Publications by authors named "N Rouamba"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

[Prevalence and risk factors associated with intradialytic hypotension in Sub-Saharan Africa: The case of Burkina Faso].

Ann Cardiol Angeiol (Paris) 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Service de néphrologie, centre hospitalier universitaire Yalgado Ouedraogo, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

Aim: The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with intradialytic hypotension in our cohort of chronic hemodialysis patients.

Methods: This was a prospective monocentric study over a six-month period. Intradialytic hypotension was defined as a decrease in systolic blood pressure ≥ 20mmHg or a decrease in mean arterial pressure of 10mmHg associated with clinical events and the need for nursing interventions. The groups were compared using univariate analysis of variance.

Results: We included 48 patients and counted 3014 hemodialysis sessions. The mean age was 44.7±15 years. The prevalence of intradialytic hypotension was 12.4%, with cramps 20 (41.7%) as the main symptom. Factors associated with frequent intradialytic hypotension compared to the groups without intradialytic hypotension and with infrequent intradialytic hypotension were age (61±13 years, p=0.018), diabetes (33.3%, p=0.019), high body mass index (27, 3±7.8kg/m2, p=0.002), interdialytic weight gain ≥ 5% of baseline weight (66.7%, p=0.033), hourly ultrafiltration (800±275ml/h, p=0.037) and perdialytic feeding (33.3%, p=0.016). Low pre-dialysis diastolic blood pressure (72±13mmHg, p=0.012) and high baseline weight (73.9±17.5kg, p=0.028) were associated with frequent versus infrequent intradialytic hypotension.

Conclusion: Intradialytic hypotension is common in our context. Its prevention in at-risk patients is critical to reducing morbidity and mortality and improving quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ancard.2021.01.002DOI Listing
February 2021

Efficacy and risk of harms of repeat ivermectin mass drug administrations for control of malaria (RIMDAMAL): a cluster-randomised trial.

Lancet 2019 Apr 14;393(10180):1517-1526. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Institute of Research in Health Sciences, Western Regional Direction, National Center for Scientific and Technological Research, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso; International Mixed Laboratory on Vector Diseases, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

Background: Ivermectin is widely used in mass drug administrations for controlling neglected parasitic diseases, and can be lethal to malaria vectors that bite treated humans. Therefore, it could be a new tool to reduce plasmodium transmission. We tested the hypothesis that frequently repeated mass administrations of ivermectin to village residents would reduce clinical malaria episodes in children and would be well tolerated with minimal harms.

Methods: We invited villages (clusters) in Burkina Faso to participate in a single-blind (outcomes assessor), parallel-assignment, two-arm, cluster-randomised trial over the 2015 rainy season. Villages were assigned (1:1) by random draw to either the intervention group or the control group. In both groups, all eligible participants who consented to the treatment and were at least 90 cm in height received single oral doses of ivermectin (150-200 μg/kg) and albendazole (400 mg), and those in the intervention group received five further doses of ivermectin alone at 3-week intervals thereafter over the 18-week treatment phase. The primary outcome was cumulative incidence of uncomplicated malaria episodes over 18 weeks (analysed on a cluster intention-to-treat basis) in an active case detection cohort of children aged 5 years or younger living in the study villages. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02509481.

Findings: Eight villages agreed to participate, and four were randomly assigned to each group. 2712 participants (1333 [49%] males and 1379 [51%] females; median age 15 years [IQR 6-34]), including 590 children aged 5 years or younger, provided consent and were enrolled between May 22 and July 20, 2015 (except for 77 participants enrolled after these dates because of unavailability before the first mass drug administration, travel into the village during the trial, or birth), with 1447 enrolled into the intervention group and 1265 into the control group. 330 (23%) participants in the intervention group and 233 (18%) in the control group met the exclusion criteria for mass drug administration. Most children in the active case detection cohort were not treated because of height restrictions. 14 (4%) children in the intervention group and 10 (4%) in the control group were lost to follow-up. Cumulative malaria incidence was reduced in the intervention group (648 episodes among 327 children; estimated mean 2·00 episodes per child) compared with the control group (647 episodes among 263 children; 2·49 episodes per child; risk difference -0·49 [95% CI -0·79 to -0·21], p=0·0009, adjusted for sex and clustering). The risk of adverse events among all participants did not differ between groups (45 events [3%] among 1447 participants in the intervention group vs 24 events [2%] among 1265 in the control group; risk ratio 1·63 [1·01 to 2·67]; risk difference 1·21 [0·04 to 2·38], p=0·060), and no adverse reactions were reported.

