Publications by authors named "Na Liu"

1,836 Publications

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The NDR kinase-MOB complex FgCot1-Mob2 regulates polarity and lipid metabolism in Fusarium graminearum.

Environ Microbiol 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

State Key Laboratory of Rice Biology, Institute of Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China.

Members of the NDR (nuclear Dbf2-related) protein-kinase family are essential for cell differentiation and polarized morphogenesis. However, their functions in plant pathogenic fungi are not well understood. Here, we characterized the NDR kinase FgCot1 and its activator FgMob2 in Fusarium graminearum, a major pathogen causing Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat. FgCot1 and FgMob2 formed a NDR kinase-MOB protein complex. Localization assays using FgCot1-GFP or FgMob2-RFP constructs showed diverse subcellular localizations, including cytoplasm, septum, nucleus and hyphal tip. ΔFgcot1 and ΔFgmob2 exhibited serious defects in hyphal growth, polarity, fungal development and cell wall integrity as well as reduced virulence in planta. In contrast, lipid droplet accumulation was significantly increased in these two mutants. Phosphorylation of FgCot1 at two highly conserved residues (S462 and T630) as well as five new sites synergistically contributed its role in various cellular processes. In addition, non-synonymous mutations in two MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) proteins, FgSte11 and FgGpmk1, partially rescued the growth defect of ΔFgmob2, indicating a functional link between the FgCot1-Mob2 complex and the FgGpmk1 signaling pathway in regulating filamentous fungal growth. These results indicated that the FgCot1-Mob2 complex is critical for polarity, fungal development, cell wall organization, lipid metabolism and virulence in F. graminearum. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.15698DOI Listing
August 2021

Substrate-Independent TiCT MXene Waterborne Paint for Terahertz Absorption and Shielding.

ACS Nano 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

School of Electronic Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Film and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, Sichuan 610054, PR China.

With the development of terahertz (THz) technology, there is a booming demand of THz shielding/absorption materials to avoid electromagnetic interference (EMI) or pollution. Paints that can be fast solidified to form a film and stably adherent on arbitrary substrates are especially desired for the shielding/absorption applications. Recently, MXenes with high electron conductivity and hydrophilicity have attracted a great interest for EMI shielding. Here, we demonstrate a copolymer-polyacrylic latex (PAL) based MXene waterborne paint (MWP), which not only has strong THz EMI shielding/absorption efficiency but also can easily adhere onto various substrates that are commonly used in the THz band. The viscosity of MWP can be tuned by adjusting the colloidal and viscous forces, and the cyano group in PAL provides a strong intermolecular polar interaction between MWP and the substrate. As a result, a 38.3-μm-thick MWP on quartz exhibits EMI shielding value of 64.9 dB, and an excellent reflection-loss of 32.8 dB is obtained on MWP coated sponge foam. This substrate-independent MWP provides a simple and efficient way to achieving high-performance THz shielding/absorption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c04656DOI Listing
August 2021

Efficient adsorptive removal of short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids using reed straw-derived biochar (RESCA).

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 20;798:149191. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ 07102, United States. Electronic address:

Drinking water and groundwater treatment of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) heavily relies on adsorption-based approaches using carbonaceous materials, such as granular activated carbon (GAC). Application of GAC is restricted by its inefficiency to remove short-chain PFAAs that have prevalently emerged as substitutes and/or metabolites of long-chain polyfluoroalkyl and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). Here, we synthesized reed straw-derived biochar (RESCA) exhibiting exceptional removal efficiencies (>92%) toward short-chain PFAAs at environment-relevant concentrations (e.g., 1 μg/L). Pseudo-second-order kinetic constants of RESCA were 1.13 and 1.23 L/(mg h) for perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and perfluorobutanesulfonic acid (PFBS), respectively, over six times greater than GAC. SEM imaging and BET analysis revealed the combination of highly hydrophobic surface and scattered distribution of mesopores (2-10 nm in diameter) was associated with the rapid adsorption of short-chain PFAAs. RESCA-packed filters demonstrated effective removal of the mixture of three short-chain and three long-chain PFAAs in the influent with the flow rate up to 45 mL/min. In contrast, GAC-packed filters were significantly less efficient in the removal of short-chain PFAAs, which were also negatively affected by the increase of the flow rate. Efficacy of RESCA-packed filters was also validated in four PFAA-spiked groundwater samples from different sites. Dissolved organic matter (DOC) of >8 mg/L can negatively affect the removal of short-chain PFAAs by RESCA. Feasibility of scaling up the RESCA adsorption system was investigated using breakthrough simulation. Overall, RESCA represents a green adsorbent alternative for the feasible and scalable treatment of a wide spectrum of PFAAs of different chain lengths and functional moieties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149191DOI Listing
July 2021

A review of chemical constituents and health-promoting effects of citrus peels.

