Publications by authors named "N Mohd Esa"

52 Publications

Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Attenuates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis Through Modulation of NF-κB and Cell Adhesion Molecules.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2022 Jan 18. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, 50603, Malaysia.

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a serious health condition and defined as inflammation in the colon. Untreated, UC can develop into colitis-associated cancer (CAC), for which effective medicines are not available. Natural products are a better choice to treat UC by alleviating the inflammation. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a phenolic compound and known for its beneficial effects, including antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and anticancer. We aimed to study the effect of CAPE on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC in mouse model. Administration of CAPE to DSS-induced mice protected against colon damage by improving body weight of mice, reducing the weight of spleen, and increased colon length. In addition, administration of CAPE resulted reduced the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and CD positive cells. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the production of key cytokines and the expression of nuclear factor (p65-NF)-κB. Moreover, p65-NF-κB activation was reduced in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells from mouse origin. CAPE treatment leads to the reduced expressions of intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecules (VCAM), both are key cell adhesion molecules. The results of this study clearly indicate that CAPE can potentially control inflammation in the colon and can be used as a therapy for UC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-021-03788-2DOI Listing
January 2022

Induction of apoptosis by Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill.) Urb. bulb extracted under optimised extraction condition on human retinoblastoma cancer cells (WERI-Rb-1).

J Ethnopharmacol 2022 Feb 21;284:114770. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Natural Medicines and Product Research Laboratory (NaturMeds), Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The bulb of Eleutherine bulbosa (Mill.) Urb. is an indigenous medicinal plant traditionally used among Dayak people for the management of diabetes, breast cancer, hypertension, stroke, and fertility problems in women. The bulb has been reported with a potent cytotoxic potential but with limited underlying mechanisms.

Aim Of The Study: This study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic properties of E. bulbosa ethanolic bulb extracted under optimised extraction condition on retinoblastoma cancer cells (WERI-Rb-1) through in vitro cell culture bioassays. The optimised extraction condition has been determined in the previous reports.

Materials And Methods: Cytotoxic assay was analysed through MTT assay. Comparison between non-optimised and optimised extraction condition from E. bulbosa ethanolic bulb extract was evaluated. Morphological assessment of apoptotic cells was conducted through acridine orange propidium iodide (AOPI) staining using fluorescence microscopy. Apoptosis assay was carried out through Annexin V-FITC and cell cycle analysis through PI staining. The effect of varying concentrations (IC, IC, IC) of the optimised E. bulbosa ethanolic bulb extract was observed. The mRNA expression was also conducted to confirm the underlying mechanism.

Results: The optimised E. bulbosa ethanolic bulb extract markedly suppressed the proliferation of retinoblastoma cancer cells significantly with an IC value of 15.7 μg/mL as compared to non-optimised extract (p < 0.01). Fluorescence microscopy revealed that retinoblastoma cancer cells manifested early features of apoptosis-like membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation and formation of apoptotic bodies in a dose-dependent manner. The number of apoptotic cells were greatly observed in early and late apoptosis through Annexin V-FITC and the extract also induced cell arrestment as compared to the untreated group. The apoptosis was confirmed with the upregulation of Bax, Bad, p53, Caspase 3, Caspase 8, and Caspase 9 genes meanwhile, Bcl-2, BcL-xL, Nrf-2, and HO-1 genes were downregulated.

Conclusion: The optimised E. bulbosa ethanolic bulb extract induced a significant cell death and cell cycle arrestment on retinoblastoma cancer cells. It could be suggested that the induction of apoptosis in retinoblastoma cancer cells may be due to the synergistic effect of the bioactive compounds extracted under optimised extraction condition. Our findings indicated that E. bulbosa bulb could be promising chemotherapeutic potential to treat retinoblastoma cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114770DOI Listing
February 2022

Challenges and Adaptation in Otorhinolaryngology Practice During Pandemic Lockdown: Experience from a Malaysian COVID-19 Hospital.