Interpretation: Frequently repeated mass administrations of ivermectin during the malaria transmission season can reduce malaria episodes among children without significantly increasing harms in the populace.

Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32321-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6459982PMC
April 2019

Differing growth responses to nutritional supplements in neighboring health districts of Burkina Faso are likely due to benefits of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS).

PLoS One 2017 3;12(8):e0181770. Epub 2017 Aug 3.

Program in International and Community Nutrition, Department of Nutrition, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, United States of America.

Background: Of two community-based trials among young children in neighboring health districts of Burkina Faso, one found that small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) increased child growth compared with a non-intervention control group, but zinc supplementation did not in the second study.

Objectives: We explored whether the disparate growth outcomes were associated with differences in intervention components, household demographic variables, and/or children's morbidity.

Methods: Children in the LNS study received 20g LNS daily containing different amounts of zinc (LNS). Children in the zinc supplementation study received different zinc supplementation regimens (Z-Suppl). Children in both studies were visited weekly for morbidity surveillance. Free malaria and diarrhea treatment was provided by the field worker in the LNS study, and by a village-based community-health worker in the zinc study. Anthropometric assessments were repeated every 13-16 weeks. For the present analyses, study intervals of the two studies were matched by child age and month of enrollment. The changes in length-for-age z-score (LAZ) per interval were compared between LNS and Z-Suppl groups using mixed model ANOVA or ANCOVA. Covariates were added to the model in blocks, and adjusted differences between group means were estimated.

Results: Mean ages at enrollment of LNS (n = 1716) and Z-Suppl (n = 1720) were 9.4±0.4 and 10.1±2.7 months, respectively. The age-adjusted change in mean LAZ per interval declined less with LNS (-0.07±0.44) versus Z-Suppl (-0.21±0.43; p<0.0001). There was a significant group by interval interaction with the greatest difference found in 9-12 month old children (p<0.0001). Adjusting for demographic characteristics and morbidity did not reduce the observed differences by type of intervention, even though the morbidity burden was greater in the LNS group.

Conclusions: Greater average physical growth in children who received LNS could not be explained by known cross-trial differences in baseline characteristics or morbidity burden, implying that the observed difference in growth response was partly due to LNS.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0181770PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5542440PMC
August 2017

Factors Affecting the Validity of Coverage Survey Reports of Receipt of Vitamin A Supplements During Child Health Days in Southwestern Burkina Faso.

Food Nutr Bull 2016 12 7;37(4):529-543. Epub 2016 Sep 7.

Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA, USA

Background: Assessment of high-dose vitamin A supplementation (VAS) coverage often relies on postevent coverage (PEC) surveys, but the validity of these methods has rarely been evaluated.

Objectives: To assess reported VAS coverage and factors associated with missed coverage and to investigate the reliability of the results.

Methods: During a cross-sectional survey, 10 454 caregivers of children <27 months old were asked whether their child had received VAS in the past 6 months. During a 48-week longitudinal study of 6232 children 6 to 30 months old, caregivers were asked every 4 weeks if their child had received VAS in the past 4 weeks.

Results: The cross-sectional study showed that 94.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 93.8%, 94.9%) of eligible children 6 to 26 months of age reportedly received VAS in the previous 6 months, as did 85.8% (CI: 84.5%, 87.2%) of ineligible, 0 to 5 months old children. The longitudinal study showed that 81.6% of children surveyed within 4 weeks following a VAS campaign reportedly received VAS during the campaign and 13.4% of caregivers incorrectly reported receiving VAS when no campaign had actually occurred. False-positive reporting was more likely when oral polio vaccine (OPV) was distributed during the reporting period (20.6% vs 5.4%; P < .001). Showing a photo of OPV during the interview reduced the odds ratio (OR) of false-positive reports (OR = 0.7 [0.6-0.8]).

Conclusions: The PEC surveys should include children outside the target age to assess targeting efficiency, and pictures of both VAS and oral vaccines distributed during the same period should be shown during interviews to enhance reporting accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0379572116666167DOI Listing
December 2016

Comparison of Preventive and Therapeutic Zinc Supplementation in Young Children in Burkina Faso: A Cluster-Randomized, Community-Based Trial.

J Nutr 2016 Oct 3;146(10):2058-2066. Epub 2016 Aug 3.

Helen Keller International, New York, NY; Department of Nutrition and.