Food Chem 2021 Jul 13;365:130585. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Tianjin Key Laboratory for Modern Drug Delivery & High-Efficiency, School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300193, China. Electronic address:

Citrus is one of the main fruits processed worldwide, producing a lot of industrial by-products. As the main part of citrus "residue", citrus peels have a wide application prospect. They could not only be directly used to produce various food products, but also be used as promising biofuels to produce ethanol and methane. Additionally, functional components (flavonoids, limonoids, alkaloids, essential oils and pectin) extracted from citrus peels have been related to the improvement of human health against active oxygen, inflammatory, cancer and metabolic disorders. Therefore, it is clear that the citrus peels have great potential to be developed into useful functional foods, medicines and biofuels. This review systematically summarizes the recent advances in current uses, processing, bioactive components and biological properties of citrus peels. A better understanding of citrus peels may provide reference for making full use of it.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130585DOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of tea polyphenols on the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the expression of related gene in the leaves of wheat seedlings under salt stress.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

School of Life Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou, 730070, Gansu, People's Republic of China.

Longchun 30, a new wheat variety, was used to investigate seedling growth, element absorption, and antioxidant response under 150 mM NaCl and tea polyphenols (TP) (25 and 100 mg L) treatments alone or in combination, thus revealing TP-alleviating mechanism on the salt damage to plants. 150 mM NaCl stress alone inhibited the seedling growth, increased sodium content and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, but reduced potassium (K) and calcium (Ca) levels at different culture times, thus resulting in the oxidative damage to the leaves. Even though 25 or 100 mg L TP treatment alone led to the significant increases of O and HO generation, TP-treated leaves exhibited the reduction of relative electrical conductivity and no change of malondialdehyde content. Moreover, high TP concentration alone stimulated the seedling growth. In addition, the activities and gene expression of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase (POD) as well as diamine oxidase and polyamine oxidase were changed to different degrees due to NaCl or TP treatment alone. Further study showed that the presence of 25 or 100 mg L TP promoted the growth, increased K and Ca contents, and reduced O and HO accumulation in salt-stressed wheat seedlings. Taken together, salinity-inhibitory effect on the growth of wheat seedlings might be associated with salt-induced imbalance of element content and the increase of oxidative damage resulting from ROS accumulation, while the application of TP effectively alleviated salinity-inhibitory effect on the seedling growth and improved the tolerance of wheat seedlings to salt environment, which might be associated with the increases of K and Ca contents as well as the reduction of oxidative damage in the leaves of wheat seedlings under NaCl and TP treatment in combination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15492-zDOI Listing
July 2021

Application of "Hand as Foot" teaching method in lymph nodes staging of non-small cell lung cancer: A clinical experience.

Asian J Surg 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Inner Mongolia Medical University, Department of Orthopedics, Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University, Huhehot North Street, Inner Mongolia, 010050, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asjsur.2021.07.015DOI Listing
July 2021

Integrated analysis of mA mRNA methylation in rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Jul 26;13(14):18238-18256. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Cardiology, Hunan Children's Hospital, Changsha 410007, China.

Background: N6-methyladenosine (mA) modification is one of the most common chemical modifications of eukaryotic mRNAs, which play an important role in tumors and cardiovascular disease through regulating mRNA stability, splicing and translation. However, the changes of mA mRNA and mA-related enzymes in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remain largely unexplored.

Methods: MeRIP-seq was used to identify mA methylation in lung tissues from control and MCT-PAH rats. Western blot and immunofluorescence were used to evaluate expression of mA-related enzymes.

Results: Compared with control group, mA methylation was mainly increased in lung tissues from MCT-PAH rats. The up-methylated coding genes in MCT-PAH rats were primarily enriched in processes associated with inflammation, glycolysis, ECM-receptor interaction and PDGF signal pathway, while genes with down-methylation were enriched in processes associated with TGF-β family receptor members. The expression of FTO and ALKBH5 downregulated, METTL3 and YTHDF1 increased and other methylation modification-related proteins was not significantly changed in MCT-PAH rats lung tissues. Immunofluorescence indicated that expression of FTO decreased and YTHDF1 increased in small pulmonary arteries of MCT-PAH rats.

Conclusion: mA levels and the expression of methylation-related enzymes were altered in PAH rats, in which FTO and YTHDF1 may play a crucial role in mA modification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.203230DOI Listing
July 2021

The prognosis and risk factors of baseline high peritoneal transporters on patients with peritoneal dialysis.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Nephrology, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

The relationship between baseline high peritoneal solute transport rate (PSTR) and the prognosis of peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients remains unclear. The present study combined clinical data and basic experiments to investigate the impact of baseline PSTR and the underlying molecular mechanisms. A total of 204 incident CAPD patients from four PD centres in Shanghai between 1 January 2014 and 30 September 2020 were grouped based on a peritoneal equilibration test after the first month of dialysis. Analysed with multivariate Cox and logistic regression models, baseline high PSTR was a significant risk factor for technique failure (AHR 5.70; 95% CI 1.581 to 20.548 p = 0.008). Baseline hyperuricemia was an independent predictor of mortality (AHR 1.006 95%CI 1.003 to 1.008, p < 0.001) and baseline high PSTR (AOR 1.007; 95%CI 1.003 to 1.012; p = 0.020). Since uric acid was closely related to high PSTR and adverse prognosis, the in vitro experiments were performed to explore the underlying mechanisms of which uric acid affected peritoneum. We found hyperuricemia induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cultured human peritoneal mesothelial cells by activating TGF-β1/Smad3 signalling pathway and nuclear transcription factors. Conclusively, high baseline PSTR induced by hyperuricaemia through EMT was an important reason of poor outcomes in CAPD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16819DOI Listing
July 2021

