pathogen interactions, pathogens employ secreted molecules, known as effectors to overcome physical barriers, modulate plant immunity, and facilitate colonization. Among these diverse effectors, some are found to mimic the plant peptides, to target host's peptide receptors, and intervene in the peptide-regulated defense pathways and/or plant development. To better understand how pathogens have co-evolved with their plant hosts in order to improve disease management, we explored the presence of plant peptide mimics in microbes by bioinformatic analysis. In total, 36 novel peptide mimics belong to five plant peptide families were detected in bacterial and fungal kingdoms. Among them, phytosulfokine homologues were widely distributed in 22 phytopathogens and one bacterium, thereby constituted the largest proportion of the identified mimics. The putative functional peptide region is well conserved between plant and microbes, while the existence of a putative signal peptide varies between species. Our findings will increase understanding of plant-pathogen interactions, and provide new ideas for future studies of pathogenic mechanisms and disease management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5511/plantbiotechnology.20.0720aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8215471PMC
March 2021

Lentinan as a natural stabilizer with bioactivities for preparation of drug-drug nanosuspensions.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Aug 10;184:101-108. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Chemical Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China. Electronic address:

Lentinan is a natural β-glucan with various bioactivities and is combined with chemotherapy drugs for cancer treatment. Regorafenib is an oral multi-kinase inhibitor approved by FDA for treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer, advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, and metastatic gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Regorafenib has poor water solubility and multiple toxicities. We report drug-drug nanosuspensions of regorafenib and lentinan. Results of dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy showed that the mean particle size of the regorafenib-lentinan nanosuspensions was approximately 200 nm and was uniformly distributed. Transmission electron microscopy findings indicated that lentinan stabilized the nanosuspensions by steric manner. Hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions were found between regorafenib and lentinan by molecular dynamics simulation. The results of cytotoxicity assay and pharmacokinetics study in rats showed that the regorafenib-lentinan nanosuspensions reduced the toxicity and enhanced the in vitro anticancer activity and oral bioavailability of regorafenib. Lentinan as a natural stabilizer has the potential using for drug nanosuspensions. Drug-drug nanosuspensions are a new form of combination therapies that can reduce the number of drugs taken by patients and improve their compliance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.06.056DOI Listing
August 2021

MicroRNA-186-3p attenuates tumorigenesis of cervical cancer by targeting MCM2.

Oncol Lett 2021 Jul 19;22(1):539. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Radiotherapy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou, Hebei 075000, P.R. China.

The present study examined the effect of microRNA (miRNA/miR)-186-3p and its target gene, minichromosome maintenance complex component 2 (MCM2), on cervical cancer. Cervical cancer tissues and corresponding normal tissues were collected from 48 patients and bioinformatics analysis was performed to identify the differentially expressed genes in cervical cancer. TargetScan and TarBase were used to identify miRNAs, and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR was conducted to detect and evaluate mRNA expression levels. Additionally, MTT and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine assays were performed to examine cell proliferation. Cell adhesion, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis were assessed using cell adhesion, flow cytometry and caspase-3/7 activity assays, respectively. The results revealed that miR-186-3p expression was downregulated in cervical cancer tissues and cells, and it negatively regulated MCM2 expression by directly targeting its 3' untranslated region in cervical cancer. Furthermore, MCM2 facilitated cell proliferation and inhibited cell apoptosis, which were reversed by upregulation of miR-186-3p expression. Collectively, the present study suggested that MCM2 and its negative regulator, miR-186-3p, regulate cervical cancer progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2021.12800DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161468PMC
July 2021

Exosomes Secreted from Hypoxia-Preconditioned Mesenchymal Stem Cells Prevent Steroid-Induced Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head by Promoting Angiogenesis in Rats.

Biomed Res Int 2021 7;2021:6655225. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province 710061, China.