Background: The WHO and UNICEF recommend therapeutic zinc supplementation (TZS) for the treatment of diarrhea. In zinc-deficient populations, preventive zinc supplementation might provide greater benefits for reducing diarrhea and malaria incidence and increasing growth and plasma zinc (pZn) concentration. If effective, intermittent preventive zinc supplementation (IPZS) would cost less than daily preventive zinc supplementation (DPZS).

Objective: We assessed the effects of IPZS, DPZS, and TZS in children on the primary outcomes of diarrhea incidence, malaria incidence, growth, and pZn concentration compared with nonsupplemented control groups.

Methods: Rural Burkinabe children (n = 7641; 6-30 mo old) in 36 clusters were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups for 16, 32, or 48 wk: 1) IPZS (10 mg Zn/d for 10 d every 16 wk); 2) DPZS (7 mg Zn/d); 3) TZS (20 mg Zn/d for 10 d for diarrhea); 4) morbidity surveillance control (MSC); or 5) nonintervention control (NIC). Supplemented groups remained masked until completion of primary analyses with mixed models.

Results: At baseline, stunting (28.6%) and low pZn concentration (<65 μg/dL; 43.5%) were common. After 48 wk, mean ± SE pZn increased more (P = 0.008) in the DPZS group (3.9 ± 1.3 μg/dL) than in the TZS (-0.5 ± 1.2 μg/dL) and NIC (-1.2 ± 0.9 μg/dL) groups. All supplemented groups had a moderately lower incidence of reported diarrhea (0.48-0.49 compared with 0.57 episodes/100 d, P = 0.001) and reported fever (1.1-1.2 compared with 1.5 episodes/100d, P < 0.001) and gained slightly less length (3.15-3.20 compared with 3.36 cm/16 wk, P < 0.001) than the MSC group, but did not differ from each other. Prevalence of diarrhea and incidences of confirmed fever and malaria were not different across study groups.

Conclusions: The preventive and TZS groups had reduced diarrhea incidence, but it is uncertain whether this resulted from a functional response to zinc or reporting bias. The comparison should be re-examined in populations known to respond to zinc supplementation. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00944359.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/jn.116.230128DOI Listing
October 2016

HRP2 and pLDH-Based Rapid Diagnostic Tests, Expert Microscopy, and PCR for Detection of Malaria Infection during Pregnancy and at Delivery in Areas of Varied Transmission: A Prospective Cohort Study in Burkina Faso and Uganda.

PLoS One 2016 5;11(7):e0156954. Epub 2016 Jul 5.

Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Intermittent screening and treatment (IST) of malaria during pregnancy has been proposed as an alternative to intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp), where IPTp is failing due to drug resistance. However, the antenatal parasitaemias are frequently very low, and the most appropriate screening test for IST has not been defined.

Methodology/principal Findings: We conducted a multi-center prospective study of 990 HIV-uninfected women attending ANC in two different malaria transmission settings at Tororo District Hospital, eastern Uganda and Colsama Health Center in western Burkina Faso. Women were enrolled in the study in the second or third trimester of pregnancy and followed to delivery, generating 2,597 blood samples for analysis. Screening tests included rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) targeting histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) and parasite lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) and microscopy, compared to nPCR as a reference standard. At enrolment, the proportion of pregnant women who were positive for P. falciparum by HRP2/pan pLDH RDT, Pf pLDH/pan pLDH RDT, microscopy and PCR was 38%, 29%, 36% and 44% in Uganda and 21%, 16%, 15% and 35% in Burkina Faso, respectively. All test positivity rates declined during follow-up. In comparison to PCR, the sensitivity of the HRP2/pan pLDH RDT, Pf pLDH/pan pLDH RDT and microscopy was 75.7%, 60.1% and 69.7% in Uganda, 55.8%, 42.6% and 55.8% in Burkina Faso respectively for all antenatal visits. Specificity was greater than 96% for all three tests. Comparison of accuracy using generalized estimating equation revealed that the HRP2- detecting RDT was the most accurate test in both settings.

Conclusions/significance: The study suggests that HRP2-based RDTs are the most appropriate point-of-care test currently available for use during pregnancy especially for symptomatic women, but will still miss some PCR-positive women. The clinical significance of these very low density infections needs to be better defined.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0156954PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4933335PMC
July 2017

Asymptomatic malaria infection affects the interpretation of biomarkers of iron and vitamin A status, even after adjusting for systemic inflammation, but does not affect plasma zinc concentrations among young children in Burkina Faso.

