Publications by authors named "Na Chen"

477 Publications

Manipulating multipole resonances in spoof localized surface plasmons for wideband filtering.

Opt Lett 2021 Apr;46(7):1550-1553

The spoof localized surface plasmon (LSP) has been widely investigated but mostly with fixed multipole resonances. This Letter proposes a method to generate multipole resonances by adding a slit on the metallic ring of a complementary LSP. This slit theoretically introduces two new boundary conditions and new modes. To validate this approach, complementary LSPs with and without slits at three different angular positions are theoretically analyzed and numerically simulated. To validate and demonstrate the potential application of the proposed LSP structure, a bandpass filter (BPF) in a single-layer substrate is designed and measured by exciting the LSP with a slit on the metallic ring. The measured results show that by simply adding a slit, the BPF achieves a fractional bandwidth of 42.7% (2.5 GHz), for both ||<-10 and || within 1 dB variation. In the passband, a flat group delay between 0.57 ns and 0.75 ns is obtained. Moreover, the proposed structure features a low profile and a compact radius of 0.136 wavelength. By dynamically controlling slit/slits with varactors or diodes, the proposed structure is theoretically promising to be reconfigurable at microwave and even terahertz frequencies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.417004DOI Listing
April 2021

[Analysis of flavonoids from saffron floral bio-residues].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Mar;46(6):1438-1449

Academician Workstation of Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine Nanchang 330004,China China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing 100700,China.

In order to better utilize saffron floral bio-residues(SFB), a qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids in SFB was conducted using UPLC-MS and UPLC, respectively. On the one hand, 50 flavonols and 5 anthocyanins were putatively characte-rized by using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. On the other hand, an UPLC method was established for determining the fingerprint of SFB as well as testing the main flavonoids kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside and delphinidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside. Contents of kaempferol-3-O-sophoroside and delphinidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside of 10 batches of samples were 44.21-58.73 mg·g~(-1) and 2.11-6.37 mg·g~(-1), respectively, and the similarities of 10 batches were more than 0.99. In addition, the color of the samples was digitized by using electronic eye technology, and it was found that the color of the samples was significantly correlated with the content of delphinidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside. The richness of flavonoids in SFB indicated its potential for development and utilization, and the large variation in anthocyanin content among samples from different regions suggested that more attention should be paid to the methods of sample pretreatment and storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20201214.302DOI Listing
March 2021

Clinical characteristics of 1,055 Chinese patients with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome: a nationwide multicentric study.

Fertil Steril 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Objective: To reveal the proportion of concomitant extragenital malformations in a large cohort of Chinese patients with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome.

Study Design: Retrospective study.

Setting: Tertiary teaching hospitals in China.

Patient(s): A total of 1,055 Chinese Han women with MRKH syndrome diagnosed and treated at 11 Chinese tertiary teaching hospitals from January 2015 to January 2020.

Intervention(s): Karyotype analysis, hormone profiling, pelvic ultrasonography, spinal roentgenograms, urologic ultrasonography, and Chinese female reproductive tract malformation registry platform (https://ecrf.linklab.com/).

Main Outcome Measure(s): Patients' demographic and clinical characteristics, concurrent malformations, and family histories.

Result(s): Of the 1,055 Chinese Han patients with MRKH, 69.6% had type I MRKH syndrome and the remaining 30.4% had type II MRKH syndrome. Among the type II patients, 12.6% had müllerian duct aplasia, unilateral renal aplasia/ectopic kidney, and cervicothoracic somite dysplasia association. Skeletal malformations were the most common associated extragenital malformations in the study (22.0%, 232/1,055), of which idiopathic scoliosis and congenital vertebral malformations were the 2 main skeletal malformations (80.6% and 14.2%, respectively). Renal malformations were the second-highest associated extragenital malformations (9.7%, 102/1,055), with unilateral renal agenesis and ectopic kidney being the most common renal malformations (48.0% and 22.5%, respectively).

Conclusion(s): Type II disease was less common among Chinese patients with MRKH syndrome compared with European patients. Skeletal malformations were more common extragenital malformations than renal malformations in our cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2021.02.033DOI Listing
March 2021

Electrochemically Driven Radical Reactions: From Direct Electrolysis to Molecular Catalysis.

Authors:
Na Chen Hai-Chao Xu

Chem Rec 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005, China.

Organic radicals are versatile synthetic intermediates that provide reactivities and selectivities complementary to ionic species. Despite its long history, electrochemically driven radical reactions remain limited in scope. In the past few years, there have been dramatic increase in research activity in organic electrochemistry. We have been developing electrochemical and electrophotocatalytic methods for the generation and synthetic utilization of organic radicals. In our studies, various radical species such as alkene and arene radical cations and carbon- and heteroatom-centered radicals are generated from readily available precursors through direct electrolysis, molecular electrocatalysis or molecular electrophotocatalysis. These radical species undergo various inter- and intramolecular oxidative transformations to rapidly increase molecular complexity. The simultaneous occurrence of anodic oxidation and cathodic proton reduction allows the oxidative reactions to proceed through H evolution without external chemical oxidants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tcr.202100048DOI Listing
March 2021

Increase in plasma Niemann-Pick disease type C2 protein is associated with poor prognosis of sepsis.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 15;11(1):5907. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Sepsis Laboratory, Center for Translational Medicine, Huaihe Hospital, Henan University, 115 Xi Men Blvd, Kaifeng, Henan, China.