Transcriptomic Analysis Identified ARHGAP Family as a Novel Biomarker Associated With Tumor-Promoting Immune Infiltration and Nanomechanical Characteristics in Bladder Cancer.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 7;9:657219. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Urology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Bladder cancer (BCa) is a common lethal urinary malignancy worldwide. The role of ARHGAP family genes in BCa and its association with immuno-microenvironment remain largely unknown. ARHGAP family expression and immune infiltration in BCa were analyzed by bioinformatics analysis. Then, we investigated cell proliferation, invasion, and migration and of the ARHGAP family. Furthermore, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed in measuring cellular mechanical properties of BCa cells. The results demonstrated that ARHGAP family genes correlate with a tumor-promoting microenvironment with a lower Th1/Th2 cell ratio, higher DC cell infiltration, higher Treg cell infiltration, and T-cell exhaustion phenotype. Silencing ARHGAP5, ARHGAP17, and ARHGAP24 suppressed BCa cell proliferation, migration, and metastasis. Knocking down of ARHGAPs in T24 cells caused a relatively higher Young's modulus and lower adhesive force and cell height. Taken together, ARHGAP family genes promote BCa progressing through establishing a tumor-promoting microenvironment and promoting cancer progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.657219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8294098PMC
July 2021

Electrically Tunable Optical Metasurfaces for Dynamic Polarization Conversion.

Nano Lett 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstrasse 1, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany.

Dynamic control over the polarization of light is highly desirable in many optical applications, including optical communications, laser science, three-dimensional displays, among others. Conventional methods for polarization control are often based on bulky optical elements. To achieve highly integrated optical devices, metasurfaces, which have been intensively studied in recent years, hold great promises to replace conventional optical elements for a variety of optical functions. In this work, we demonstrate electrically tunable optical metasurfaces for dynamic polarization conversion at visible frequencies. By exploring both the geometric and propagation phase tuning capabilities, rapid and reversible polarization rotation up to 90° is achieved for linearly polarized light. The dynamic functionality is imparted by liquid crystals, which serve as a thin surrounding medium with electrically tunable refractive indices for the metasurface antennas. Furthermore, we expand our concept to demonstrate electrically tunable metasurfaces for dynamic holography and holographic information generation with independently controlled multiple pixels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.1c02318DOI Listing
July 2021

Activated biochar derived from spent Auricularia auricula substrate for the efficient adsorption of cationic azo dyes from single and binary adsorptive systems.

Water Sci Technol 2021 Jul;84(1):101-121

College of Resources and Environment, Shanxi Agricultural University, Shanxi Taigu 030801, China.

In this study, spent Auricularia auricula substrate (AS)-derived biochar (ASBCs) and activated biochar with NaOH (A-ASBC) were evaluated for the adsorption of cationic azo dyes, including methylene blue (MB), rhodamine B (RB), and crystal violet (CV), from single and binary adsorptive systems. A-ASBC showed a higher maximum adsorption capacity for these dyes (MB: 53.62 mg·g, RB: 32.33 mg·g, CV: 735.73 mg·g) than ASBCs in a single system because it had a greater specific surface area and more oxygen containing-functional groups on the surface. The adsorption process of the three dyes onto the adsorbents was in good agreement with the Freundlich adsorption isotherm and fit the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, which revealed sorbate polymolecular layer formation over the adsorbent surface and the involvement of chemisorption. The adsorption mechanism showed that the adsorption of three dyes on adsorbents could be postulated as a multistep process with extraordinary affinity-induced adsorption in terms of both physisorption and chemisorption. In the binary adsorptive system, the results showed that all MB, RB, and CV had antagonistic/competitive effects on each other's adsorption (Q/Q < 1). Furthermore, a phytotoxic assay affirmed the effectiveness of the adsorbent in adsorbing dye species from aqueous solutions using Brassica pekinensis L. seeds as the model. Therefore, activated biochar prepared from AS can be used as a potentially economical and effective adsorbent for treating printing and dyeing wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2021.222DOI Listing
July 2021

Hypoxia‑induced lactate dehydrogenase A protects cells from apoptosis in endometriosis.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Sep 19;24(3). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Assisted Reproduction Unit, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310016, P.R. China.

The pathological expression and function of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA), a key enzyme that converts pyruvate into lactic acid during glycolysis, remains unknown in endometriosis. In the present study, LDHA expression in tissue samples was determined by immunohistochemistry. To examine whether LDHA was induced by hypoxia, primary cultured endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and glandular epithelial Ishikawa cells were exposed to 1% O (hypoxia) or 21% O (normoxia). Cellular functions were assessed by flow cytometry, Transwell and Cell Counting Kit‑8 assays in LDHA‑silenced ESCs and Ishikawa cells. Mitochondrial functions were evaluated using mitochondrial membrane potential JC‑1 staining, reactive oxygen species flow cytometric analysis and ATP detection. Additionally, lactic acid production was examined and western blotting was used to evaluate the expression levels of proteins associated with apoptosis, cell cycle and glycolysis, as well as regulatory proteins involved in epithelial‑mesenchymal transformation and glycolytic pathways. LDHA was localized to endometrial glandular cells and stromal cells. However, LDHA protein expression was higher in endometriotic lesions compared with that in normal and eutopic endometria. LDHA expression levels in ectopic glandular cells were higher during the proliferative stage compared with during the secretory stage. Hypoxia treatment of Ishikawa cells and ESCs markedly induced the mRNA and protein expression of LDHA. Silencing of LDHA expression in Ishikawa cells and THESC cells significantly promoted impaired mitochondrial function and apoptosis while inhibiting migration and glycolysis. However, it had no obvious effect on proliferation. In conclusion, the present study revealed that LDHA was highly expressed in endometriotic tissues, where it may serve a notable role in the occurrence and development of endometriosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12276DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8281285PMC
September 2021

The efficacy and toxicity of antineoplastic antimetabolites: Role of gut microbiota.