J Nutr 2014 Dec 1;144(12):2050-8. Epub 2014 Oct 1.

Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA;

Background: Biomarkers of iron [plasma ferritin (pF)], vitamin A [retinol binding protein (RBP)], and zinc status [plasma zinc (pZn)] are affected by the acute phase response, independent of micronutrient status.

Objective: The objective of these analyses was to assess how asymptomatic malaria infection affects the interpretation of these biomarkers after adjustment for elevated acute phase proteins (APPs).

Methods: Soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), pF, RBP, and pZn concentrations were measured among 451 asymptomatic children aged 6-23 mo in Burkina Faso and adjusted for elevated APP (C-reactive protein ≥5 mg/L and/or α-1-acid-glycoprotein ≥1 g/L) based on a 4-group categorical model. Plasma histidine-rich protein II (HRP2) concentrations ≥0.75 μg/L were considered indicative of current or recent malaria parasitemia.

Results: Of the children in the study, 57.4% had at least 1 elevated APP, and 48.5% had elevated HRP2. After adjusting for APP, children with elevated HRP2 had higher pF (23.5 ± 1.5 μg/L vs. 11.1 ± 0.8 μg/L; P < 0.001) and lower RBP (0.79 ± 0.01 μmol/L vs. 0.92 ± 0.01 μmol/L; P < 0.001) than those without, but there were no differences in pZn among those with and without elevated HRP2 (64.9 ± 12.7 μg/dL vs. 64.9 ± 11.1 μg/dL; P = 0.98). Children with elevated HRP2 had higher sTfR than those without (17.6 ± 0.5 mg/L vs. 12.3 ± 0.4 mg/L; P < 0.0001). After adjusting for HRP2, along with APP, the estimated prevalence of iron deficiency (pF < 12 μg/L) increased from 38.7% to 50.6% and vitamin A deficiency (RBP < 0.84 μmol/L) decreased from 33.4% to 27.7%.

Conclusions: Asymptomatic malaria is associated with indicators of micronutrient status, even after adjusting for APP. Adjusting indicators of iron and vitamin A status based only on APP may inaccurately estimate the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in settings with a high prevalence of malaria and inflammation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00944853.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3945/jn.114.200345DOI Listing
December 2014

Efficacy and day 7 plasma piperaquine concentrations in African children treated for uncomplicated malaria with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine.

PLoS One 2014 18;9(8):e103200. Epub 2014 Aug 18.

Direction Régionale de l'Ouest, Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso; Non Transmissible disease department, Centre Muraz Bobo-Dioulasso, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

Background: One promising new Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) is dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQ). However, the pharmacokinetics of piperaquine and the relationship between drug levels and clinical efficacy are incompletely characterized, particularly in children.

Methods: We performed a single-arm open-label trial in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. A total of 379 participants aged 6 months or more with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were enrolled. Each participant received daily dose of DHA-PQ for three days and followed for 42 days. Parasitological efficacy was analyzed, considering rates of recrudescence and overall recurrence. PK was an exploratory endpoint and a priori, no sample size had been determined. Day 7 capillary and venous plasma concentrations of piperaquine were measured in children aged 2-10 years.

Results: Of the 379 participants, 365 (96.3%) completed 42 days of follow-up. The median daily dose of PQ was 18.5 mg/kg [6.5-24]. Treatment with DHA-PQ was well tolerated with fever and parasitemia resolution within 48 hours in nearly all children. Recurrent malaria within 42 days of follow-up occurred in 31.3% (10/34) of children less than 2 years old, 16.0% (16/106) of those aged 2-5 years, 9.4% (15/160) of those aged 5-10 years, and none (0/68) of those over 10 years old. After genotyping, 3 of 41 recurrent episodes were recrudescence. An exploratory analysis shows that children with successful treatment outcomes had significantly higher median plasma concentrations of PQ compared to those with recurrent malaria within 42 days after therapy, considering either capillary samples (68 ng/ml [50-85] compared to 48 ng/ml [36-55], p<0.001) or venous samples (42 ng/ml [29-59] compared to 25 ng/ml [19-44], p<0.001).

Conclusion: DHA-PQ was effective for uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria treatment and offers an alternative to other ACTs. Recurrent malaria was mainly due to new infections after treatment and was correlated with low day 7 PQ concentration in the youngest patients.