The functional significance of extracellular Niemann-Pick disease type C2 protein (NPC2) is poorly defined. It is not known whether there is an association between plasma NPC2 and sepsis. Our exploratory, quantitative proteomic analysis showed a significant increase in the level of plasma NPC2 in moribund sepsis patients. Thus, we subsequently determined NPC2 concentration in plasma from healthy subjects, pneumonia patients and sepsis patients with comorbid pneumonia; and analyzed the association of plasma NPC2 with organ dysfunction and prognosis of sepsis patients. Our data shows that plasma NPC2 concentration was significantly higher in pneumonia and sepsis patients than healthy subjects, and was further increased in sepsis patients when the SOFA score reached 14. In addition, NPC2 concentration was significantly higher in patients that subsequently developed septic shock or died within 30 days. Moreover, NPC2 level showed the strongest association with the degree of renal dysfunction in sepsis patients. In moribund sepsis patients, however, NPC2 had highest correlation coefficient with indicators of coagulation anomaly. Based on these results, we conclude that the increase in plasma NPC2 in sepsis patients is associated with multiple organ failure, possibly results from a deficiency in renal clearance, and may serve as a prognostic marker for sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85478-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7961030PMC
March 2021

Integrated cytokine and metabolite analysis reveals immunometabolic reprogramming in COVID-19 patients with therapeutic implications.

Nat Commun 2021 03 12;12(1):1618. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is a major cause of the multi-organ injury and fatal outcome induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection in severe COVID-19 patients. Metabolism can modulate the immune responses against infectious diseases, yet our understanding remains limited on how host metabolism correlates with inflammatory responses and affects cytokine release in COVID-19 patients. Here we perform both metabolomics and cytokine/chemokine profiling on serum samples from healthy controls, mild and severe COVID-19 patients, and delineate their global metabolic and immune response landscape. Correlation analyses show tight associations between metabolites and proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines, such as IL-6, M-CSF, IL-1α, IL-1β, and imply a potential regulatory crosstalk between arginine, tryptophan, purine metabolism and hyperinflammation. Importantly, we also demonstrate that targeting metabolism markedly modulates the proinflammatory cytokines release by peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from SARS-CoV-2-infected rhesus macaques ex vivo, hinting that exploiting metabolic alterations may be a potential strategy for treating fatal CRS in COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21907-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955129PMC
March 2021

The effect of pretreatment BMI on the prognosis and serum immune cells in advanced LSCC patients who received ICI therapy.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Feb;100(8):e24664

Department of Oncology, The Rizhao People's Hospital, Rizhao, Shandong, PR China.

Abstract: This study aims to evaluate the prognosis and serum immune cells of patients with different pretreatment body mass index (BMI) values. The data of 61 newly diagnosed patients with advanced lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) who received immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) combined with chemotherapy were obtained from the database of Rizhao People's Hospital (Rizhao, Shandong). According to the cutoff value of BMI (23.2 kg/m2), 32 patients had a high BMI and the remaining 29 patients had a low BMI. The effects of different BMIs on the prognosis and serum immune cells of patients were analyzed. The median progression-free survival (PFS) times were 7.72 months in the high BMI group and 4.83 months in the low BMI group [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 0.23; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.11-0.48; P < .001]. In terms of the overall survival (OS), the median times of the high BMI group and low BMI group were 18.10 and 13.90 months, respectively (adjusted HR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.07-0.32; P < .001). After 4 cycles of ICI therapy combined with chemotherapy, the objective response rate was 59.4% for the high BMI group and 20.7% for the low BMI group (P = .002). In addition, the number of serum immune cells in patients with high BMI was significantly higher than that in patients with low BMI (all P < .001). There was a linear relationship between BMI value and the number of serum immune cells (all R2 > 0.7). The current results showed that high BMI is associated with better prognosis in LSCC patients who received ICIs, which may be related to higher levels of serum immune cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000024664DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7909129PMC
February 2021

Effect of Notch1 on neural tube defects and neural stem cell differentiation induced by all‑trans retinoic acid.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Mar 21;23(3). Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong 250021, P.R. China.

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most serious and common birth defects in the clinical setting. The Notch signaling pathway has been implicated in different processes of the embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) during neural tube development. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression pattern and function of Notch1 (N1) in all‑trans retinoic acid (atRA)‑induced NTDs and NSC differentiation. A mouse model of brain abnormality was established by administering 28 mg/kg atRA, and then brain development was examined using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The N1 expression pattern was detected in the brain of mice embryos via immunohistochemistry and western blotting. NSCs were extracted from the fetal brain of C57 BL/6 embryos at 18.5 days of pregnancy. N1, Nestin, neurofilament (NF), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and galactocerebroside (GALC) were identified using immunohistochemistry. Moreover, N1, presenilin 1 (PS1), Nestin, NF, GFAP and GALC were detected via western blotting at different time points in the NSCs with control media or atRA media. H&E staining identified that the embryonic brain treated with atRA was more developed compared with the control group. N1 was downregulated in the embryonic mouse brain between days 11 and 17 in the atRA‑treated group compared with the untreated group. The distribution of N1, Nestin, NF, GFAP and GALC was positively detected using immunofluorescence staining. Western blotting results demonstrated that there were significantly, synchronous decreased expression levels of N1 and PS1, but increased expression levels of NF, GFAP and GALC in NSCs treated with atRA compared with those observed in the controls (P<0.05). The results suggested that the N1 signaling pathway inhibited brain development and NSC differentiation. Collectively, it was found that atRA promoted mouse embryo brain development and the differentiation of NSCs by inhibiting the N1 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.11859DOI Listing
March 2021

Study on Caenorhabditis Elegans as a Combined Model of Microdosimetry and Biology.