Recent studies have suggested that exosomes exert similar therapeutic effects to those of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in regenerative medicine and MSCs-derived exosomes exhibit therapeutic effects on steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Furthermore, reparative functions of exosomes from MSCs are enhanced by hypoxia treatment of the cells. However, there are no related reports about whether exosomes derived from hypoxia-preconditioned MSCs could show better therapeutic effects on steroid-induced ONFH. In vitro, we investigated the effects of hypoxia precondition on exosomes derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) from rats and the proangiogenic ability of exosomes derived from hypoxia-preconditioned BMMSCs. In vivo, we investigated the role of exosomes from hypoxia-preconditioned BMMSCs on angiogenesis and protecting osteonecrosis in a rat ONFH model. We found that the potential of the proangiogenic ability of exosomes derived from hypoxia-preconditioned BMMSCs was higher than exosomes derived from BMMSCs cultured under normoxia. Exosomes derived from hypoxia-preconditioned BMMSCs significantly promoted proliferation, migration, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) compared with exosomes derived from BMMSCs cultured under normoxia. Administration of exosomes derived from hypoxia-preconditioned BMMSCs significantly prevented bone loss and increased vessel volume in the femoral head compared with exosomes derived from BMMSCs cultured under normoxia. Taken together, our data suggest that exosomes derived from hypoxia-preconditioned BMMSCs exert better therapeutic effects on steroid-induced ONFH by promoting angiogenesis and preventing bone loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6655225DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8049797PMC
May 2021

Efficacy and safety of short duration radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy for advanced rectal cancer.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Mar;9(7):1524-1531

Department of General Surgery, Hebei Provincial People's Hospital, Shijiazhuang 050003, Hebei Province, China.

Background: Radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy is widely used for the treatment of rectal cancer preoperatively. Although the combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy as an established preoperative neoadjuvant therapy shows high efficacy in the treatment of rectal cancer, some patients experience a response of poor tolerance and outcomes due to the long duration radiotherapy. The study compared short duration radiotherapy plus chemotherapy long duration radiotherapy plus chemotherapy for rectal cancer to determine whether short duration radiation treatment should be considered to diminish complications, reduce risk of recurrence and improve survival in patients with rectal cancer.

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of short duration radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy for the treatment of advanced rectal cancer.

Methods: One hundred patients with stage IIIB or higher severe rectal cancer were selected as the study subjects at The First Affiliated Hospital of Hebei North University between December 2018 and December 2019. The patients were assigned to different groups based on the treatment regimens. Fifty patients who received preoperative short durations of radiotherapy plus chemotherapy were enrolled in an observation group and fifty patients who received conventional radiotherapy and chemotherapy were enrolled in a control group. Colonoscopic biopsy was performed for all patients with pathological diagnosis of rectal cancer. The expression of tumor-related factors such as RUNX3 and Ki-67 was quantitatively analyzed using immunohistochemistry in the tissues of the patients before and after treatment. Moreover, the duration of procedure, the amount of bleeding during the operation, the anus-conserving rate, the incidence of postoperative complications (wound infection, anastomotic leakage, postoperative intestinal obstruction, .) and postoperative pathology were compared between the two groups. The overall survival rate, recurrence rate and distant metastasis rate were also compared through postoperative reexamination and regular follow-up.

Results: There was no significant difference in the positive expression rate of RUNX3 and Ki-67 between the two groups before the treatment ( > 0.05). Compared with the pretreatment value, the positive rate of RUNX3 was increased and the positive rate of Ki-67 was decreased in both groups after the treatment (all < 0.05). The incidence of leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia and diarrhea were higher in the observation group than in the control group (all < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of anemia, fatigue, neurotoxicity and nausea and vomiting between the two groups (all > 0.05). No significant difference was observed in the duration of procedure, intraoperative bleeding, the anus-conserving rate and the incidence of postoperative complications between the two groups ( > 0.05). After 1 year of follow-up, the 1-yr survival rate was 80.0% in the observation group and 68.0% in the control group, the recurrence rate was 8.0% in the observation group and 10.0% in the control group, the distant metastasis rate was 6.0% in the observation group and 8.0% in the control group difference (all < 0.05).

Conclusion: Short duration radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy can improve the cure rate, prolong the survival time and reduce the incidence of complications in patients with advanced rectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i7.1524DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7942029PMC
March 2021

Evidence for CAT gene being functionally involved in the susceptibility of COVID-19.