Trial Registration: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN59761234.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0103200PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4136730PMC
May 2015

Could the decision of trial participation precede the informed consent process? Evidence from Burkina Faso.

PLoS One 2013 15;8(11):e80800. Epub 2013 Nov 15.

Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé (IRSS)/Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

Background: Over the last years, the number of clinical trials carried out in low-income countries with poor medical infrastructure and limited access to health care has increased. In these settings, the decision of participating in a clinical study may be influenced by factors related to participants' vulnerability that limit the efficacy of the informed consent.

Methods: A mixed methods social science study, based on the triangulation of qualitative and quantitative data, was carried out in a socio-economically disadvantaged and semi-urban area of Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. The study aimed at assessing the relevance of the informed consent procedure on the decision-making process of the parents and/or guardians of potential participants in a pediatric malaria trial.

Results: For most parents (70.4%), the decision of participating had already been taken before undergoing the informed consent process and was based on the information conveyed through the community. Access to free and good quality health care often inspired this decision. In addition, the parents' willingness to have their child included in the trial made them develop active strategies to achieve this purpose.

Discussion: In a context of socio-economic vulnerability and poor access to free health care, the process of informed consent does not always accomplish its goal of informing people and enabling them to make a free and informed decision. This information role is somehow anticipated by the community and trial participation becomes a strategic action to secure otherwise unavailable health resources leading community members to decide on participation even prior to the informed consent process.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0080800PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3829938PMC
August 2014

Associations between intestinal mucosal function and changes in plasma zinc concentration following zinc supplementation.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2013 Sep;57(3):348-55

Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Objectives: Subclinical environmental enteropathy is associated with malabsorption of fats, carbohydrates, and vitamins A, B12, and folate; however, little information is available on mineral absorption. We therefore investigated the relation between intestinal mucosal function (measured by the lactulose:mannitol permeability test and plasma citrulline concentration), and zinc (Zn) absorption, as estimated by the change in plasma Zn concentration (PZC) following short-term Zn or placebo supplementation.

Methods: We conducted a randomized, partially masked, placebo-controlled trial among 282 apparently healthy children 6 to 23 months of age in Burkina Faso. After completing baseline intestinal function tests, participants received either 5 mg Zn, as zinc sulfate, or placebo, daily for 21 days.

Results: At baseline, mean ± standard deviation PZC was 62.9 ± 11.9 μg/dL; median (interquartile range) urinary lactulose:mannitol (L:M) recovery ratio and plasma citrulline concentrations were 0.04 (0.03-0.07) and 11.4 (9.0-15.6) μmol/L, respectively. Change in PZC was significantly greater in the Zn-supplemented versus placebo group (15.6 ± 13.3 vs 0.02 ± 10.9 μg/dL; P < 0.0001), and was negatively associated with initial urinary L:M recovery ratio (-1.1 μg/dL per 50% increase in urinary L:M recovery ratio; P = 0.014); this latter relation did not differ between supplementation groups (P = 0.26). Baseline plasma citrulline concentration was not associated with change in PZC.

Conclusions: Although altered intestinal permeability may reduce dietary Zn absorption, it likely does not undermine the efficacy of Zn supplementation, given the large increases in PZC following short-term Zn supplementation observed in this study, even among those with increased urinary L:M recovery ratios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0b013e31829b4e9eDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4627695PMC
September 2013

Caregiver recognition of childhood diarrhea, care seeking behaviors and home treatment practices in rural Burkina Faso: a cross-sectional survey.

PLoS One 2012 13;7(3):e33273. Epub 2012 Mar 13.

Department of Nutrition, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America.

Introduction: To design effective national diarrhea control programs, including oral rehydration solution (ORS) and therapeutic zinc supplementation, information is needed on local perceptions of illness, external care seeking behaviors, and home treatment practices.

Methods: A cross-sectional, community-based household survey was conducted in the Orodara Health District, Burkina Faso. Caregivers of 10,490 children <27 months were interviewed to assess child diarrhea prevalence and related care practices. Characteristics of households, caregivers, children, and reported illnesses were compared for those caregivers who did or did not recognize the presence of diarrhea, as defined according to clinical criteria (≥ 3 liquid or semi-liquid stools/day). Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with illness recognition and treatment.