Dose Response 2021 Jan-Mar;19(1):1559325821990125. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

State Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Protection, School of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Microdosimetry is a tool for the investigation of microscopic energy deposition of ionizing radiation. This work used elegans as a model to estimate the microdosimetric deposition level at the Co gamma radiation. Monte Carlo software PHITS was employed to establish irradiated nematodes model. The dose deposition of the entire body and gonad irradiated to 100 Gy was calculated. The injury levels of radiation were evaluated by the detection of biological indicators. The result of microdosimetric experiment suggested that the dose of whole body of nematodes was estimated to be 99.9 ± 57.8 Gy, ranging from 19.6 to 332.2 Gy. The dose of gonad was predicted to be 129.4 ± 558.8 Gy (9.5-6597 Gy). The result of biological experiment suggested that there were little changes in the length of nematodes after irradiation. However, times of head thrash per minute and the spawning yield in 3 consecutive days decreased 27.1% and 94.7%, respectively. Nematodes in the irradiated group displayed heterogeneity. Through contour analysis, trends of behavior kinematics and reproductive capacity of irradiated nematodes proved to be consistent with the dose distribution levels estimated by microdosimetric model. Finally, . elegans presented a suitable combined model of microdosimetry and biology for studying radiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1559325821990125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7883169PMC
February 2021

Hyperlipidemia Caused by Voriconazole: A Case Report.

Infect Drug Resist 2021 10;14:483-487. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310003, People's Republic of China.

Voriconazole has been widely used in clinical practice for nearly 20 years. The adverse reactions caused by voriconazole have been reported gradually, such as visual impairment, hepatotoxicity, skin rash. At present, there are few reports about triazole antifungal drugs causing the increase of triglyceride and total cholesterol. Thus, the present study reported a case of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis with significantly increased blood lipids after treatment with voriconazole. In this case, the patient's total cholesterol was normal, and triglyceride was 2.64 times of the upper limit of the reference value at the time of admission. On the 30th day after oral administration of voriconazole 200mg q12h, triglyceride and total cholesterol were 4.55 times and 3.31 times of the baseline levels, respectively, with the trough concentration of voriconazole of 6.6 μ g/mL. After 28 days of voriconazole withdrawal and itraconazole administration, triglyceride decreased to 1.45 times of baseline level and total cholesterol decreased to the normal range. After another 24 days of treatment with voriconazole 200mg q12h, triglyceride increased again to 3.25 times of the baseline level and cholesterol was within the normal range. At the same time, the trough concentration of voriconazole was 3.2 μ g/mL. After 14 days of treatment with voriconazole 100mg q12h, the triglyceride level recovered to the baseline level, with the trough concentration of voriconazole of 1.5 μ g/mL. The Naranjo's rating scale was used, the final score was 10 points, indicating that the causal relationship between voriconazole and dyslipidemia was positive, which was likely to be related to the trough concentration of voriconazole.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S301198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7882454PMC
February 2021

The Role of TSC1 in the Macrophages Against Infection.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2020 27;10:596609. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Laboratory Medicine and Life Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

() is an estuarine bacterium that is capable of causing rapidly fatal infection in humans. Proper polarization and bactericidal activity of macrophages play essential roles in defending against invading pathogens. How macrophages limit infection remains not well understood. Here we report that tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1) is crucial for the regulation of -induced macrophage polarization, bacterial clearance, and cell death. Mice with myeloid-specific deletion of TSC1 exhibit a significant reduction of survival time after infection. infection induces both M1 and M2 polarization. However, TSC1 deficient macrophages show enhanced M1 response to infection. Interestedly, the absence of TSC1 in myeloid cells results in impaired bacterial clearance both and after infection. Inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity significantly reverses -induced hypersensitive M1 response and resistant bactericidal activity both in wild-type and TSC1-deficient macrophages. Moreover, infection causes cell death of macrophages, possibly contributes to defective of bacterial clearance, which also exhibits in a mTORC1-dependent manner. These findings highlight an essential role for the TSC1-mTOR signaling in the regulation of innate immunity against infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2020.596609DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7873526PMC
January 2021

Electroacupuncture Attenuates CFA-Induced Inflammatory Pain by Regulating CaMKII.

Neural Plast 2020 31;2020:8861994. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Anesthesiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325035 Zhejiang, China.

Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase that is ubiquitously distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Moreover, its phosphorylated protein (P-CaMKII) is involved in memory, mood, and pain regulation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Electroacupuncture (EA) is a traditional Chinese therapeutic technique that can effectively treat chronic inflammatory pain. However, the CaMKII-GluA1 role in EA analgesia in the ACC remains unclear. This study investigated the role of P-CaMKII and P-GluA1 in a mouse model of inflammatory pain induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). There were increased P-CaMKII and P-GluA1 levels in the ACC. We found that intracerebroventricular injection of KN93, a CaMKII inhibitor, as well as EA stimulation, attenuated complete Freund's adjuvant-induced pain behavior. Further, EA increased pCaMKII-PICK1 complex (abbreviated as C-P complex) levels. Our findings demonstrate that EA inhibits inflammatory pain by inhibiting CaMKII-GluA1 phosphorylation. P-CaMKII is involved in EA analgesia as the pCaMKII-PICK1 complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8861994DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7790579PMC
December 2020

Linking Cortical Morphology to Interindividual Variability in Auditory Feedback Control of Vocal Production.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Jan 18. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China.

Speakers regulate vocal motor behaviors in a compensatory manner when perceiving errors in auditory feedback. Little is known, however, about the source of interindividual variability that exists in the degree to which speakers compensate for perceived errors. The present study included 40 young adults to investigate whether individual differences in auditory integration for vocal pitch regulation, as indexed by vocal compensations for pitch perturbations in auditory feedback, can be predicted by cortical morphology as assessed by gray-matter volume, cortical thickness, and surface area in a whole-brain manner. The results showed that greater gray-matter volume in the left inferior parietal lobule and greater cortical thickness and surface area in the left superior/middle temporal gyrus, temporal pole, inferior/superior parietal lobule, and precuneus predicted larger vocal responses. Greater cortical thickness in the right inferior frontal gyrus and superior parietal lobule and surface area in the left precuneus and cuneus were significantly correlated with smaller magnitudes of vocal responses. These findings provide the first evidence that vocal compensations for feedback errors are predicted by the structural morphology of the frontal and tempo-parietal regions, and further our understanding of the neural basis that underlies interindividual variability in auditory-motor control of vocal production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhaa401DOI Listing
January 2021

Perturbations of genes essential for Müllerian duct and Wölffian duct development in Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 02;108(2):337-345

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, State Key Laboratory of Complex Severe and Rare Diseases, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100730, China. Electronic address:

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) is associated with congenital absence of the uterus, cervix, and the upper part of the vagina; it is a sex-limited trait. Disrupted development of the Müllerian ducts (MD)/Wölffian ducts (WD) through multifactorial mechanisms has been proposed to underlie MRKHS. In this study, exome sequencing (ES) was performed on a Chinese discovery cohort (442 affected subjects and 941 female control subjects) and a replication MRKHS cohort (150 affected subjects of mixed ethnicity from North America, South America, and Europe). Phenotypic follow-up of the female reproductive system was performed on an additional cohort of PAX8-associated congenital hypothyroidism (CH) (n = 5, Chinese). By analyzing 19 candidate genes essential for MD/WD development, we identified 12 likely gene-disrupting (LGD) variants in 7 genes: PAX8 (n = 4), BMP4 (n = 2), BMP7 (n = 2), TBX6 (n = 1), HOXA10 (n = 1), EMX2 (n = 1), and WNT9B (n = 1), while LGD variants in these genes were not detected in control samples (p = 1.27E-06). Interestingly, a sex-limited penetrance with paternal inheritance was observed in multiple families. One additional PAX8 LGD variant from the replication cohort and two missense variants from both cohorts were revealed to cause loss-of-function of the protein. From the PAX8-associated CH cohort, we identified one individual presenting a syndromic condition characterized by CH and MRKHS (CH-MRKHS). Our study demonstrates the comprehensive utilization of knowledge from developmental biology toward elucidating genetic perturbations, i.e., rare pathogenic alleles involving the same loci, contributing to human birth defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.12.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7896104PMC
February 2021

The prognostic roles of hepatitis B virus antibody in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 Jan 5:1-15. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Hematology, Shandong Provincial Hospital, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been correlated with virus infection and immunity status. We retrospectively analyzed the association between HBV antibody and DLBCL development in HBsAg patients. Compared with HBeAb patients, HBeAb patients displayed unique clinical features. HBV antibody-negative patients had better therapeutic efficiency ( < .05). The media progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of HBV antibody-positive group were shorter than the negative group ( < .05). Furthermore, we found positive association between CD21 and HBsAb and their synergistic effect for prognostic predication. Interestingly, the effect of Rituximab in prognostic improvement was more significant in HBV antibody-positive group than negative group. Univariate analysis showed that HBV antibody was independent risk factor for disease prognosis. Altogether, our investigations identified for the first time the close association between HBV antibody and clinical prognosis in DLBCL patients. These findings provide potential biomarker to predict the effect of Rituximab and prognosis in DLBCL patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1867726DOI Listing
January 2021

Eighty-year-old man with rare chronic neutrophilic leukemia caused by T618I mutation: A case report and review of literature.

World J Clin Cases 2020 Dec;8(24):6337-6345

Department of Hematology, Chang'an Hospital, Xi'an 710000, Shaanxi Province, China.

Background: Chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) is a rare bone marrow proliferative tumor and a heterogeneous disorder. In 2016, the World Health Organization included activating mutations in the gene as one of the diagnostic criteria, with T618I being the most common mutation. The disease is often accompanied by splenomegaly, but no developmental abnormalities and significant reticular fibrosis, and no Ph chromosome and fusion gene. So, it is difficult to diagnose at the first presentation in the absence of classical symptoms. Herein we describe a rare CNL patient without splenomegaly whose initial diagnostic clue was neutrophilic hyperactivity.