FASEB J 2021 04;35(4):e21384

CAS Key Laboratory of Genomic and Precision Medicine, Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Novel coronary pneumonia (COVID-19) is a respiratory distress syndrome caused by a new type of coronavirus. Understanding the genetic basis of susceptibility and prognosis to COVID-19 is of great significance to disease prevention, molecular typing, prognosis, and treatment. However, so far, there have been only two genome-wide association studies (GWASs) on the susceptibility of COVID-19. Starting with these reported DNA variants, we found the genes regulated by these variants through cis-eQTL and cis-meQTL acting. We further did a series of bioinformatics analysis on these potential risk genes. The analysis shows that the genetic variants on EHF regulate the expression of its neighbor CAT gene via cis-eQTL. There was significant evidence that CAT and the SARS-CoV-2-related S protein binding protein ACE2 interact with each other. Intracellular localization results showed that CAT and ACE2 proteins both exists in the cell membrane and extracellular area and their interaction could have an impact on the cell invasion ability of S protein. In addition, the expression of these three genes showed a significant positive correlation in the lungs. Based on these results, we propose that CAT plays a crucial intermediary role in binding effectiveness of ACE2, thereby affecting the susceptibility to COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202100008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8250337PMC
April 2021

HSCs transdifferentiate primarily to pneumonocytes in radiation-induced lung damage repair.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 03 3;13(6):8335-8354. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Hematology Center of Cyrus Tang Medical Institute, Soochow University School of Medicine, Suzhou 215123, China.

Accumulative radiation exposure leads to hematopoietic or tissue aging. Whether hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are involved in lung damage repair in response to radiation remains controversial. The aim of this study is to identify if HSC can transdifferentiate to pneumonocytes for radiation-induced damage repair. To this end, HSCs from male Rosa mice were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and transplanted into lethally irradiated female CD45.1 mice. 4 months after transplantation, transplanted HSC was shown to repair the radiation-induced tissue damage, and donor-derived tdTomato (phycoerythrin, PE) red fluorescence cells and representing Y chromosome were detected exclusively in female recipient lung epithelial and endothelial cells. Co-localization of donor-derived cells and recipient lung tissue cells were observed by laser confocal microscopy and image flow cytometry. Furthermore, the results showed HSC transplantation replenished radiation-induced lung HSC depletion and the PE positive repaired lung epithelial cells were identified as donor HSC origin. The above data suggest that donor HSC may migrate to the injured lung of the recipient and some of them can be transdifferentiated to pneumonocytes to repair the injury caused by radiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202644DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034935PMC
March 2021

Medical Morphology Training Using the Xuexi Tong Platform During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Development and Validation of a Web-Based Teaching Approach.

JMIR Med Inform 2021 Mar 15;9(3):e24497. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, Tai'an, China.

Background: Histology and Embryology and Pathology are two important basic medical morphology courses for studying human histological structures under healthy and pathological conditions, respectively. There is a natural succession between the two courses. At the beginning of 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic suddenly swept the world. During this unusual period, to ensure that medical students would understand and master basic medical knowledge and to lay a solid foundation for future medical bridge courses and professional courses, a web-based medical morphology teaching team, mainly including teachers of courses in Histology and Embryology and Pathology, was established.

Objective: This study aimed to explore a new teaching mode of Histology and Embryology and Pathology courses during the COVID-19 pandemic and to illustrate its feasibility and acceptability.

Methods: From March to July 2020, our team selected clinical medicine undergraduate students who started their studies in 2018 and 2019 as recipients of web-based teaching. Meanwhile, nursing undergraduate students who started their studies in 2019 and 2020 were selected for traditional offline teaching as the control group. For the web-based teaching, our team used the Xuexi Tong platform as the major platform to realize a new "seven-in-one" teaching method (ie, videos, materials, chapter tests, interactions, homework, live broadcasts, and case analysis/discussion). This new teaching mode involved diverse web-based teaching methods and contents, including flipped classroom, screen-to-screen experimental teaching, a drawing competition, and a writing activity on the theme of "What I Know About COVID-19." When the teaching was about to end, a questionnaire was administered to obtain feedback regarding the teaching performance. In the meantime, the final written pathology examination results of the web-based teaching and traditional offline teaching groups were compared to examine the mastery of knowledge of the students.

Results: Using the Xuexi Tong platform as the major platform to conduct "seven-in-one" teaching is feasible and acceptable. With regard to the teaching performance of this new web-based teaching mode, students demonstrated a high degree of satisfaction, and the questionnaire showed that 71.3% or more of the students in different groups reported a greater degree of satisfaction or being very satisfied. In fact, more students achieved high scores (90-100) in the web-based learning group than in the offline learning control group (P=.02). Especially, the number of students with objective scores >60 in the web-based learning group was greater than that in the offline learning control group (P=.045).

