Publications by authors named "N Mercier"

121 Publications

A West African Middle Stone Age site dated to the beginning of MIS 5: Archaeology, chronology, and paleoenvironment of the Ravin Blanc I (eastern Senegal).

J Hum Evol 2021 Mar 19;154:102952. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Laboratory of Archaeology and Population in Africa, Anthropology Unit, Department of Genetics and Evolution, University of Geneva, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 30, 1205 Genève, Switzerland.

The Ravin Blanc I archaeological occurrence, dated to MIS 5, provides unprecedented data on the Middle Stone Age (MSA) of West Africa since well-contextualized archaeological sites pre-dating MIS 4/3 are extremely rare for this region. The combined approach on geomorphology, phytolith analysis, and OSL date estimations offers a solid framework for the MSA industry comprised in the Ravin Blanc I sedimentary sequence. The paleoenvironmental reconstruction further emphasizes on the local effects of the global increase in moisture characterizing the beginning of the Upper Pleistocene as well as the later shift to more arid conditions. The lithic industry, comprised in the lower part of the sequence and dated to MIS 5e, shows core reduction sequences among which Levallois methods are minor, as well as an original tool-kit composition, among which pieces with single wide abrupt notches, side-scrapers made by inverse retouch, and a few large crudely shaped bifacial tools. The Ravin Blanc I assemblage has neither a chronologically equivalent site to serve comparisons nor a clear techno-typological correspondent in West Africa. However, the industry represents an early MSA technology that could either retain influences from the southern West African 'Sangoan' or show reminiscences of the preceding local Acheulean. A larger-scale assessment of behavioral dynamics at work at the transition period between the Middle to Upper Pleistocene is discussed in view of integrating this new site to the global perception of this important period in the MSA evolutionary trajectories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2021.102952DOI Listing
March 2021

MS2-Affinity Purification Coupled with RNA Sequencing in Gram-Positive Bacteria.

J Vis Exp 2021 02 23(168). Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Université de Strasbourg, CNRS;

Although small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) are widespread among the bacterial domain of life, the functions of many of them remain poorly characterized notably due to the difficulty of identifying their mRNA targets. Here, we described a modified protocol of the MS2-Affinity Purification coupled with RNA Sequencing (MAPS) technology, aiming to reveal all RNA partners of a specific sRNA in vivo. Broadly, the MS2 aptamer is fused to the 5' extremity of the sRNA of interest. This construct is then expressed in vivo, allowing the MS2-sRNA to interact with its cellular partners. After bacterial harvesting, cells are mechanically lysed. The crude extract is loaded into an amylose-based chromatography column previously coated with the MS2 protein fused to the maltose binding protein. This enables the specific capture of MS2-sRNA and interacting RNAs. After elution, co-purified RNAs are identified by high-throughput RNA sequencing and subsequent bioinformatic analysis. The following protocol has been implemented in the Gram-positive human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus and is, in principle, transposable to any Gram-positive bacteria. To sum up, MAPS technology constitutes an efficient method to deeply explore the regulatory network of a particular sRNA, offering a snapshot of its whole targetome. However, it is important to keep in mind that putative targets identified by MAPS still need to be validated by complementary experimental approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/61731DOI Listing
February 2021

Extra-uterine endometrial stromal sarcoma of the left adnexa and distal ureter: A case report.

Gynecol Oncol Rep 2021 May 21;36:100702. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gore.2021.100702DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7851353PMC
May 2021

Vomiting and retching as presenting signs of focal epilepsy in children.

Epileptic Disord 2020 Dec;22(6):823-827

Pediatric Neurology Unit, Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc, Brussels, Belgium, Institute of Clinical and Experimental Research, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.

Ictal vomiting is a rare condition easily misdiagnosed as a common disease. We report two children presenting with retching and vomiting as the main ictal manifestation. Patient 1 was a four-year-old girl with a history of daily nocturnal vomiting for two months, first interpreted as a functional disorder, then as a viral infection. She presented with vomiting accompanied by focal right-sided hemifacial clonic jerking, occurring multiple times per day. Video-EEG demonstrated ictal discharges associated with the retching and vomiting, over a normal background, and occasional interictal focal spikes. MRI was normal. PET demonstrated left-sided opercular hypometabolism. Patient 2 was a girl with a history of focal epilepsy, secondary to a right central dysembryoplastic tumour, first resected with subsequent seizure freedom at the age of three years. At five years of age, she presented with recurrent episodes of retching and vomiting initially diagnosed as migraine. Video-EEG showed ictal discharges, clinically correlating with retching, vomiting and clonic facial jerking, with normal interictal activity. Brain MRI showed a progression of the tumour. A second resection resulted in seizure freedom. Ictal vomiting often goes undiagnosed, especially in children, causing treatment delays. An ictal origin should be considered, particularly when the episodes are recurrent and stereotyped. [Published with video sequences].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/epd.2020.1227DOI Listing
December 2020

New data on settlement and environment at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary in Sudano-Sahelian West Africa: Interdisciplinary investigation at Fatandi V, Eastern Senegal.