Case Summary: The patient is an 80-year-old Han Chinese man who presented with one month of fatigue and fatigue aggravation in the last half of the month. He had no splenomegaly, but had persistent hypofibrinogenemia, obvious skin bleeding, and hemoptysis, and required repeated infusion of fibrinogen therapy. After many relevant laboratory examinations, histopathological examination, and sequencing analysis, the patient was finally diagnosed with CNL [ T618I positive: c.1853C>T (p.T618I) and c.2514T>A (p.C838)].

Conclusion: The physical examination and blood test for tumor-related genes are insufficient to establish a diagnosis of CNL. Splenomegaly is not that important, but hyperplasia of interstitial neutrophil system and activating mutations in are important clues to CNL diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v8.i24.6337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7760438PMC
December 2020

Risk assessment of workplace violence towards health workers in a Chinese hospital: a cross-sectional study.

BMJ Open 2020 12 21;10(12):e042800. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

School of Population Medicine and Public Health, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Objective: This study aimed to assess the risk factors associated with workplace violence towards health workers (HWs) in a Chinese hospital.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in a Chinese secondary hospital in 2019 using an international survey questionnaire, and collected valid data from 1028 HW respondents via mobile phone. Alongside analysing the potential association between exposure to violence and respondents' characteristics, we compared the workplace violence between this survey and a baseline survey in the same hospital using the same questionnaire in 2018, and investigated the existing measures.

Results: A total of 5.45% of respondents had encountered physical violence while 41.63% had experienced psychological violence. Women (OR=3.45, 95% CI 1.87 to 6.38), those working in outpatient and emergency departments (OR=7.96, 95% CI 2.27 to 27.95), and those with extremely high concern about workplace violence (OR=7.94, 95% CI 1.04 to 60.85) were significantly more likely to suffer physical violence. Working in the outpatient and emergency department (OR=2.03, 95% CI 1.23 to 3.34), having direct physical contact/interaction with patients (OR=2.98, 95% CI 1.62 to 5.49), and extremely high worry about workplace violence (OR=6.47 95% CI 3.38 to 12.40) significantly increased the risk of psychological violence. When the results of the baseline survey were compared with those in this survey, it was shown that physical violence declined significantly from 8.79% in 2018 to 5.45% in 2019, while psychological violence declined significantly from 47.14% in 2018 to 41.63% in 2019. The most recognised measures were security measures (81.03%) while the least recognised measures were check-in procedures for staff (11.19%).

Conclusion: Workplace violence towards HWs is a global problem with country-specific features. In our study, workplace violence in the hospital is of great concern. While demonstrating the effectiveness of measures in some degree, there is significant room for improvement. To achieve the vision of 'zero violence' in the health sector, aligned comprehensive measures should be systematically adopted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-042800DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7754661PMC
December 2020

Laparoscopically Assisted Uterovaginal Canalization and Vaginoplasty for Patients with Congenital Cervical and Vaginal Atresia: A Step-by-step Guide and Long-term Outcomes.

J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2020 Dec 14. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China (all authors). Electronic address:

Study Objective: To study the long-term outcomes of laparoscopically assisted uterovaginal canalization and vaginoplasty in patients with congenital cervical and vaginal atresia and to introduce the surgery step by step.

Design: A prospective observational study from January 2016 to September 2019.

Setting: A tertiary teaching hospital.

Patients: Ten women diagnosed with congenital cervical and vaginal atresia.

Interventions: All women underwent laparoscopically assisted uterovaginal canalization and vaginoplasty.

Measurements And Main Results: All procedures went smoothly, with no case requiring conversion to laparotomy, and no intraoperative complications occurred. Postoperative febrile morbidity occurred in 1 patient (1/10, 10%). The median (interquartile range) follow-up time was 26.0 (21.3, 48.3) months. All patients resumed menstruation, including 9 patients (9/10, 90%) with regular monthly menstruation. Eight patients (8/10, 80%) experienced mild to moderate dysmenorrhea; the remaining 2 patients (2/10, 20%) had no dysmenorrhea. Cervical restenosis occurred in 1 patient (1/10, 10%) 12 months postoperatively, and cervical dilation was performed. So far, 8 months after the second surgery, no restenosis has been found. The mean postoperative vaginal length was 7.9 ± 1.3-cm at the time of the last follow-up. Only 1 patient attempted to conceive for 2 years, but she had not conceived yet.

Conclusion: Laparoscopically assisted uterovaginal canalization and vaginoplasty is an easy, safe, and promising management option for correcting congenital cervical and vaginal atresia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmig.2020.12.011DOI Listing
December 2020

On-ward participation of clinical pharmacists in a Chinese intensive care unit for patients with COVID-19: A retrospective, observational study.

Res Social Adm Pharm 2021 01 6;17(1):1853-1858. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Background: The practical experiences of active pharmacists involved in managing critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been rarely reported.

Objective: This work aimed to share professional experiences on medication optimization and provide a feasible reference for the pharmaceutical care of critically ill patients with COVID-19.

Methods: This study was conducted in a COVID-19-designated hospital in China. A group of dedicated clinical pharmacists participated in multidisciplinary rounds to optimize the treatments for critically ill patients with COVID-19. Consensus on medication recommendations was reached by a multidisciplinary team through bi-daily discussion. Related drug, classification, cause, and adjustment content for recommendations were recorded and reviewed.