Conclusions: This study showed that the web-based teaching mode was not inferior to the traditional offline teaching mode for medical morphology courses, proving the feasibility and acceptability of web-based teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings lay a solid theoretical foundation for follow-up studies of medical students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/24497DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7962858PMC
March 2021

Fixed Cutaneous Sporotrichosis Due to .

Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol 2021 25;14:91-96. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Dermatology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100020, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: This report describes a case of a skin sporotrichosis infection and the steps taken to identify an effective antifungal treatment.

Patients And Methods: A 50-year-old woman from Jilin province, China, presented complaining of a small mass that had been on her right upper eyelid for two years. A skin biopsy was taken and submitted for bacterial and mycological assessment. Bacterial culture from the lesion was negative, but a fungal culture was positive. In vitro susceptibility test was performed to assess its susceptibility to antifungal drugs.

Results: The skin biopsy showed infectious granuloma. Fungal culture was identified as based on both the morphological features and confirmation by the molecular method; it was resistant to many kinds of antifungal drugs, including amphotericin B, voriconazole, fluconazole, and caspofungin. However, it was relatively sensitive to itraconazole. The patient was prescribed 0.2 g itraconazole to be taken twice per day. One month later, she had almost completely recovered from her symptoms. The treatment lasted for 3 months and her liver function and renal function were normal at the endpoint.

Conclusion: Itraconazole was an effective treatment in this case of a multidrug-resistant sporotrichosis caused by .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CCID.S288259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7846868PMC
January 2021

Metabolic syndrome and the incidence of knee osteoarthritis: A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

PLoS One 2020 23;15(12):e0243576. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Rheumatic Disease, The Third Clinical Affiliated Hospital of Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun, China.

Background: Cross-sectional studies suggest an association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and knee osteoarthritis (KOA). We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate whether MetS is an independent risk factor for KOA.

Methods: Prospective cohort studies evaluating the association between MetS and KOA in general population were retrieved from PubMed and Embase. Only studies with multivariate analyses were included. Data were pooled with a random-effect model, which is considered to incorporate heterogeneity among the included studies.

Results: Five studies including 94,965 participants were included, with 18,990 people with MetS (20.0%). With a mean follow-up duration of 14.5 years, 2,447 KOA cases occurred. Pooled results showed that MetS was not significant associated with an increased risk of KOA after controlling of factors including body mass index (adjusted risk ratio [RR]: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.92~1.23, p = 0.40; I2 = 33%). Subgroup analysis showed that MetS was independently associated with an increased risk of severe KOA that needed total knee arthroplasty (RR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03~1.30, p = 0.02), but not total symptomatic KOA (RR = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.65~1.08, p = 0.18). Stratified analyses suggested that MetS was independently associated with an increased risk of KOA in women (RR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.03~1.47, p = 0.02), but not in men (RR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.70~1.14, p = 0.37).

Conclusions: Current evidence from prospective cohort studies did not support MetS was an independent risk factor of overall KOA in general population. However, MetS may be associated with an increased risk of severe KOA in general population, or overall KOA risk in women.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243576PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7757818PMC
February 2021

Loss of Atg7 causes chaotic nucleosome assembly of mouse bone marrow CD11bLy6G myeloid cells.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 11 24;12(24):25673-25683. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Hematology Center of Cyrus Tang Medical Institute, Soochow University School of Medicine, Suzhou 215123, China.

Atg7, a critical component of autophagy machinery, is essential for counteracting hematopoietic aging. However, the non-autophagic role of Atg7 on hematopoietic cells remains fundamentally unclear. In this study, we found that loss of Atg7, but not Atg5, another autophagy-essential gene, in the hematopoietic system reduces CD11b myeloid cellularity including CD11bLy6G and CD11bLy6G populations in mouse bone marrow. Surprisingly, Atg7 deletion causes abnormally accumulated histone H3.1 to be overwhelmingly trapped in the cytoplasm in the CD11bLy6G, but not the CD11bLy6G compartment. RNA profiling revealed extensively chaotic expression of the genes required in nucleosome assembly. Functional assays further indicated upregulated aging markers in the CD11bLy6G population. Therefore, our study suggests that Atg7 is essential for maintaining proper nucleosome assembly and limiting aging in the bone marrow CD11bLy6G population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.104176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803583PMC
November 2020

Study on automatic detection and classification of breast nodule using deep convolutional neural network system.