PLoS One 2020 9;15(12):e0243129. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Archéologie et Peuplement de l'Afrique, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

The end of the Palaeolithic represents one of the least-known periods in the history of western Africa, both in terms of its chronology and the identification of cultural assemblages entities based on the typo-technical analyses of its industries. In this context, the site of Fatandi V offers new data to discuss the cultural pattern during the Late Stone Age in western Africa. Stratigraphic, taphonomical and sedimentological analyses show the succession of three sedimentary units. Several concentrations with rich lithic material were recognized. An in situ occupation, composed of bladelets, segments, and bladelet and flake cores, is confirmed while others concentrations of lithic materials have been more or less disturbed by erosion and pedogenic post-depositional processes. The sequence is well-dated from 12 convergent OSL dates. Thanks to the dating of the stratigraphic units and an OSL date from the layer (11,300-9,200 BCE [13.3-11.2 ka at 68%, 14.3-10.3 ka at 95%]), the artefacts are dated to the end of Pleistocene or Early Holocene. Palaeoenvironmental data suggest that the settlement took place within a mosaic environment and more precisely at the transition between the open landscape of savanna on the glacis and the plateau, and the increasingly densely-wooded alluvial corridor. These humid areas must have been particularly attractive during the dry season by virtue of their rich resources (raw materials, water, trees, and bushes). The Fatandi V site constitutes the first stratified site of the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary in Senegal with both precise geochronological and palaeoenvironmental data. It complements perfectly the data already obtained in Mali and in the rest of western Africa, and thus constitutes a reference point for this period. In any case, the assemblage of Fatandi V, with its bladelets and segments and in the absence of ceramics and grinding material, fits with a cultural group using exclusively geometric armatures which strongly differs from another group characterized by the production of bifacial armatures, accompanied in its initial phase by ceramics (or stoneware) and grinding material.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243129PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7725507PMC
January 2021

Dolutegravir-based and low-dose efavirenz-based regimen for the initial treatment of HIV-1 infection (NAMSAL): week 96 results from a two-group, multicentre, randomised, open label, phase 3 non-inferiority trial in Cameroon.

Lancet HIV 2020 10;7(10):e677-e687

TransVIHMI, University of Montpellier, IRD, INSERM, 34394 Montpellier, France; Montpellier University Hospital Centre, Montpellier, France.

Background: Updated WHO guidelines recommend a dolutegravir-based regimen as the preferred first-line treatment for HIV infection and low-dose efavirenz (400 mg) as an alternative. We aimed to report the non-inferior efficacy of dolutegravir compared with efavirenz 400 mg at week 96.

Methods: We did a multicentre, randomised, open label, phase 3 trial in in three hospitals in Yaoundé, Cameroon, in HIV-1 infected antiretroviral-naive adults with an HIV RNA viral load of greater than 1000 copies per mL to compare dolutegravir 50 mg with efavirenz 400 mg (reference treatment), both combined with lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. The primary endpoint was the proportion with a viral load of less than 50 copies per mL at week 48 (10% non-inferiority margin). The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02777229 and is ongoing.