Results: A total of 111 medication recommendations were supplied for 22 out of 33 (56.7%) critically ill patients from 1 February 2020 to 18 March 2020, and 106 (95.5%) of these were accepted. Among these recommendations, 64 (67.7%), 32 (28.8%), and 15 (13.5%) were related to antibiotics and antifungals, antiviral agents, and other drugs, respectively. Recommendation types significantly differed for different anti-infectives (p < 0.05). For antibiotics and antifungals, treatment effectiveness accounted for 60.9% of recommendation types, with 15 (38.5%) cases related to untreated infections. For antiviral agents, adverse drug events were the most common recommendation types (84.4%), with 20 (74.1%) cases related to liver function dysfunction. Discontinuation of suspected antiviral agents (66.7%) was usually recommended after the occurrence of adverse events that may progress and bring poor outcomes.

Conclusion: Forceful and extensive on-ward participation is recommended for clinical pharmacists in managing critically ill patients. Our experiences highlight the need for special attention toward untreated infections and adverse events related to antiviral agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.06.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7832950PMC
January 2021

Contribution of Connexin Hemichannels to the Pathogenesis of Acute Lung Injury.

Mediators Inflamm 2020 17;2020:8094347. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Sepsis Laboratory, Center for Translational Medicine, Huaihe Hospital, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan, China.

Connexin (Cx) family members form hemichannels (HCs) and gap junctions (GJs). Biological functions of Cx HCs have not been adequately characterized due to the inability to selectively target HCs or GJs. Recently, we developed a 6-mer peptide mimetic (P5) of the first extracellular loop of Cx43 and showed that it can block the permeability of HCs but not GJs formed by Cx43. In this study, we further characterized the HC blocking property of P5 and investigated the role of Cx HCs in acute lung injury (ALI). We found that P5 administration decreased HC permeability, in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells, HepG2 cells, and even Cx43-deficient astrocytes, which express different sets of Cxs, suggesting that P5 is a broad spectrum Cx HC blocker. In addition, P5 reduced HC permeability of alveolar cells . Moreover, P5 decreased endotoxin-induced release, by vascular endothelial cells , of high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1), a critical mediator of acute lung injury (ALI), and reduced HMGB1 accumulation in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of mice subjected to intratracheal endotoxin instillation. Furthermore, P5 administration resulted in a significant decrease in the concentrations of ALT, AST, and LDH in the BALF, the accumulation of leukocytes in alveoli, and the mortality rate of mice subjected to ALI. Wright-Giemsa staining showed that P5 caused similar reductions of both neutrophils and monocytes in BALF of ALI mice. Together, these results suggest that Cx HCs mediate HMGB1 release, augment leukocyte recruitment, and contribute to ALI pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8094347DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7688369PMC
November 2020

LASP1 induces colorectal cancer proliferation and invasiveness through Hippo signaling and Nanog mediated EMT.

Am J Transl Res 2020 15;12(10):6490-6500. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinzhou Medical University Jinzhou, Liaoning Province, China.

The role of LIM and SH3 protein 1 (LASP1) in colorectal cancer (CRC) has been described in multiple studies, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remained inclusive. In the present study, we performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining for LASP1 and found that LASP1 expression was higher in CRC tissue of advanced stage. Over-expressed (OE) LASP1 promoted proliferation, tumorigenesis and migration of CRC cell lines SW480 and SW620. Using the TCGA database, we identified Yes-associated protein (YAP1) was positively correlated with LASP1 expression in CRC patients. Introducing a novel YAP1 inhibitor CA3, we found that CA3 treatment inhibited LAPS1 OE SW480 and SW620 cells proliferation, colony number formation, invasion and migration. Further mechanistic experiments showed that Nanog, a stem cell marker, was up-regulated in LASP1 OE cells but suppressed by CA3 treatment. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) and luciferase reporter assay revealed that YAP1 can directly target the promoter region of and enhance its activity. LASP1 accelerated CRC migration through targeting YAP1-mediated vimentin and E-cadherin expression. Finally, by developing murine CRC model, we found the primary tumor size was almost abolished and the survival rate was greatly improved by chemotherapy and CA3 combined treatment compared with negative control or chemotherapy treated alone. Collectively, our findings demonstrated that LASP1 could induce CRC tumor cells proliferation and migration through activating hippo signaling pathway component YAP1 and further enhancing Nanog expression.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7653627PMC
October 2020

Rarely fatal bilateral re-expansion pulmonary edema after inserting a chest tube for unilateral spontaneous pneumothorax: a case report.