J Thorac Dis 2020 Sep;12(9):4690-4701

National Engineering Lab for Big Data Analytics, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Backgrounds: Conventional ultrasound manual scanning and artificial diagnosis approaches in breast are considered to be operator-dependence, slight slow and error-prone. In this study, we used Automated Breast Ultrasound (ABUS) machine for the scanning, and deep convolutional neural network (CNN) technology, a kind of Deep Learning (DL) algorithm, for the detection and classification of breast nodules, aiming to achieve the automatic and accurate diagnosis of breast nodules.

Methods: Two hundred and ninety-three lesions from 194 patients with definite pathological diagnosis results (117 benign and 176 malignancy) were recruited as case group. Another 70 patients without breast diseases were enrolled as control group. All the breast scans were carried out by an ABUS machine and then randomly divided into training set, verification set and test set, with a proportion of 7:1:2. In the training set, we constructed a detection model by a three-dimensionally U-shaped convolutional neural network (3D U-Net) architecture for the purpose of segment the nodules from background breast images. Processes such as residual block, attention connections, and hard mining were used to optimize the model while strategies of random cropping, flipping and rotation for data augmentation. In the test phase, the current model was compared with those in previously reported studies. In the verification set, the detection effectiveness of detection model was evaluated. In the classification phase, multiple convolutional layers and fully-connected layers were applied to set up a classification model, aiming to identify whether the nodule was malignancy.

Results: Our detection model yielded a sensitivity of 91% and 1.92 false positive subjects per automatically scanned imaging. The classification model achieved a sensitivity of 87.0%, a specificity of 88.0% and an accuracy of 87.5%.

Conclusions: Deep CNN combined with ABUS maybe a promising tool for easy detection and accurate diagnosis of breast nodule.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd-19-3013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7578508PMC
September 2020

Author Correction: Whole-genome and time-course dual RNA-Seq analyses reveal chronic pathogenicity-related gene dynamics in the ginseng rusty root rot pathogen Ilyonectria robusta.

Sci Rep 2020 Oct 8;10(1):17122. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Institute of Special Wild Economic Animal and Plant Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changchun, China.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73761-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7542143PMC
October 2020

Autophagy-Sirt3 axis decelerates hematopoietic aging.

Aging Cell 2020 10 20;19(10):e13232. Epub 2020 Sep 20.

Hematology Center of Cyrus Tang Medical Institute, Jiangsu Institute of Hematology, Institute of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Collaborative Innovation Center of Hematology, National Clinical Research Center for Hematologic Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Soochow University School of Medicine, Suzhou, China.

Autophagy suppresses mitochondrial metabolism to preserve hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in mice. However, the mechanism by which autophagy regulates hematopoietic aging, in particular in humans, has largely been unexplored. Here, we demonstrate that reduction of autophagy in both hematopoietic cells and their stem cells is associated with aged hematopoiesis in human population. Mechanistically, autophagy delays hematopoietic aging by activating the downstream expression of Sirt3, a key mitochondrial protein capable of rejuvenating blood. Sirt3 is the most abundant Sirtuin family member in HSC-enriched population, though it declines as the capacity for autophagy deteriorates with aging. Activation of autophagy upregulates Sirt3 in wild-type mice, whereas in autophagy-defective mice, Sirt3 expression is crippled in the entire hematopoietic hierarchy, but forced expression of Sirt3 in HSC-enriched cells reduces oxidative stress and prevents accelerated hematopoietic aging from autophagy defect. Importantly, the upregulation of Sirt3 by manipulation of autophagy is validated in human HSC-enriched cells. Thus, our results identify an autophagy-Sirt3 axis in regulating hematopoietic aging and suggest a possible interventional solution to human blood rejuvenation via activation of the axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acel.13232DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7576273PMC
October 2020

De novo transcriptome assembly and population genetic analyses of an important coastal shrub, Apocynum venetum L.

BMC Plant Biol 2020 Sep 3;20(1):408. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Institute of Agricultural and Sustainable Development, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan, China.

Background: Apocynum venetum L. is an important medicinal plant that is mainly distributed in the coastal areas and northwest of China. In addition to its high medical and economic value, its adaptation to saline-alkali and coastal saline lands makes A. venetum an ideal candidate for use in vegetation restoration. To date, the study of A. venetum has been limited in the northwest region of China, little attention has been paid to the genetic diversity and population structure of A. venetum populations in the coastal region. Here, we performed transcriptome sequencing of total RNA from A. venetum leaves and developed efficient expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers for analyzing the genetic diversity and population structure of A. venetum in the coastal region.