Results: Clinically defined diarrhea was present in 7.6% (95% CI: 7.1-8.1%) of children during the 24 hours preceding the survey but recognized by only 55% of caregivers. Over half (55%) of the caregivers of 1,067 children with a clinically defined diarrhea episode in the past 14 days sought care outside the home; 78% of those seeking care attended a public sector clinic. Care was sought and treatment provided more frequently for children with fever, vomiting, anorexia, longer illness duration, and those living closer to the health center; and care was sought more frequently for male children. 80% of children with recent diarrhea received some form of treatment; only 24% received ORS, whereas 14% received antibiotics. Zinc was not yet available in the study area.

Conclusions: Caregivers frequently fail to recognize children's diarrhea, especially among younger infants and when illness signs are less severe. Treatment practices do not correspond with international recommendations in most cases, even when caregivers consult with formal health services. Child caregivers need additional assistance to recognize diarrhea correctly, and both caregivers and health care providers need updated training on current diarrhea treatment recommendations.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0033273PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3302832PMC
August 2012

Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of piperaquine in children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2012 Mar 18;91(3):497-505. Epub 2012 Jan 18.

Mahidol-Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is being increasingly used as a first-line artemisinin combination treatment for malaria. The aim of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of piperaquine in 236 children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Burkina Faso. They received a standard body weight-based oral 3-day fixed-dose dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine regimen. Capillary plasma concentration-time profiles were characterized using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. The population pharmacokinetics of piperaquine were described accurately by a two-transit-compartment absorption model and a three-compartment distribution model. Body weight was a significant covariate affecting clearance and volume parameters. The individually predicted day 7 capillary plasma concentration of piperaquine was an important predictor (P < 0.0001) of recurrent malaria infection after treatment. Young children (2-5 years of age) received a significantly higher body weight-normalized dose than older children (P = 0.025) but had significantly lower day 7 piperaquine concentrations (P = 0.024) and total piperaquine exposures (P = 0.021), suggesting that an increased dose regimen for young children should be evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/clpt.2011.254DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3736305PMC
March 2012

Short-term zinc supplementation with dispersible tablets or zinc sulfate solution yields similar positive effects on plasma zinc concentration of young children in Burkina Faso: a randomized controlled trial.

J Pediatr 2012 Jan 25;160(1):129-35.e3. Epub 2011 Aug 25.

Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.

Objective: To assess zinc absorption from dispersible tablets by investigating the effects of short-term zinc supplementation, provided either as zinc (Zn) sulfate dispersible tablets or solution, on changes in plasma Zn concentration in young children.

Study Design: We conducted a randomized, partially-masked, placebo-controlled trial in 451 children 6 to 23 months of age in Burkina Faso, randomly assigned to receive a dispersible tablet containing 5 mg Zn, a Zn solution containing 5 mg Zn/5 mL, or a placebo solution, daily for 3 weeks. The main outcome measure was change in plasma zinc concentration after supplementation compared with baseline.

Results: The mean plus or minus SD change in plasma Zn concentration (μg/dL) was significantly greater in both Zn supplemented groups (tablets: 16.9±13.1μg/dL, liquid: 16.6±14.2 μg/dL), compared with the placebo group (0.2±10.9 μg/dL; P<.001, ANOVA). In both Zn supplemented groups, but not in the placebo group, change in plasma Zn concentration was progressively less with increasing age in months (-0.79 μg/dL/mo and -1.15 μg/dL/mo, respectively; P<.001); this effect did not differ in the Zn supplemented groups (P=.18).

Conclusions: Short-term supplementation results in a large increase in plasma Zn concentration, regardless of whether the additional Zn is provided as a dispersible tablet or solution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.06.051DOI Listing
January 2012

Selection of known Plasmodium falciparum resistance-mediating polymorphisms by artemether-lumefantrine and amodiaquine-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine but not dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in Burkina Faso.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2010 May 15;54(5):1949-54. Epub 2010 Mar 15.

Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

Artemether-lumefantrine (AL), dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP), and amodiaquine-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (AQ-SP) offer excellent antimalarial efficacy but may select for parasite polymorphisms that decrease drug sensitivity. We evaluated the selection of known polymorphisms in genes encoding putative transporters (pfcrt and pfmdr1) and SP targets (pfdhfr and pfdhps) in parasites that caused new infections within 42 days of therapy for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Burkina Faso. In 559 children in 2006, 42-day genotype-uncorrected failures were seen in 31.2% with AL, 11.8% with AQ-SP, and 7.6% with DP. After prior AL therapy, selection of wild-type sequences was seen for K76T in pfcrt (72.7% mixed or mutant results pretreatment versus 52.1% in new infections; P = 0.008) and N86Y (36.0% versus 18.7%; P = 0.025) and Y184F (66.7% versus 45.8%; P = 0.009) in pfmdr1. After prior AQ-SP therapy, selection of mutant sequences was seen for N51I (30.8% versus 61.5%; P = 0.05), C59R (28.2% versus 76.9%; P = 0.002), and S108N (30.8% versus 76.9%; P = 0.005) in pfdhfr. After prior DP therapy, selection was not seen for K76T (72.7% versus 77.8%; P = 0.96) in pfcrt or N86Y (36.0% versus 33.3%; P = 0.84), Y184F (66.7% versus 77.8%; P = 0.39), or D1246Y (9.3% versus 0%; P = 0.42) in pfmdr1. In 378 additional treatments with DP in 2007, 42-day uncorrected failure was seen in 10.9%. After prior DP, selection was again not seen for K76T (66.7% mixed or mutant results versus 59.5%; P = 0.43) in pfcrt or N86Y (38.7% versus 40.5%; P = 0.85), Y184F (67.6% versus 73.0%; P = 0.54), or D1246Y (3.6% versus 8.1%; P = 0.50) in pfmdr1. Despite its chemical similarity, piperaquine did not select for the same polymorphisms as chloroquine or AQ, suggesting different mechanisms of resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01413-09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2863637PMC
May 2010

Performance of OptiMAL-IT compared to microscopy, for malaria detection in Burkina Faso.

Trop Med Int Health 2009 Mar 28;14(3):338-40. Epub 2009 Jan 28.

Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

Objective: To compare the performance of OptiMAL-IT, a rapid diagnostic test for malaria, with that of microscopy in Burkina Faso.

Method: Finger-prick blood samples of 464 children attending hospital for suspected malaria were tested for malaria by microscopy and OptiMAL-IT.

Results: The sensitivity and specificity of OptiMAL-IT were 98.7% (CI 95% = 97.6-99.8) and 96.2% (CI 95% = 94.3-98.1) respectively, with a high positive likelihood ratio (25.97).

Conclusion: OptiMAL-IT can be considered a good method to diagnose malaria in Burkina Faso, particularly in remote areas with little or no access to microscopy services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2009.02228.xDOI Listing
March 2009

Major reduction of malaria morbidity with combined vitamin A and zinc supplementation in young children in Burkina Faso: a randomized double blind trial.

Nutr J 2008 Jan 31;7. Epub 2008 Jan 31.

Institut de recherche en sciences de la santé (IRSS), Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

Background: Vitamin A and zinc are crucial for normal immune function, and may play a synergistic role for reducing the risk of infection including malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum.

Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a single dose of 200 000 IU of vitamin A with daily zinc supplementation was done in children of Sourkoudougou village, Burkina Faso. Children aged from 6 to 72 months were randomized to receive a single dose of 200 000 IU of vitamin A plus 10 mg elemental zinc, six days a week (n = 74) or placebo (n = 74) for a period of six months. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted at the beginning and the end of the study, and children were evaluated daily for fever. Microscopic examination of blood smear was done in the case of fever (temperature > or =37.5 degrees C) for malaria parasite detection.

Results: At the end of the study we observed a significant decrease in the prevalence malaria in the supplemented group (34%) compared to the placebo group (3.5%) (p < 0.001). Malaria episodes were lower in the supplemented group (p = 0.029), with a 30.2% reduction of malaria cases (p = 0.025). Time to first malaria episode was longer in the supplemented group (p = 0.015). The supplemented group also had 22% fewer fever episodes than the placebo group (p = 0.030).

Conclusion: These results suggest that combined vitamin A plus zinc supplementation reduces the risk of fever and clinical malaria episodes among children, and thus may play a key role in malaria control strategies for children in Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-7-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2254644PMC
January 2008

Randomized comparison of amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, artemether-lumefantrine, and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Burkina Faso.

Clin Infect Dis 2007 Dec 22;45(11):1453-61. Epub 2007 Oct 22.

Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

Background: Combination antimalarial therapy is advocated to improve treatment efficacy and limit selection of drug-resistant parasites. We compared the efficacies of 3 combination regimens in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso: amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, which was recently shown to be highly efficacious at this site; artemether-lumefantrine, the new national first-line antimalarial regimen; and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP), a newer regimen.

Methods: We enrolled 559 patients >or=6 months of age with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria and randomized them to the 3 regimens. We analyzed the risk of recurrent parasitemia by day 28 and day 42, both unadjusted and adjusted by PCR methods to distinguish recrudescence and new infection.