Findings: Between July, 2016, and August, 2019, of 820 patients assessed, 613 were randomly assigned to receive at least one dose of study medication, with 310 in the dolutegravir group and 303 in the efavirenz 400 mg group. At week 96 in the intention-to-treat analysis, 229 (74%) of 310 patients receiving dolutegravir and 219 (72%) of 303 patients receiving efavirenz, achieved plasma HIV-1 RNA less than 50 copies per mL (difference 1·6%, 95% CI -5·4 to 8·6; p=0.66). Viral load suppression was reached significantly more rapidly in the dolutegravir group (p<0·001). Virological failure (>1000 copies per mL) was observed in 27 patients (eight in the dolutegravir group, among which, three women switched to efavirenz 600 mg because of the dolutegravir teratogeneicity signal, and 19 in the efavirenz 400 mg group). No acquired resistance mutations to dolutegravir were observed against 17 mutations to efavirenz with or without mutations to lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate among the 19 efavirenz 400 mg participants with virological failure. Weight gain was greater in the dolutegravir group (median weight gain, 5·0 kg in the dolutegravir group and 3·0 kg in the efavirenz 400 mg group, p<0·001, and incidence of obesity, 22% in the dolutegravir group and 16% in the efavirenz 400 mg group, p=0·043). The incidence of new WHO HIV-related stage 3 and 4 events was similar in each group (12 [4%] in each group). The two groups had similar rates of serious adverse events (28 [9%] of 310 in the dolutegravir group and 21 [7%] of 303 in the efavirenz 400 mg group). 18 deaths were observed during the 96-week follow-up (eight in the dolutegravir group and ten in the efavirenz 400 mg group).

Interpretation: The non-inferior efficacy of the dolutegravir-based regimen and non-emergence of dolutegravir resistance at 96 weeks supports its use as a first-line regimen for antiretroviral-naive adults with HIV-1 infection. Viral load suppression was reached more quickly in the dolutegravir group and weight gain was significantly higher.

Funding: UNITAID and the French National Agency for AIDS Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(20)30238-1DOI Listing
October 2020

The Key Role of the Interface in the Highly Sensitive Mechanochromic Luminescence Properties of Hybrid Perovskites.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Jan 5;60(2):834-839. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche "G. Natta" (SCITEC), CNR, Via Corti 12, 20133, Milano, Italy.

Hybrid perovskite (HP) materials are of interest in photovoltaics and lighting applications. Here we report that hybrid perovskite composites, as crystallized powders, can behave as intelligent materials showing highly sensitive and reversible mechanochromic luminescence (MCL). Composites consisting of monolayered 2D HP and 3D HP components exhibit reversible tunable color emission upon mechanical strain. The bluish-whitish emission of the 2D HP turns into orange in the composite owing to an energy transfer process. The bright green emission, observed as soon as the composite is slightly crushed, originates from the 3D HP after efficient energy funneling from the multi-layered 2D HP produced at the 2D/3D interface by the mechanical treatment. Besides highlighting the key role of the interfaces in light emission of HP, our findings pave the way for hybrid perovskites as highly sensitive MCL smart materials for mechanosensors, security papers, or optical storage applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202006184DOI Listing
January 2021

Semicarbazide-Sensitive Amine Oxidase Increases in Calcific Aortic Valve Stenosis and Contributes to Valvular Interstitial Cell Calcification.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2020 14;2020:5197376. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Inserm UMR_S 1116, Vandoeuvre-Lès-Nancy, France.

Introduction: Calcific aortic valve stenosis (CAVS) is a common disease associated with aging. Oxidative stress participates in the valve calcification process in CAVS. Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), also referred to as vascular adhesion protein 1 (VAP-1), transforms primary amines into aldehydes, generating hydrogen peroxide and ammonia. SSAO is expressed in calcified aortic valves, but its role in valve calcification has remained largely unexplored. The aims of this study were to characterize the expression and the activity of SSAO during aortic valve calcification and to establish the effects of SSAO inhibition on human valvular interstitial cell (VIC) calcification.

Methods: Human aortic valves from = 80 patients were used for mRNA extraction and expression analysis, Western blot, SSAO activity determination, immunohistochemistry, and the isolation of primary VIC cultures.

Results: SSAO mRNA, protein, and activity were increased with increasing calcification within human aortic valves and localized in the vicinity of the calcified zones. The valvular SSAO upregulation was consistent after stratification of the subjects according to cardiovascular and CAVS risk factors associated with increased oxidative stress: body mass index, diabetes, and smoking. SSAO mRNA levels were significantly associated with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) in calcified tissue. Calcification of VIC was inhibited in the presence of the specific SSAO inhibitor LJP1586.

Conclusion: The association of SSAO expression and activity with valvular calcification and oxidative stress as well as the decreased VIC calcification by SSAO inhibition points to SSAO as a possible marker and therapeutic target to be further explored in CAVS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5197376DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7201527PMC
January 2021

Fire and brief human occupations in Iberia during MIS 4: Evidence from Abric del Pastor (Alcoy, Spain).

Sci Rep 2019 12 4;9(1):18281. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

UDI de Prehistoria, Arqueología e Historia Antigua, Departamento de Geografía e Historia, Facultad de Humanidades, Universidad de La Laguna, La Laguna, Spain.