Results: A total of 86,890 unigenes were generated after de novo assembly, and 68,751 of which were successfully annotated by searching against seven protein databases. Furthermore, 14,072 EST-SSR loci were detected and 10,243 primer pairs were successfully designed from these loci. One hundred primer pairs were randomly selected and synthesized, twelve primer pairs were identified as highly polymorphic and further used for population genetic analysis. Population genetic analyses showed that A. venetum exhibited low level of genetic diversity (mean alleles per locus, N = 3.3; mean expected heterozygosity, H = 0.342) and moderate level of genetic differentiation among the populations (genetic differentiation index, F = 0.032-0.220) in the coastal region. Although the contemporary (mean m = 0.056) and historical (mean m = 0.106) migration rates among the six A. venetum populations were moderate, a decreasing trend over the last few generations was detected. Bayesian structure analysis clustered six populations into two major groups, and genetic bottlenecks were found to have occurred in two populations (QG, BH).

Conclusions: Using novel EST-SSR markers, we evaluated the genetic variation of A. venetum in the coastal region and determined conservation priorities based on these findings. The large dataset of unigenes and SSRs identified in our study, combining samples from a broader range, will support further research on the conservation and evolution of this important coastal plant and its related species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-020-02626-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7470449PMC
September 2020

Glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate-associated protein 1, a potential target of miR-296, facilitates proliferation and migration of rectal cancer cells.

Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2020 Oct 11;84(10):2077-2084. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

Department of Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Hebei North University , Zhangjiakou, Hebei, P.R. China.

The purpose of our article was to probe the influence of GRINA on rectal cancer and how GRINA is regulated in rectal cancer. Based on the public data, we found that GRINA was highly expressed in rectal cancer tissues and related to worse prognosis in rectal cancer patients. MiR-296 was predicted as an upstream regulatory miRNA of GRINA, which was further verified by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Moreover, we revealed that up-regulation/down-regulation of GRINA facilitated/suppressed SW1463/SW837 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Rescue assays indicated that the facilitating impact of GRINA on SW1463 cell proliferation and motility was abolished by miR-296 over-expression whilst the suppressing influence of GRINA on SW837 cell proliferation, migration, and invasion was reversed by miR-296 depletion. These consequences indicated that GRINA, which might be regulated by miR-296, acted stimulative important impact on rectal cancer cells, insinuating that GRINA might be a novel potential target for rectal cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09168451.2020.1792267DOI Listing
October 2020

Prognostic Impact of PD-1 and Tim-3 Expression in Tumor Tissue in Stage I-III Colorectal Cancer.

Biomed Res Int 2020 14;2020:5294043. Epub 2020 May 14.

Third Department of Oncology, Hebei General Hospital, 050051 Shijiazhuang, China.

Background: Programmed cell death receptor 1 (PD-1) and T cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (Tim-3) are considered as important immunosuppressive molecules and play an important role in tumor immune escape and cancer progression. However, it remains unclear whether PD-1 and Tim-3 are coexpressed in stage I-III colorectal cancer (CRC) and how they impact on the prognosis of the disease.

Materials And Methods: A total of two cohorts with 451 patients who underwent surgery for stage I-III CRC treatment were enrolled in the study. Among which, 378 cases were from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and 73 cases were from the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University (FHHMU) cohort. The mRNA expressions of PD-1 and Tim-3 in tumor tissue in stage I-III CRC were obtained from TCGA database. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the expressions of PD-1 and Tim-3 in tumor tissue in stage I-III CRC in the FHHMU cohort. Interactive relationships between PD-1 and Tim-3 were retrieved through the online STRING database, which was used to study the interactions between proteins. DAVID, consisting of comprehensive biological function annotation information, was applied for the GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of the interactive genes.

