Publications by authors named "N Zaheer Ahmed"

2,637 Publications

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Knowledge attitude and practice of safety measures for corona virus disease - 19 (COVID-19) among general population.

Niger J Clin Pract 2021 Jul;24(7):1037-1043

Department of Prosthetic Dental Sciences, College Of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Objective: To evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practice of general population for Corona virus disease 19 (COVID-19).

Methods: A total of 950 participants submitted an online self-administered questionnaire, which was developed through literature search and validated. The online survey link was distributed through various social media platforms (WhatsApp, Instagram, Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, Snapchat, Pinterest, and Tumblr). And 861 forms were included in the study after checking for completion of relevant response from participants, whereas 89 forms were excluded. The data were analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Descriptive statistics were performed for percentage and frequency determination of quantitative and qualitative variables. Spearman's correlation and Chi square test were performed to control confounders and association of knowledge, attitude, and practices with gender and education level. The P value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

Results: More than two third of the population was aware of COVID-19 and three fourth had had bachelor's degrees, whereas 18% had master level education. 85% have not attended any courses, awareness campaigns, and lectures to inculcate recent and updated knowledge. 83% believed that COVID-19 is a serious threat to the community; hence, prevention strategies should be adopted. There was no significant relationship (p = 0.23) between knowledge, attitude, and practice levels with gender, whereas a significant relationship (p = 0.01) was noted with education of participant. Similarly, a significant relationship (p = 0.00) was seen between knowledge and practices of participants toward COVID-19.

Conclusion: The studied population displayed adequate knowledge, attitude, and practice to combat COVID-19. However, we also find a knowledge gap between information source and perception of COVID-19 among our study participants. Therefore, there is a critical need for effective education and widespread public campaigns aiming to enhance relevant and contemporary information related to prevention and management of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/njcp.njcp_394_20DOI Listing
July 2021

Outcomes with CD34-selected stem cell boost for poor graft function after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

Division of Hematologic Malignancies & Cellular Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS. Electronic address:

Background: Poor graft function (PGF) is a life-threatening complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) characterized by multilineage cytopenia in the absence of mixed donor chimerism (<95% donor), relapse, or severe graft-vs-host disease (GVHD). We present a systemic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the outcomes with CD34-selected stem cell boost (SCB) for PGF in adult allo-HSCT patients.

Methods: We screened a total of 1753 records identified from 4 databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Clinical trials.gov) following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, using search terms for "hematological malignancies", "hematopoietic stem cell transplantation", "CD34 antigen(s)", "graft failure" and "poor graft function" from the date of inception to January 2021. After excluding review, duplicate, and non-relevant articles, we included 7 studies reporting outcomes following administration of CD34-selected SCB for PGF after allo-HSCT, including hematologic complete response (CR) and overall response rate (ORR), GVHD, and overall survival (OS). Quality evaluation was done using the NIH quality assessment tool. Pooled analysis was done using the 'meta' package (Schwarzer et al, R programming language) and proportions with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed. The inter-study variance was calculated using Der Simonian-Laird Estimator.

Results: We identified 209 patients who received CD34-selected SCB for PGF after allo-HSCT. The median age was 49 (18-69) years and 61% were men. Primary graft sources included peripheral blood stem cells (72%) and bone marrow graft (28%). Donor types were matched sibling (37%), matched unrelated (36%), mismatched unrelated (22%), and haploidentical donors (5%). Median time since transplant to SCB was 138 (113-450) days. Median SCB dose was 3.45 (3.1-4.9) million CD34 cells/kg. CR and ORR were 72% (95%CI 0.63-0.79, I=26%) and 80% (95% CI 0.74-0.85, I=0%) respectively. After median follow up of 42 (30-77) months, actuarial survival rate (ASR) was 54% (95%CI 0.47-0.61, I= 0%). OS was reported from 80% at 1 year to 40% at 9 years. Acute and chronic GVHD incidence after SCB was 17% (95% CI 0.13-0.23, I=0%) and 18% (95% CI 0.08-0.34, I=76%) respectively. Non-relapse mortality was reported in 42 patients with pooled rate of 27% (95% CI 0.17-0.40, I=59%) while death due to relapse was reported in 25 patients with a pooled rate of 17% (95% CI 0.11-0.23, I=0%).

Conclusion: CD34-selected SCB improves outcomes after PGF post allo-HSCT with an acceptable toxicity profile. Current literature lacks high-quality randomized evidence and there remains an unmet need for prospective studies to address optimal dosing and manipulation of SCB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.07.012DOI Listing
July 2021

Optimization of biogas yield from lignocellulosic materials with different pretreatment methods: a review.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2021 Jul 19;14(1):159. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Mechanical Engineering Science, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg, South Africa.