There is a relatively low amount of Middle Paleolithic sites in Europe dating to MIS 4. Of the few that exist, several of them lack evidence for anthropogenic fire, raising the question of how this period of global cooling may have affected the Neanderthal population. The Iberian Peninsula is a key area to explore this issue, as it has been considered as a glacial refugium during critical periods of the Neanderthal timeline and might therefore yield archaeological contexts in which we can explore possible changes in the behaviour and settlement patterns of Neanderthal groups during MIS 4. Here we report recent data from Abric del Pastor, a small rock shelter in Alcoy (Alicante, Spain) with a stratified deposit containing Middle Palaeolithic remains. We present absolute dates that frame the sequence within MIS 4 and multi-proxy geoarchaeological evidence of in situ anthropogenic fire, including microscopic evidence of in situ combustion residues and thermally altered sediment. We also present archaeostratigraphic evidence of recurrent, functionally diverse, brief human occupation of the rock shelter. Our results suggest that Neanderthals occupied the Central Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula during MIS 4, that these Neanderthals were not undergoing climatic stress and they were habitual fire users.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-54305-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6892787PMC
December 2019

Hybrid Halide Perovskites: Discussions on Terminology and Materials.

Authors:
Nicolas Mercier

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2019 Dec 22;58(50):17912-17917. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

MOLTECH-Anjou-UMR CNRS 6200, University of Angers, 2 Bd Lavoisier, 49045, Angers, France.

Hybrid halide perovskites (HP) have emerged in the last decade as a new class of semiconductors with superior performances in photovoltaic and electronic devices. The literature about these halide semiconductors is abundant and a lot of names/expressions are used to define networks, structures, or materials. In this context, there is a need to offer some discussions about the relevance of using the word "perovskite" and the associated expressions ("RP" (Ruddlesden-Popper), "DJ" (Dion-Jacobson), "ACI" (alternating cations in the interlayer space), "hexagonal perovskites", "hollow perovskites", "d-HP" (deficient 3D HP),…). Moreover, the description of perovskite networks through elimination/substitution processes from the ABX structure will be compared to the known dimensional reduction concept.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201909601DOI Listing
December 2019

New electron spin resonance (ESR) ages from Geißenklösterle Cave: A chronological study of the Middle and early Upper Paleolithic layers.

J Hum Evol 2019 08 1;133:133-145. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Tübingen/Senckenberg Center for Human Evolution and Palaeoecology, University of Tübingen, Sigwartstraβe 10, 72074, Tübingen, Germany; Abteilung Ältere Urgeschichte und Quartärökologie, Institut für Ur- und Frühgeschichte und Archäologie des Mittelalters, University of Tübingen, Schloss Hohentübingen, 72070, Tübingen, Germany.

Geißenklösterle Cave (Germany) is one of the most important Paleolithic sites in Europe, as it is characterized by human occupation during the Middle and early Upper Paleolithic. Aurignacian layers prior to 37-38 ka cal BP feature both musical and figurative art objects that are linked to the early arrival in Europe of Homo sapiens. Middle Paleolithic layers yielded lithic artifacts attributed to Homo neanderthalensis. Since human occupation at the site is attributed to both Neanderthals and modern humans, chronology is essential to clarify the issues of Neanderthal disappearance, modern human expansion in Europe, and the origin of the Aurignacian in Western Europe. Electron spin resonance (ESR) dating was performed on fossil tooth enamel collected from the Middle Paleolithic layers, which are beyond the radiocarbon dating range, and from the nearly sterile 'transitional' geological horizon (GH) 17 and the lower Aurignacian deposits, to cross-check ESR ages with previous radiocarbon, thermoluminescence and ESR age results. The Middle Paleolithic layers were dated between 94 ± 10 ka (GH 21) and 55 ± 6 ka (GH 18) by ESR on tooth enamel. Mean ages for GH 17, at 46 ± 3 ka, and for the lower Aurignacian layers, at 37 ± 3 ka, are in agreement with previous dating results, thus supporting the reliability of ESR chronology for the base of the sequence where dating comparisons are not possible. These results suggest that Neanderthals occupied the site from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 to the second half of MIS 3 and confirm the antiquity of early Aurignacian deposits. The presence of an almost sterile layer that separates Middle and Upper Paleolithic occupations could be related to the abandonment of the site by Neanderthals, possibly during Heinrich Stadial 5 (ca. 49-47 ka), thus before the arrival of H. sapiens in the area around 42 ka cal BP. These dates for the Middle Paleolithic of the Swabian Jura represent an important contribution to the prehistory of the region, where nearly all of the excavations were conducted decades ago and prior to the development of reliable radiometric dating beyond the range of radiocarbon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2019.05.014DOI Listing
August 2019

Acute ischemic myelopathy treated with intravenous thrombolysis: Four new cases and literature review.