Results: In the FHHMU cohort, the high expressions of PD-1 and Tim-3 were, respectively, found in 42.47% and 84.93% of stage I-III CRC tissue. PD-1 was significantly associated with age, primary site, and lymphatic metastasis. Tim-3 was closely related to the primary site. Correlation analysis showed that PD-1 and Tim-3 were positively correlated ( = 0.5682, < 0.001). In TCGA cohort, PD-1 and Tim-3 were associated with the prognosis of CRC patients in terms of 5-year survival ( < 0.05). In the FHHMU cohort, the 5-year survival of patients with high levels of PD-1 and Tim-3 was 54.84% and 65.85%, respectively. Among which, the high expression of PD-1 was associated with poor prognosis (5-year OS: 54.84% vs. 88.10%, = 0.003). The 5-year survival rate of CRC patients with coexpression of PD-1 and Tim-3 was 45.00%, which was significantly worse than non-coexpression (72.73%, 85.71%, and 90.48% separately). The functional network of PD-1 and Tim-3 primarily participates in the regulation of immune cell activation and proliferation, immune cell receptor complex, cell adhesion molecules, and T cell receptor signaling pathway.

Conclusion: In summary, upregulation of PD-1 and Tim-3 in stage I-III CRC tumor tissue could be associated with the poor prognosis of patients. Those patients with coexpression of PD-1 and Tim-3 may have a significantly worse prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5294043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244975PMC
March 2021

The Proosteogenic and Proangiogenic Effects of Small Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Are Attenuated in Steroid-Induced Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head.

Biomed Res Int 2020 6;2020:4176926. Epub 2020 May 6.

The First Department of Orthopedics, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710004, China.

Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) from individuals with steroid-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) have not been studied. The objective of the present study was to compare the proosteogenic and proangiogenic effects of sEVs derived from BMMSCs from rats with steroid-induced ONFH (oBMMSCs-sEVs) and sEVs derived from BMMSCs from normal rats (nBMMSCs-sEVs). BMMSCs were isolated from steroid-induced ONFH rats and healthy rats. sEVs were isolated and characterized by Western blotting analysis of exosomal surface biomarkers and by transmission electron microscopy. The impacts of nBMMSCs-sEVs and oBMMSCs-sEVs on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of BMMSCs were determined via cell proliferation assay, alizarin red staining, and alkaline phosphatase activity assay. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and tube formation assay were conducted to investigate the effect of nBMMSCs-sEVs and oBMMSCs-sEVs on the angiogenic potential of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The expression of relevant genes was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, and the expression of -catenin was detected by immunofluorescence. Both nBMMSCs-sEVs and oBMMSCs-sEVs promoted proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and -catenin expression of BMMSCs and enhanced angiogenesis of HUVECs. However, compared with nBMMSCs-sEVs, oBMMSCs-sEVs exhibited attenuated effects. Our findings indicated that the proosteogenic and proangiogenic effects of sEVs were partially attenuated in steroid-induced ONFH. Therefore, this study might offer guidance for the selection of source cells for sEV therapy in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/4176926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7229539PMC
March 2021

Functional implications of miR-145/RCAN3 axis in the progression of cervical cancer.

Reprod Biol 2020 Jun 25;20(2):140-146. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Radiotherapy, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, 050000, PR China. Electronic address:

Cervical cancer, as the second leading cause of death in women malignant tumor, is not optimistic about survival rate and late recurrence rate. RCAN3 has been reported to function in a variety of diseases, but its relationship with cervical cancer has not been reported. This study aimed to investigate whether RCAN3 contributes to the development of cervical cancer and its mechanism. RCAN3 expression was analyzed in 306 cervical cancer tissues and 13 normal healthy tissues from TCGA and GTEX databases. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression analysis were carried out to assess the potential function of RCAN3. Subsequently, the upstream regulatory miRNA of RCAN3 was predicted by bioinformatics and confirmed using dual luciferase reporter assay. CCK-8, colony formation assay, transwell assay were used for functional analysis of miR-145/RCAN3 axis in vitro. The results showed that RCAN3 was highly expressed in cervical cancer tissues, leading to poor prognosis, and could be used as a prognostic factor for cervical cancer. MiR-145 directly targeted RCAN3, which was lowly expressed in cervical cancer tissues and cell lines, and the higher the miR-145 expression, the longer the survival time of patients. Finally, from the functional experiments results we can see that miR-145 can inhibit the proliferation, migration and invasion of cervical cancer cells, but overexpression of RCAN3 can reverse miR-145-mediated inhibition. To sum up, miR-145/RCAN3 axis may serve as a potential therapeutic target to regulate the progression of cervical cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.repbio.2020.04.001DOI Listing
June 2020

Adductor canal block versus periarticular infiltration for pain control following total knee arthroplasty: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Apr;99(17):e19903

Department of Anesthesiology, Ningbo No.6 Hospital, Zhejiang Province, China.