Results: Complete data were available for 517 (92.5%) of the enrolled subjects. Early treatment failures occurred in 5 patients treated with amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and in 2 patients each treated with the other regimens. The day 28 risk of recurrent parasitemia, unadjusted by genotyping, was significantly higher for patients receiving artemether-lumefantrine than for patients receiving amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (20.1% vs. 6.2%; risk difference, 13.8%; 95% confidence interval, 7.0%-20.7%) or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (20.1% vs. 2.2%; risk difference, 17.9%; 95% confidence interval, 11.6%-24.1%). Similar differences were seen for children <5 years of age (54% of the study population) and when outcomes were extended to 42 days. Significant differences were not seen between outcomes for patients receiving amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and outcomes for those receiving dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine. Recrudescences were uncommon (occurring in <5% of patients) in all treatment groups. No serious adverse events were noted.

Conclusions: All regimens were highly efficacious in clearing infection, but considering the risks of recurrent malaria after therapy, the amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine regimens were more efficacious than the artemether-lumefantrine regimen (the new national regimen in Burkina Faso) for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/522985DOI Listing
December 2007

Artemether-lumefantrine versus amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Burkina Faso: a randomised non-inferiority trial.

Lancet 2007 Feb;369(9560):491-8

Institut de Recherche en Sciences de la Santé, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

Background: Artemisinin-based combination regimens are widely advocated for malarial treatment, but other effective regimens might be cheaper and more readily available. Our aim was to compare the risk of recurrent parasitaemia in patients given artemether-lumefantrine with that in those given amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for uncomplicated malaria.

Methods: We enrolled 521 patients aged 6 months or older with uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Patients were randomly assigned to receive standard doses of either artemether-lumefantrine (261) or amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (260) for 3 days. Primary endpoints were the risks of treatment failure within 28 days, either unadjusted or adjusted by genotyping to distinguish recrudescence from new infection. The study is registered at controlled-trials.gov with the identifier ISRCTN54261005.

Findings: Of enrolled patients, 478 (92%) completed the 28-day study. The risk of recurrent symptomatic malaria was lowest in the group given amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (1.7%vs 10.2%; risk difference 8.5%; 95% CI 4.3-12.6; p=0.0001); as was the risk of recurrent parasitaemia (4.7%vs 15.1%; 10.4%; 5.1-15.6; p=0.0002). Nearly all recurrences were due to new infections. Recrudescences were four late treatment failures with artemether-lumefantrine and one early treatment failure with amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Both regimens were safe and well tolerated, with pruritus more common with amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine than with artemether-lumefantrine. Each regimen selected for new isolates with mutations that have been associated with decreased drug susceptibility.

Interpretation: Amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine was more effective than was artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. For regions of Africa where amodiaquine plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine continues to be effective, this less expensive and more available regimen should be considered as an alternative to blanket recommendations for artemisinin-based combination treatment for malaria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60236-0DOI Listing
February 2007

Amodiaquine, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, and combination therapy for uncomplicated falciparum malaria: a randomized controlled trial from Burkina Faso.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2005 Nov;73(5):826-32

Institut de Recherche en Science de la Santé, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso.

Increasing resistance to chloroquine necessitates the evaluation of other antimalarial therapies in Africa. We compared the efficacies of amodiaquine (AQ), sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), and AQ + SP for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in a randomized trial of patients 6 months of age or older in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Of the 944 patients enrolled, 829 (88%; 53% under 5 years of age) were assigned 28-day efficacy outcomes. For all regimens, early treatment failures were uncommon (< 2%). Considering all treatment failures based on WHO criteria, AQ + SP was most efficacious (failures in 4.2%), followed by SP (9.1%) and AQ (17.9%; P < 0.02 for all pairwise comparisons). Considering only clinical failures, relative efficacies were similar (failures in 2.1% with AQ + SP, 6.5% with SP, and 13.2% with AQ; P < 0.02 for all pairwise comparisons). The risk of recrudescence was lower with AQ + SP (2.1%) compared with SP (6.1%, P = 0.02) and AQ (8.1%, P = 0.001). Risks of new infection were lower with AQ + SP (2.1%) and SP (2.4%) compared with AQ (9.1%, P < 0.001 for both comparisons). No serious adverse events were seen. AQ + SP appears to offer a highly effective, inexpensive, and available therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Burkina Faso.
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November 2005