Population increase and industrialization has resulted in high energy demand and consumptions, and presently, fossil fuels are the major source of staple energy, supplying 80% of the entire consumption. This has contributed immensely to the greenhouse gas emission and leading to global warming, and as a result of this, there is a tremendous urgency to investigate and improve fresh and renewable energy sources worldwide. One of such renewable energy sources is biogas that is generated by anaerobic fermentation that uses different wastes such as agricultural residues, animal manure, and other organic wastes. During anaerobic digestion, hydrolysis of substrates is regarded as the most crucial stage in the process of biogas generation. However, this process is not always efficient because of the domineering stableness of substrates to enzymatic or bacteria assaults, but substrates' pretreatment before biogas production will enhance biogas production. The principal objective of pretreatments is to ease the accessibility of the enzymes to the lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose which leads to degradation of the substrates. Hence, the use of pretreatment for catalysis of lignocellulose substrates is beneficial for the production of cost-efficient and eco-friendly process. In this review, we discussed different pretreatment technologies of hydrolysis and their restrictions. The review has shown that different pretreatments have varying effects on lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose degradation and biogas yield of different substrate and the choice of pretreatment technique will devolve on the intending final products of the process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13068-021-02012-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8287798PMC
July 2021

Development of Novel Biopolymer-Based Nanoparticles Loaded Cream for Potential Treatment of Topical Fungal Infections.

Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2021 Jul 19:1-26. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Pharmacy, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan.

Objective: Biodegradable polymers are extensively used due to their efficient safety profiles. The aim of the current study was to fabricate, evaluate and characterize biodegradable, biocompatible fluconazole (FLZ) loaded chitosan (CHS) chondroitin sulphate (CS) nanoparticles (NPs) for topical delivery. Polymers utilized in the formulation not only served as a carrier system but also aided in fighting with complex etiology of the disease due to their innate antifungal activities. NPs were prepared by the complex coacervation method, then were optimized for various parameters and subsequently loaded into a cream. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis showed spherical morphology of the NPs Prepared NPs showed an average particle size in the range of350-450 nm and an encapsulation efficiency (EE) of 86%. The polydispersity index (PDI) was found to be 0.148 that showed a uniform distribution of NPs. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the absence of any electrostatic interaction between ingredients and. drug release analyses exhibited a sustained release of the drug and higher antifungal activity than free FLZ. permeability and drug distribution in different skin layers ensured a site-specific delivery of the FLZ-NPs. As compared with free FLZ and other control groups, the prepared nanoparticles also exhibited significantly higher antifungal activity against (p < 0.01) It was concluded from the results that the FLZ-NPs laden cream could be a potential candidate for topical and site-specific delivery of the drug cargo for the potential treatment of fungal infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03639045.2021.1957914DOI Listing
July 2021

Safety of intravenous push administration of beta-lactams within a healthcare system.

Am J Health Syst Pharm 2020 04;77(9):701-708

Department of Pharmacy, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY.

Purpose: A critical shortage of small-volume parenteral solutions in late 2017 led hospitals to develop strategies to ensure availability for critical patients, including administration of antibiotics as intravenous push (IVP). Minimal literature has been published to date that assesses the safety of administration of beta-lactams via this route. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of IVP administration of select beta-lactam antibiotics.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of IVP administrations of aztreonam, ceftriaxone, cefepime, and meropenem at two campuses of the New York University Langone Health system after October 2017. Patients receiving surgical prophylaxis or more than one IVP antibiotic simultaneously were excluded. The primary endpoint was adverse events (ADE) following IVP administration of antibiotics.

Results: We evaluated 1000 patients who received IVP aztreonam (n = 43), ceftriaxone (n = 544), cefepime (n = 368) or meropenem (n = 45). There were 10 (1%) ADE observed, 5 of which were allergic reactions. Four ADE were neurotoxicity related to IVP cefepime. Based on the Naranjo score, 1 adverse event was "probably" and 3 were "possibly" related to cefepime IVP administration. Lastly, only 1 report of phlebitis was observed with the use of IVP ceftriaxone.

Conclusions: The use of IVP as an alternative to intravenous piggyback (IVPB) during times of drug shortage for select beta-lactam antibiotics appears to be safe, and ADE are similar to those previously described for IVPB administration. Future studies evaluating clinical outcomes between IVP and IVPB administration may be of benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajhp/zxaa044DOI Listing
April 2020