Background: Periarticular infiltration (PAI) and adductor canal block (ACB) have become popular modes of pain management after total knee arthroplasty. The purpose of our study is to evaluate the efficacy of ACB in comparison with PAI for pain control in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty.

Methods: This study is a prospective, 2-arm, parallel-group, open-label randomized controlled trial that is conducted at a single university hospital in China. A total of 120 patients who meet inclusion criteria are randomized in a ratio of 1:1 to either ACB or PAI group. The primary outcome is visual analog scale score at rest 24 hours after surgery, whereas the secondary outcomes include visual analog scale score at 48 hours after surgery, satisfaction, opioid consumption, and complications. All pain scores are assessed by an independent observer who is blinded to the allocation of groups.

Results: This study has limited inclusion and exclusion criteria and a well-controlled intervention. This clinical trial is expected to provide evidence of better therapy for the pain management after total knee arthroplasty.

Trial Registration: This study protocol was registered in Research Registry (researchregistry5410).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000019903DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7440221PMC
April 2020

Deterioration of hematopoietic autophagy is linked to osteoporosis.

Aging Cell 2020 05 25;19(5):e13114. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Department of Orthopaedics, the Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Hematopoietic disorders are known to increase the risk of complications such as osteoporosis. However, a direct link between hematopoietic cellular disorders and osteoporosis has been elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the deterioration of hematopoietic autophagy is coupled with osteoporosis in humans. With a conditional mouse model in which autophagy in the hematopoietic system is disrupted by deletion of the Atg7 gene, we show that incapacitating hematopoietic autophagy causes bone loss and perturbs osteocyte homeostasis. Induction of osteoporosis, either by ovariectomy, which blocks estrogen secretion, or by injection of ferric ammonium citrate to induce iron overload, causes dysfunction in the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) similar to that found in autophagy-defective mice. Transcriptomic analysis of HSPCs suggests promotion of iron activity and inhibition of osteocyte differentiation and calcium metabolism by hematopoietic autophagy defect, while proteomic profiling of bone tissue proteins indicates disturbance of the extracellular matrix pathway that includes collagen family members. Finally, screening for expression of selected genes and an immunohistological assay identifies severe impairments in H vessels in the bone tissue, which results in disconnection of osteocytes from hematopoietic cells in the autophagy-defective mice. We therefore propose that hematopoietic autophagy is required for the integrity of H vessels that bridge blood and bone cells and that its deterioration leads to osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acel.13114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253060PMC
May 2020

Characteristics of nocturnal facio-mandibular myoclonus in four middle-aged patients.

Sleep Med 2020 04 25;68:24-26. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Epilepsy and Sleep Disorders Unit, Department of Neurology, Xijng Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi'an, 710032, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2019.09.002DOI Listing
April 2020

Whole-genome and time-course dual RNA-Seq analyses reveal chronic pathogenicity-related gene dynamics in the ginseng rusty root rot pathogen Ilyonectria robusta.

Sci Rep 2020 01 31;10(1):1586. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Institute of Special Wild Economic Animal and Plant Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changchun, China.

Ilyonectria robusta causes rusty root rot, the most devastating chronic disease of ginseng. Here, we for the first time report the high-quality genome of the I. robusta strain CD-56. Time-course (36 h, 72 h, and 144 h) dual RNA-Seq analysis of the infection process was performed, and many genes, including candidate effectors, were found to be associated with the progression and success of infection. The gene expression profile of CD-56 showed a trend of initial inhibition and then gradually returned to a profile similar to that of the control. Analyses of the gene expression patterns and functions of pathogenicity-related genes, especially candidate effector genes, indicated that the stress response changed to an adaptive response during the infection process. For ginseng, gene expression patterns were highly related to physiological conditions. Specifically, the results showed that ginseng defenses were activated by CD-56 infection and persisted for at least 144 h thereafter but that the mechanisms invoked were not effective in preventing CD-56 growth. Moreover, CD-56 did not appear to fully suppress plant defenses, even in late stages after infection. Our results provide new insight into the chronic pathogenesis of CD-56 and the comprehensive and complex inducible defense responses of ginseng root to I. robusta infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-58342-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6994667PMC
January 2020
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