Forensic Sci Med Pathol 2021 Mar 10;17(1):114-119. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Forensic Pathology, School of Forensic Medicine, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

We describe a case of a 32-year-old man who died due to bilateral re-expansion pulmonary edema (RPE) following the insertion a chest tube for unilateral spontaneous pneumothorax. Fifteen minutes after inserting the chest tube, the patient with right spontaneous pneumothorax was diagnosed with right re-expansion edema by chest radiograph. Although multiple treatments were administered, the patient died. However, the findings from autopsy showed bilateral RPE existed in the decedent but not unilateral RPE. Autopsy, microscopic examination, and clinical records concluded that the cause of death was acute cardiac and respiratory failure due to bilateral re-expansion pulmonary edema following unilateral spontaneous pneumothorax. Bilateral RPE due to a unilateral pneumothorax is quite rare in clinical and forensic practice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the pathological changes of RPE have been described by gross and microscopic examinations. This case is reported to provide histopathologic references for diagnosis of RPE and indicate that combining death investigation, pathological findings and clinical courses plays a vital role in diagnosis of RPE in forensic pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12024-020-00325-1DOI Listing
March 2021

Helical nanofibers of -(perfluorooctanoyl)cysteine ethyl ester in coordination polymers of Ag.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2020 Dec;56(96):15133-15136

Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, the MOE Key Laboratory of Spectrochemical Analysis and Instrumentation, and iChEM, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China.

We propose using the formation of coordination polymers of Ag+ to probe differences between the perfluorinated alkyl chain and the alkyl chain by deriving a thiol ligand, N-(perfluoroalkanoyl)cysteine. Rapid formation in EtOH of P-/M-helical nanofibrils of high thermostability was found for N-(perfluorooctanoyl)-l-/d-cysteine ethyl esters at the μM level upon mixing with Ag+, but not for the octanoyl counterpart. This difference was also observed in terms of circular dichroism-enantiomeric excess dependence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc05989gDOI Listing
December 2020

NLRP3 and mTOR Reciprocally Regulate Macrophage Phagolysosome Formation and Acidification Against Infection.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 8;8:587961. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Laboratory Medicine and Life Science, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China.

The marine bacterium causes potentially fatal bloodstream infections, typically in patients with chronic liver diseases. The inflammatory response and anti-bacterial function of phagocytes are crucial for limiting bacterial infection in the human hosts. How affects macrophages after phagocytosis is unclear. In this report, we found that the bactericidal activity of macrophages to internalize was dependent on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and NOD-like receptor (NLR) family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) interaction. Additionally, the NLRP3 expression was dependent on mTORC1 activation. Inhibited mTORC1 or absence of NLRP3 in macrophages impaired -induced phagosome acidification and phagolysosome formation, leading to a reduction of intracellular bacterial clearance. mTORC1 signaling overactivation could increase NLRP3 expression and restore insufficient phagosome acidification. Together, these findings indicate that the intracellular bactericidal activity of macrophages responding to infection is tightly controlled by the crosstalk of NLRP3 and mTOR and provide critical insight into the host bactericidal activity basis of clearance of through lyso/phagosome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.587961DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7578225PMC
October 2020

Integrative analysis provides multi-omics evidence for the pathogenesis of placenta percreta.

J Cell Mol Med 2020 12 21;24(23):13837-13852. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, West China Second University Hospital of Sichuan University and Key Laboratory of Birth Defects and Related Diseases of Women and Children (Sichuan University), Ministry of Education, Chengdu, China.

Pernicious placenta previa with placenta percreta (PP) is a catastrophic condition during pregnancy. However, the underlying pathogenesis remains unclear. In the present study, the placental tissues of normal cases and PP tissues of pernicious placenta previa cases were collected to determine the expression profile of protein-coding genes, miRNAs, and lncRNAs through sequencing. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), accompanied by miRNA target prediction and correlation analysis, were employed to select potential hub protein-coding genes and lncRNAs. The expression levels of selected protein-coding genes, Wnt5A and MAPK13, were determined by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical staining, and lncRNA PTCHD1-AS and PAPPA-AS1 expression levels were determined by quantitative PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The results indicated that 790 protein-coding genes, 382 miRNAs, and 541 lncRNAs were dysregulated in PP tissues, compared with normal tissues. WGCNA identified coding genes in the module (ME) black and ME turquoise modules that may be involved in the pathogenesis of PP. The selected potential hub protein-coding genes, Wnt5A and MAPK13, were down-regulated in PP tissues, and their expression levels were positively correlated with the expression levels of PTCHD1-AS and PAPPA-AS1. Further analysis demonstrated that PTCHD1-AS and PAPPA-AS1 regulated Wnt5A and MAPK13 expression by interacting with specific miRNAs. Collectively, our results provided multi-omics data to better understand the pathogenesis of PP and help identify predictive biomarkers and therapeutic targets for PP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.15973DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7754008PMC
December 2020

Determination of low-abundance single-base point mutations based on endonuclease IV and branch migration system.

Anal Chim Acta 2020 Oct 20;1134:28-33. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Institute of Reproductive Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, PR China. Electronic address:

Combining endonuclease IV and branch migration competition systems, we have designed a new single-base mutation detection method which is capable of thermostatic, sensitive, simple, and cost-effective at the same time, while other probe method based on endonuclease IV hardly achieve. Our method has better discrimination factors (6.81-83.10) and a low abundance detection limit of mutant-type DNA (MT) (0.05% mutant-type DNA/total DNA) without complex temperature optimize process. The concentration detection limit of MT is 0.03 nM.The abundance detection limit for EGFR L858R (0.1%) and PTEN R130Q (0.05%) in clinical samples suggested that the method has potential applications in clinical diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2020.08.014DOI Listing
October 2020

An interlocked DNA cascade system for universal probe-based melting curve analysis.

Nanoscale 2020 Oct;12(39):20449-20455

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China.