Toxicology 2021 Jul 14;460:152858. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hunan Key Laboratory of Pharmacogenetics, 110 Xiangya Road, Changsha, 410078, PR China. Electronic address:

The incidence and mortality of cancer are rapidly growing all over the world. Nowadays, antineoplastic antimetabolites still play a key role in the chemotherapy of cancer. However, the interindividual variations in the efficacy and toxicity of antineoplastic antimetabolites are nonnegligible challenges to their clinical applications. Although many studies have focused on genetic variation, the reasons for these interindividual variations have still not been fully understood. Gut microbiota is reported to be associated with the efficacy and toxicity of antineoplastic antimetabolites. In this review, we summarize the interaction of antineoplastic antimetabolites on gut microbiota and the influences of shifted gut microbiota profiles on the efficacy and toxicity of antineoplastic antimetabolites. The factors affecting the efficacy and toxicity of antineoplastic antimetabolites via gut microbiota are also discussed. In addition, we present our viewpoints that regulating the gut microbiota may increase the efficacy and decrease the toxicity of antineoplastic antimetabolites. This will help us better understand the new mechanism via gut microbiota and promote individualized use of antineoplastic antimetabolites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2021.152858DOI Listing
July 2021

Identifying ceRNA Networks Associated With the Susceptibility and Persistence of Atrial Fibrillation Through Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis.

Front Genet 2021 23;12:653474. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia. We aimed to construct competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks associated with the susceptibility and persistence of AF by applying the weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and prioritize key genes using the random walk with restart on multiplex networks (RWR-M) algorithm. RNA sequencing results from 235 left atrial appendage samples were downloaded from the GEO database. The top 5,000 lncRNAs/mRNAs with the highest variance were used to construct a gene co-expression network using the WGCNA method. AF susceptibility- or persistence-associated modules were identified by correlating the module eigengene with the atrial rhythm phenotype. Using a module-specific manner, ceRNA pairs of lncRNA-mRNA were predicted. The RWR-M algorithm was applied to calculate the proximity between lncRNAs and known AF protein-coding genes. Random forest classifiers, based on the expression value of key lncRNA-associated ceRNA pairs, were constructed and validated against an independent data set. From the 21 identified modules, magenta and tan modules were associated with AF susceptibility, whereas turquoise and yellow modules were associated with AF persistence. ceRNA networks in magenta and tan modules were primarily involved in the inflammatory process, whereas ceRNA networks in turquoise and yellow modules were primarily associated with electrical remodeling. A total of 106 previously identified AF-associated protein-coding genes were found in the ceRNA networks, including 16 that were previously implicated in the genome-wide association study. Myocardial infarction-associated transcript (MIAT) and LINC00964 were prioritized as key lncRNAs through RWR-M. The classifiers based on their associated ceRNA pairs were able to distinguish AF from sinus rhythm with respective AUC values of 0.810 and 0.940 in the training set and 0.870 and 0.922 in the independent test set. The AF-related single-nucleotide polymorphism rs35006907 was found in the intronic region of LINC00964 and negatively regulated the LINC00964 expression. Our study constructed AF susceptibility- and persistence-associated ceRNA networks, linked genetics with epigenetics, identified MIAT and LINC00964 as key lncRNAs, and constructed random forest classifiers based on their associated ceRNA pairs. These results will help us to better understand the mechanisms underlying AF from the ceRNA perspective and provide candidate therapeutic and diagnostic tools.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.653474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8261127PMC
June 2021

Trimethylamine N-Oxide Exacerbates Renal Inflammation and Fibrosis in Rats With Diabetic Kidney Disease.

Front Physiol 2021 16;12:682482. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China.

The gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in the onset and development of diabetes and its complications. Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbiota-dependent metabolite of certain nutrients, is associated with type 2 diabetes and its complications. Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is one of the most serious microvascular complications. However, whether TMAO accelerates the development of DKD remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that TMAO accelerates the development of DKD. A high-fat diet/low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes rat model was established, with or without TMAO in the rats' drinking water. Compared to the normal rats, the DKD rats showed significantly higher plasma TMAO levels at the end of the study. TMAO treatment not only exacerbated the kidney dysfunction of the DKD rats, but also renal fibrosis. Furthermore, TMAO treatment activated the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain-containing-3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and resulted in the release of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 to accelerate renal inflammation. These results suggested that TMAO aggravated renal inflammation and fibrosis in the DKD rats, which provides a new perspective to understand the pathogenesis of DKD and a potential novel target for preventing the progression of DKD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.682482DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243655PMC
June 2021

The Role and Mechanism of Histone Deacetylases in Acute Kidney Injury.