Malays J Med Sci 2021 Jun 30;28(3):143-150. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

COVID-19 has taken the world by storm: since the first few cases appeared in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and by June 2020 there were more than 10 million cases of COVID-19 cases worldwide. Malaysia had its first case in January 2020 and acted promptly by implementing several drastic measures to contain the disease. Subsequently, the Ministry of Health Malaysia has implemented guidelines and recommendations on the management of COVID-19. The Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (ORL-HNS) provides services for patients with ear, nose, throat, head and neck diseases and provides audiology, speech and language therapy, as well as undergraduate and postgraduate training. As the department's staff is heavily involved in examinations and interventions of upper aerodigestive tract problems, the challenges are distinctly different from other specialties. This article discusses how COVID-19 affected ORL-HNS services and what measures were taken in Hospital Melaka, Malaysia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21315/mjms2021.28.3.13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8260059PMC
June 2021

(Mill.) Urb. Bulb: Review of the Pharmacological Activities and Its Prospects for Application.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jun 23;22(13). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Natural Medicine and Product Research Laboratory (NaturMeds), Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia.

Natural product is an excellent candidate for alternative medicine for disease management. The bulb of is one of the notable Iridaceae family with a variety therapeutic potential that is widely cultivated in Southeast Asia. The bulb has been used traditionally among the Dayak community as a folk medicine to treat several diseases like diabetes, breast cancer, nasal congestion, and fertility problems. The bulb is exceptionally rich in phytochemicals like phenolic and flavonoid derivatives, naphthalene, anthraquinone, and naphthoquinone. The electronic database was searched using various keywords, i.e., , , , , and others due to the interchangeably used scientific names of different countries. Scientific investigations revealed that various pharmacological activities were recorded from the bulb of including anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-bacterial, anti-fungi, anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, dermatological problems, anti-oxidant, and anti-fertility. The potential application of the bulb in the food industry and in animal nutrition was also discussed to demonstrate its great versatility. This is a compact study and is the first study to review the extensive pharmacological activities of the bulb and its potential applications. The development of innovative food and pharma products from the bulb of is of great interest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22136747DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8268349PMC
June 2021

Limonin modulated immune and inflammatory responses to suppress colorectal adenocarcinoma in mice model.

Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2021 09 19;394(9):1907-1915. Epub 2021 May 19.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Inflammation and compromised immune responses often increase colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. The immune-modulating effects of limonin on carcinogen/inflammation-induced colorectal cancer (CRC) were studied in mice. Male Balb/c mice were randomly assorted into three groups (n = 6): healthy control, non-treated CRC-induced (azoxymethane/dextran-sulfate-sodium AOM/DSS) control, and CRC-induced + 50 mg limonin/kg body weight. The CRC developments were monitored via macroscopic, histopathological, ELISA, and mRNA expression analyses. Limonin downregulated inflammation (TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-α), enhanced the adaptive immune responses (CD8, CD4, and CD19), and upregulated antioxidant defense (Nrf2, SOD2) mRNA expressions. Limonin reduced serum malondialdehyde (MDA, lipid peroxidation biomarker), prostaglandin E2, and histopathology inflammation scores, while increasing reduced glutathione (GSH) in CRC-induced mice. Limonin significantly (p < 0.05) increased T cells (CD4 and CD8) and B cells (CD19) in spleen tissues. The CD335 (natural killer cells) were increased in the CRC-induced mice and limonin treatment restored them to normal levels suggesting reinstatement to normal colon conditions. Limonin apparently mitigated CRC development, by ameliorating adaptive immune responses (CD8, CD4, and CD19), reducing inflammation (serum prostaglandin E2; TNF-α, innate immune responses) and oxidative stress, and enhancing the endogenous anti-oxidation defense reactions (GSH) in CRC-induced mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00210-021-02101-6DOI Listing
September 2021
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