Single-base mutations are the most common type of mutation in human diseases. Melting curve analysis is currently one of the most commonly used methods to detect single base mutations. However, the existing melting curve analysis cannot possess universality and robust detection performance simultaneously. Therefore, herein, we invented an interlocked DNA cascade system based universal melting curve analysis (ICU-MCA). The strategy is based on the probe dissolution curve method by designing a bridge strand to achieve an ideal distinction between mutant-type DNA and wild-type DNA. What is more, this method can complete multiplexed detection only by changing the bridge sequence, replacing the specific and expensive probe in a traditional probe based melting curve analysis. We performed 6-plex detection on 6 single-base point mutations in BRAC1/2 genes on synthetic single stranded DNA and verified the compatibility of ICU-MCA and PCR and detected BRCA1/c.2082C>T and BRCA2/c.7397T>C mutations in peripheral blood DNA of ovarian cancer patients. Overall, ICU-MCA is one of the best methods in the field of melting curve analysis for detecting single-base mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr04691dDOI Listing
October 2020

How to Early Identify and Prevent the SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children for Families?

Front Pediatr 2020 4;8:542. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Department of Neonates, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

COVID-19 has become a worldwide pandemic. Many countries have reported cases of infection in children and newborns, and there is a trend of significantly increasing infections among these populations. Therefore, it is important to provide advice and guidance for the prevention and control of COVID-19 in children. Children are as susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection as adults. The manifestations in children are atypical, and children are much less likely to have critical cases. If children are infected, they may play an important role in the spread of SARS-CoV-2 because their symptoms are less obvious and less likely to be detected. To prevent COVID-19 from spreading among children, efforts to prevent, and control the infection should be increased by controlling the source of infection, blocking the route of transmission and protecting the susceptible population. The early identification of the COVID-19 in children and the protection of families are important measures to prevent the continued spread of SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00542DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7498538PMC
September 2020

Intranasal IL-4 Administration Alleviates Functional Deficits of Periventricular Leukomalacia in Neonatal Mice.

Front Neurol 2020 2;11:930. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Department of Neonatology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China.

Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) is the major form of brain injury in premature infants. Currently, there are no therapies to treat PVL. Several studies suggested that polarization of microglia, a resident macrophage-like immune cell in the central nervous system, plays a vital role in brain injury and recovery. As an important mediator of immunity, interleukin-4 (IL-4) has critical effects on many immune cells, such as astrocytes and microglia. Increasing evidence shows that IL-4 plays a well-established role in attenuating inflammation in neurological disorders. Additionally, as a noninvasive and highly effective method, intranasal drug administration is gaining increasing attention. Therefore, in our study, we hypothesized that intranasal IL-4 administration is a promising strategy for PVL treatment. The therapeutic effects of IL-4 on neuroprotection were evaluated using a Control group, Hypoxia group, and Hypoxia + IL-4 treatment group. The PVL mouse model was established by a severe acute hypoxia (SAH) protocol. Exogenous IL-4 was intranasally administered to investigate its neuroprotective effects. A functional study was used to investigate neurological deficits, immunohistochemical technology and Western blotting were used to detect protein levels, and electron microscopy was used to evaluate myelination. The results suggested that hypoxia stimulated Iba1 microglial activation, downregulated myelin-related gene (, and ) expression, reduced MBP protein levels, and caused neurological deficits. However, the intranasal administration of exogenous IL-4 partially inhibited Iba1+ microglial activation, improved myelination, and alleviated neurological deficits. The mechanistic study showed that IL-4 improved myelination possibly through the IL-4Ra-mediated polarization of microglia from the M1 phenotype to the M2 phenotype. In summary, our findings demonstrated that the intranasal administration of exogenous IL-4 improves myelination and attenuates functional deficits in a hypoxia-induced PVL model. Intranasal IL-4 administration may be a promising strategy for PVL treatment, for which further mechanistic studies are urgent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00930DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7492203PMC
September 2020

Begomovirus-Associated Betasatellite Virulence Factor βC1 Attenuates Tobacco Defense to Whiteflies Interacting With Plant SKP1.

Front Plant Sci 2020 27;11:574557. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Ministry of Agriculture, Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Insect Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Plant-mediated interactions between plant viruses and their vectors are important determinants of the population dynamics of both types of organisms in the field. The whitefly can establish mutualism with begomoviruses their shared host plants. This mutualism is achieved by the interaction between virulence factors and their host proteins. While the virulence factor βC1 encoded by tomato yellow leaf curl China betasatellite (TYLCCNB), a subviral agent associated to the begomovirus tomato yellow leaf curl China virus (TYLCCNV), may interact with plant protein MYC2, thereby establishing the indirect mutualism between TYLCCNV and whitefly, whether other mechanisms are involved remains unknown. Here, we found the and interactions between βC1 and tobacco protein S-phase kinase associated protein 1 (NtSKP1). Silencing the expression of enhanced the survival rate and fecundity of whiteflies on tobacco plants. NtSKP1 could activate the transcription of genes in jasmonic acid (JA) pathways by impairing the stabilization of JAZ1 protein. Moreover, βC1-NtSKP1 interaction could interfere JAZ1 degradation and attenuate the plant JA defense responses. These results revealed a novel mechanism underlying the better performance of whiteflies on TYLCCNV/TYLCCNB-infected plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.574557DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7481519PMC
August 2020