Front Pharmacol 2021 16;12:695237. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Nephrology, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common clinical complication with an incidence of up to 8-18% in hospitalized patients. AKI is also a complication of COVID-19 patients and is associated with an increased risk of death. In recent years, numerous studies have suggested that epigenetic regulation is critically involved in the pathophysiological process and prognosis of AKI. Histone acetylation, one of the epigenetic regulations, is negatively regulated by histone deacetylases (HDACs). Increasing evidence indicates that HDACs play an important role in the pathophysiological development of AKI by regulation of apoptosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, fibrosis, cell survival, autophagy, ATP production, and mitochondrial biogenesis (MB). In this review, we summarize and discuss the role and mechanism of HDACs in the pathogenesis of AKI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.695237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8242167PMC
June 2021

Inhibition of EZH2 prevents acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-associated pulmonary fibrosis by regulating the macrophage polarization phenotype.

Respir Res 2021 Jul 3;22(1):194. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Department of Internal Emergency Medicine and Critical Care, Shanghai East Hospital, Tong Ji University, 1800, Yuntai Road, Shanghai, 200120, China.

Background: We recently reported histone methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) as a key epigenetic regulator that contributes to the dysfunction of innate immune responses to sepsis and subsequent lung injury by mediating the imbalance of macrophage polarization. However, the role of EZH2 in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-associated fibrosis remains poorly understood.

Methods: In this study, we investigated the role and mechanisms of EZH2 in pulmonary fibrosis in a murine model of LPS-induced ARDS and in ex-vivo cultured alveolar macrophages (MH-S) and mouse lung epithelial cell line (MLE-12) by using 3-deazaneplanocin A (3-DZNeP) and EZH2 the small interfering (si) RNA.

Results: We found that treatment with 3-DZNeP significantly ameliorated the LPS-induced direct lung injury and fibroproliferation by blocking EMT through TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway and regulating shift of macrophage phenotypes. In the ex-vivo polarized alveolar macrophages cells, treatment with EZH2 siRNA or 3-DZNeP suppressed the M1 while promoted the M2 macrophage differentiation through modulating the STAT/SOCS signaling pathway and activating PPAR-γ. Moreover, we identified that blockade of EZH2 with 3-DZNeP suppressed the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in co-cultured bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and mouse lung epithelial cell line through down-regulation of TGF-β1, TGF-βR1, Smad2 while up-regulation of Smad7 expression.

Conclusions: These results indicate that EZH2 is involved in the pathological process of ARDS-associated pulmonary fibrosis. Targeting EZH2 may be a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent and treat pulmonary fibrosis post ARDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-021-01785-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255011PMC
July 2021

Embryonic stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles promote the recovery of kidney injury.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 07 2;12(1):379. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, China.

Background: Embryonic stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles (ESC-EVs) possess therapeutic potential for a variety of diseases and are considered as an alternative of ES cells. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common acute and severe disease in clinical practice, which seriously threatens human life and health. However, the roles and mechanisms of ESC-EVs on AKI remain unclear.

Methods: In this study, we evaluated the effects of ESC-EVs on physiological repair and pathological repair using murine ischemia-reperfusion injury-induced AKI model, the potential mechanisms of which were next investigated. EVs were isolated from ESCs and EVs derived from mouse fibroblasts as therapeutic controls. We then investigated whether ESC-EVs can restore the structure and function of the damaged kidney by promoting physiological repair and inhibiting the pathological repair process after AKI in vivo and in vitro.

Results: We found that ESC-EVs significantly promoted the recovery of the structure and function of the damaged kidney. ESC-EVs increased the proliferation of renal tubular epithelial cells, facilitated renal angiogenesis, inhibited the progression of renal fibrosis, and rescued DNA damage caused by ischemia and reperfusion after AKI. Finally, we found that ESC-EVs play a therapeutic effect by activating Sox9 cells.

Conclusions: ESC-EVs significantly promote the physiological repair and inhibit the pathological repair after AKI, enabling restoration of the structure and function of the damaged kidney. This strategy might emerge as a novel therapeutic strategy for ESC clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02460-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8254253PMC
July 2021

[Screening and Evaluation of Methods for Determining Available Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) in Farmland Soil].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Jul;42(7):3494-3506

College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China.

The accumulation of heavy metals in crops is largely dependent on the availability of heavy metals in soils. Due to the differences of soil types and pollution characteristics, there is no widely recognized method for the determination of the bio-available heavy metals in soils such as Pb and Cd. In order to screen and establish suitable methods, the extractable abilities of five extractants (CaCl, NHOAc, HCl, EDTA, and DTPA) and Gradient Diffusion Film Technology (DGT) on four typical farmland soils with very different properties in Chongqing (acid purple soil, neutral purple soil, calcareous yellow soil and calcareous purple soil) were systematically compared. Simultaneously, pot experiments were carried out with L. as an indicator plant to explore the relationship between the extractable soil Pb and Cd and their accumulation in plants. The feasibility of the tested methods were evaluated based on the extractability and co-relationships. The results showed that the extractability of the tested extractants for soil Pb and Cd varied a lot. HCl showed highest extractability on Pb in acid purple soil and calcareous yellow soil, while EDTA did the best in neutral purple soil and calcareous purple soil; HCl showed best extractability in all soils except calcareous purple soil, where EDTA was the best. Considering the correlation between the extraction amount and uptake by plant, all the extraction methods could be applied for the evaluation of the bioavailability of soils Pb and Cd except CaCl for Pb due to its weak extractability for Pb for a specific soil type. For the comparison of heavy bioavailability in different soil types, EDTA-extractable Pb and DGT-extractable Cd were recommended due to their well co-relationships between extractable amount in soil and uptake by plant ( L.) as indicated by the correlation coefficients of 0.941 and 0.919, respectively. HCl was relatively suitable as Cd extractant compared to others if DGT method could not be used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.202012011DOI Listing
July 2021

Prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum-associated Pulmonary Hypertension in China: An Echocardiography-based Assessment.

Ann Am Thorac Soc 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Department of Cardiology, Changsha, Hunan, China;

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1513/AnnalsATS.202012-1573RLDOI Listing
June 2021

Chinese women's attitudes towards postpartum interventions to prevent type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes: a semi-structured qualitative study.

Reprod Health 2021 Jun 26;18(1):133. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Nuffield Department of Women's & Reproductive Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: Gestational diabetes (GDM) is a global problem affecting millions of pregnant women, including in mainland China. These women are at high risk of Type II diabetes (T2DM). Cost-effective and clinically effective interventions are needed. We aimed to explore Chinese women's perspectives, concerns and motivations towards participation in early postpartum interventions and/or research to prevent the development of T2DM after a GDM-affected pregnancy.

Methods: We conducted a qualitative study in two hospitals in Chengdu, Southwest China. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 women with recent experience of GDM: 16 postpartum women and 4 pregnant women. Women were asked about their attitudes towards postpartum screening for type 2 diabetes, lifestyle interventions, mHealth delivered interventions and pharmacologic interventions (specifically metformin). An inductive approach to analysis was used. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded using NVivo 12 Pro.

Results: Most women held positive attitudes towards participating in T2DM screening, and were willing to participate in postpartum interventions to prevent T2DM through lifestyle change or mHealth interventions. Women were less likely to agree to pharmacological intervention, unless they had family members with diabetes or needed medication themselves during pregnancy. We identified seven domains influencing women's attitudes towards future interventions: (1) experiences with the health system during pregnancy; (2) living in an enabling environment; (3) the experience of T2DM in family members; (4) knowledge of diabetes and perception of risk; (5) concerns about personal and baby health; (6) feelings and emotions, and (7) lifestyle constraints. Those with more severe GDM, an enabling environment and health knowledge, and with experience of T2DM in family members expressed more favourable views of postpartum interventions and research participation to prevent T2DM after GDM. Those who perceived themselves as having mild GDM and those with time/lifestyle constraints were less likely to participate.

Conclusions: Women with experiences of GDM in Chengdu are generally willing to participate in early postpartum interventions and/or research to reduce their risk of T2DM, with a preference for non-drug, mHealth based interventions, integrating lifestyle change strategies, blood glucose monitoring, postpartum recovery and mental health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12978-021-01180-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8236134PMC
June 2021

Phloretin inhibited the pathogenicity and virulence factors against .

Bioengineered 2021 Dec;12(1):2420-2431

Hebei Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Hebei Clinical Research Center for Oral Diseases, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, P.R. China.

Oral candidiasis is one of the most common types of fungal infection caused by (). The present study aims to investigate the antifungal effects of phloretin (a dihydrochalcone flavonoid) against the pathogenicity. In this work, we treated SC5314 with 37.28, 74.55, or 149.10 μg/mL (equivalent to 0.5×, 1× or 2× MIC) phloretin . Besides, we established a mice model of oral candidiasis by a sublingual infection of suspension (1 × 10 colony-forming unit/mL), and mice were treated with phloretin (3.73 or 7.46 mg/mL, which were equivalent to 50× or 100× MIC) twice a day starting on day one post-infection. The results showed that the MIC of phloretin against was 74.55 μg/mL. Phloretin exerted antifungal activity by inhibiting the biofilm formation and suppressing the yeast-to-hyphae transition upon the downregulation of hypha-associated genes including enhanced adherence to polystyrene 1, the extent of cell elongation gene 1, hyphal wall protein 1 gene, and agglutinin-like sequence gene 3. Next, phloretin repressed the secretion of proteases and phospholipases via reducing the expression of protease-encoding genes secreted aspartyl proteases (SAP)1 and SAP2, as well as phospholipase B1. Subsequently, the antifungal activity of phloretin was testified by the reverse of the enhanced lesion severity, inflammatory infiltration, and the increased colony-forming unit counts caused by of tongue tissues in oral candidiasis mice. In conclusion, phloretin suppressed the pathogenicity and virulence factors against both and .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2021.1933824DOI Listing
December 2021

Rhizosphere dissolved organic matter and iron plaque modified by organic amendments and its relations to cadmium bioavailability and accumulation in rice.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 3;792:148216. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

College of Resources and Environment, Department of Environment Science and Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China; Chongqing Key Laboratory of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Chongqing 400715, China; State Cultivation Base of Eco-agriculture for Southwest Mountainous Land, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China. Electronic address:

Organic amendments can modify rhizosphere dissolved organic matter (DOM) properties and Fe-plaque quantity, thereby affecting cadmium (Cd) bioavailability and uptake by rice. Pot experiments were conducted to investigate effects of biochar (BC) and vermicompost (VC) at different rates (0, 1%, and 5%) on rhizosphere DOM characteristics and Fe-plaque quantity, and their impacts on Cd bioavailability and accumulation in high and low Cd-accumulation rice cultivars (HAC and LAC). Soil DOM was characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectrum analyses. Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate effects of BC- or VC-derived DOM combined Fe-plaque on Cd uptake by rice. Results showed that increasing rates of organic amendments increased DOM concentration while decreased Cd availability in rhizosphere and bulk soils and Cd contents in rice tissues. The Cd reduction in LAC grains (31.9%-72.7%) was better than that in HAC grains (6.3%-25.4%) after organic amendment addition. Soil DOM properties were modified by organic amendments towards higher aromaticity, molecular weight, and stability. VC resulted in a greater increase of humic-like fractions but reduced protein-like proportions in rhizosphere DOM over BC. Negative correlations were observed between humic-like fractions and available Cd in the rhizosphere. Likewise, VC (especially 5%VC) promoted the formation of Fe-plaque and limited Cd soil-to-root transport, while BC groups showed a reverse trend. The results of hydroponic experiments confirmed BC- and VC-derived DOM and Fe-plaque further inhibited Cd uptake by rice via the complexation with Cd and the sequestration of Cd, respectively. Hence, VC application combined with low Cd-accumulation rice could be an effective strategy for the safe utilization of Cd-contamination soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148216DOI Listing
June 2021

The Strain-Tuned Spin Seebeck Effect, Spin Polarization, and Giant Magnetoresistance of a Graphene Nanobubble in Zigzag Graphene Nanoribbons.

ACS Omega 2021 Jun 2;6(23):15308-15315. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

College of Physics and Electronic Science, Hubei Normal University, Huangshi 435002, China.

By using first-principle calculations combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function approach, we studied the spin caloritronic properties of zigzag graphene nanoribbons with a nanobubble at the edge (NB-ZGNRs). The thermal spin-polarized currents can be induced by a temperature difference, and the spin Seebeck effect is found in the nanoribbon. The spin polarization, magnetoresistance, and Seebeck coefficients are discussed, which are strongly affected and can be tuned by the geometrical strain. Moreover, some novel spin caloritronic devices are designed, such as a device that generates bidirectional perfect spin currents and thermally induced giant magnetoresistances. Our results open up the possibility of tuning the spin caloritronic properties of the NB-ZGNR-based devices by changing the elastic strain on the graphene nanobubble.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c01640DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8210443PMC
June 2021

Life History Recorded in the Vagino-cervical Microbiome Along with Multi-omics.

Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China.

The vagina contains at least a billion microbial cells, dominated by lactobacilli. Here we perform metagenomic shotgun sequencing on cervical and fecal samples from a cohort of 516 Chinese women of reproductive age, and cervical, fecal, and salivary samples from a second cohort of 632 women. Factors such as pregnancy, delivery histories, cesarean section, and breast-feeding were all more important than menstrual cycle in shaping the microbiome, and such information would be necessary before trying to interpret differences between vagino-cervical microbiome data. Greater proportion of Bifidobacterium breve was seen with older age at sexual debut. The relative abundance of lactobacilli especially Lactobacillus crispatus was negatively associated with pregnancy history. Potential markers for lack of menstrual regularity, heavy flow, dysmenorrhea, and contraceptives were also identified. Lactobacilli were rare during breast-feeding or post-menopause. Other features such as mood fluctuations and facial speckles could potentially be predicted from the vagino-cervical microbiome. Gut and salivary microbiome, plasma vitamins, metals, amino acids, and hormones showed associations with the vagino-cervical microbiome. Our results offer an unprecedented glimpse into the microbiota of the female reproductive tract and call for international collaborations to better understand its long-term health impact other than in the settings of infection or pre-term birth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gpb.2021.01.005DOI Listing
June 2021

Highly sensitive active pixel image sensor array driven by large-area bilayer MoS transistor circuitry.

Nat Commun 2021 Jun 11;12(1):3559. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

School of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

Various large-area growth methods for two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides have been developed recently for future electronic and photonic applications. However, they have not yet been employed for synthesizing active pixel image sensors. Here, we report on an active pixel image sensor array with a bilayer MoS film prepared via a two-step large-area growth method. The active pixel of image sensor is composed of 2D MoS switching transistors and 2D MoS phototransistors. The maximum photoresponsivity (R) of the bilayer MoS phototransistors in an 8 × 8 active pixel image sensor array is statistically measured as high as 119.16 A W. With the aid of computational modeling, we find that the main mechanism for the high R of the bilayer MoS phototransistor is a photo-gating effect by the holes trapped at subgap states. The image-sensing characteristics of the bilayer MoS active pixel image sensor array are successfully investigated using light stencil projection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23711-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196169PMC
June 2021

Group 12 Carbonates and their Binary Complexes with Nitrogen Bases and FH Z Molecules (Z=P, As, Sb): Synergism in Forming Ternary Complexes.

Authors:
Na Liu Qingzhong Li

Chemphyschem 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

The Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Yantai University, Yantai, 264005, P. R. China.

MCO (M=Zn, Cd, Hg) forms a spodium bond with nitrogen-containing bases (HCN, NHCH , NH ) and a pnicogen bond with FH Z (Z=P, As, Sb). The spodium bond is very strong with the interaction energy ranging from -31 kcal/mol to -56 kcal/mol. Both NHCH and NH have an equal electrostatic potential on the N atom, but the corresponding interaction energy is differentiated by 1.5-4 kcal/mol due to the existence of spodium and hydrogen bonds in the complex with NHCH as the electron donor. The spodium bond is weakest in the HCN complex, which is not consistent with the change of the binding distance. The spodium bond becomes stronger in the CdCO
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cphc.202100348DOI Listing
June 2021

SNP rs10420324 in the AMPA receptor auxiliary subunit TARP γ-8 regulates the susceptibility to antisocial personality disorder.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 7;11(1):11997. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

MOE Key Laboratory of Model Animal for Disease Study, Department of Neurology, Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210032, China.

In the brain, AMPA receptors mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission, the dysfunction of which leads to neuropsychiatric disorders. Synaptic function of AMPA receptors is tightly controlled by a protein group called transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins (TARPs). TARP γ-8 (also known as CACNG8) preferentially expresses in the hippocampus, cortex and subcortical regions that are critical for emotion generation indicating its association with psychiatric disorders. Here, we identified rs10420324 (T/G), a SNP located in the human CACNG8 gene, regulated reporter gene expression in vitro and TARP γ-8 expression in the human brain. A guanine at the locus (rs10420324G) suppressed transcription likely through modulation of a local G-quadruplex DNA structure. Consistent with these observations, the frequency of rs10420324G was higher in patients with anti-social personality disorder (ASPD) than in controls, indicating that rs10420324G in CACNG8 is more voluntary for ASPD. We then characterized the behavior of TARP γ-8 knockout and heterozygous mice and found that consistent with ASPD patients who often exhibit impulsivity, aggression, risk taking, irresponsibility and callousness, a decreased γ-8 expression in mice displayed similar behaviors. Furthermore, we found that a decrease in TARP γ-8 expression impaired synaptic AMPAR functions in layer 2-3 pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex, a brain region that inhibition leads to aggression, thus explaining, at least partially, the neuronal basis for the behavioral abnormality. Taken together, our study indicates that TARP γ-8 expression level is associated with ASPD, and that the TARP γ-8 knockout mouse is a valuable animal model for studying this psychiatric disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91415-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184779PMC
June 2021

Effects of Hsp90 Inhibitor Ganetespib on Inhibition of Azole-Resistant .

Front Microbiol 2021 20;12:680382. Epub 2021 May 20.

School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.

is the most common fungal pathogen. Recently, drug resistance of is increasingly severe. Hsp90 is a promising antifungal target to overcome this problem. To evaluate the effects of Hsp90 inhibitor ganetespib on the inhibition of azole-resistant , the microdilution checkerboard method was used to measure the synergistic efficacy of ganetespib. The XTT/menadione reduction assay, microscopic observation, and Rh6G efflux assay were established to investigate the effects of ganetespib on azole-resistant biofilm formation, filamentation, and efflux pump. Real-time RT-PCR analysis was employed to clarify the mechanism of antagonizing drug resistance. The antifungal efficacy of ganetespib was determined by the infectious model of azole-resistant . Ganetespib showed an excellent synergistic antifungal activity and significantly inhibited the fungal biofilm formation, whereas it had no inhibitory effect on fungal hypha formation. Expression of azole-targeting enzyme gene and efflux pump genes , and was significantly down-regulated when ganetespib was used in combination with FLC. In a mouse model infected with FLC-resistant , the combination of ganetespib and FLC effectively reversed the FLC resistance and significantly decreased the kidney fungal load of mouse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.680382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8174564PMC
May 2021

Regulatory Mechanisms of L-Lactic Acid and Taste Substances in Chinese Acid Rice Soup (Rice-Acid) Fermented With a and .

Front Microbiol 2021 21;12:594631. Epub 2021 May 21.

Teagasc Food Research Centre, Moorepark, Fermoy, Ireland.

Rice-acid has abundant taste substances and health protection function due to the various bioactive compounds it contains, including organic acids. L-lactic acid is the most abundant organic acid in rice-acid, but the regulatory mechanisms of L-lactic acid accumulation in rice-acid are obscure. In this study, we analyzed the dynamic changes in organic acids and taste substances in rice-acid in various fermentation phases and different inoculation methods. We identified the key genes involved in taste substance biosynthesis by RNA-Seq analysis and compared the data of four experimental groups. We found that the interaction of the differences in key functional genes (L-lactate dehydrogenase and D-lactate dehydrogenase) and key metabolism pathways (glycolysis, pyruvate metabolism, TCA cycle, amino acid biosynthesis, and metabolism) might interpret the accumulation of L-lactic acid, other organic acids, and taste substances in rice-acid fermented with . The experimental data provided the basis for exploring regulatory mechanisms of taste substance accumulation in rice-acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.594631DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176858PMC
May 2021
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