Int J Stroke 2019 12 15;14(9):893-897. Epub 2019 May 15.

Stroke Center, Neurology Service, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland.

Background: Intravenous thrombolysis is a well-established treatment of ischemic stroke within 4.5 h. However, its effectiveness in acute ischemic myelopathy is unknown.

Purpose: We describe a series of four acute ischemic myelopathy patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis within 4.5 h and review the current literature to explore this treatment feasibility, potential safety, and efficacy.

Methods: We reviewed all routinely collected clinical, radiological, and follow-up data of patients with a final acute ischemic myelopathy diagnosis who received acute intravenous thrombolysis in our stroke network. We also reviewed thrombolyzed acute ischemic myelopathy patients in the literature.

Results: Four patients (three women) aged 57 to 83 years presented with acute uni- or bilateral extremity paresis, considered initially as cerebral strokes in two of them. After excluding contraindications by brain imaging in three, spinal computed tomography in one and confirmation of acute ischemic myelopathy on spinal magnetic resonance imaging in one patient, intravenous thrombolysis was administered at 135, 190, 240, and 245 min accordingly. Subacute diffusion-weighted imaging-magnetic resonance imaging confirmed acute ischemic myelopathy in all but one patient. Favorable outcome was achieved in two patients rapidly and in three patients at three-month follow-up. We identified seven other thrombolyzed acute ischemic myelopathy patients in the literature, who showed variable recovery and no hemorrhagic complications.

Conclusions: With appropriate acute imaging, intravenous thrombolysis after acute ischemic myelopathy is feasible and potentially safe within 4.5 h. Given the potential of benefit of thrombolysis in acute ischemic myelopathy, this treatment warrants further efficacy and safety studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493019851289DOI Listing
December 2019

Enhanced Stability and Band Gap Tuning of α-[HC(NH)]PbI Hybrid Perovskite by Large Cation Integration.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2019 Jun 30;11(23):20743-20751. Epub 2019 May 30.

Univ Rennes, ENSCR, INSA Rennes, CNRS, ISCR (Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes) - UMR 6226 , F-35000 Rennes , France.

We report room-temperature synthesis of lead- and iodide-deficient α-[HC(NH)]PbI perovskites (abbreviated d-α-FAPI, FA = formamidinium), with the general formula (A',FA)[PbI] (with A' = hydroxyethylammonium (HEA) or thioethylammonium (TEA) cations, 0.04 ≤ x ≤ 0.15). These materials retain a 3D character of their perovskite network despite incorporation of large HEA or TEA cations, demonstrating that the Goldschmidt tolerance factor can be bypassed. We found that thin films of (TEA,FA)[PbI] ( x = 0.04 and 0.13) show exceptional α-phase stability under ambient conditions, 1 order of magnitude higher than α-FAPI and α-(Cs,FA)PbI thin films. d-α-FAPI phases are shown to maintain a direct band gap, which increases monotonously for x ranging from 0 up to 0.20, with characteristics of a p-type semiconductor for low concentrations of vacancies ( x ≤ 0.13) and n-type for larger ones. They offer alternatives to reach the methylammonium- and bromine-free stable α-FAPI-type phase and open new avenues in the field of perovskite solar cells, up to band gap tuning desirable for tandem solar cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.9b00210DOI Listing
June 2019

[Comorbidities: which drug for which patient ?]

Rev Med Suisse 2019 Apr;15(648):870-873

Unité d'exploration de l'épilepsie et d'EEG, HUG, 1211 Genève 14.

The new antiepileptic drugs (AED) are not significantly more efficient than the older ones, but they are better tolerated and with a lower drug interactions. Despite the existing guidelines, the evidence-based medicine cannot answer unequivocally the question of the best AED for a given patient. The treatment must be individually tailored; in this article, we present some principles and important factors to guide that choice.
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April 2019

[Pharmacology and epilepsy : update on the new antiepileptic drugs].

Rev Med Suisse 2019 Apr;15(648):857-861

Clinique de neurologie, Département des neurosciences cliniques, HUG, 1211 Genève 14.

New antiepileptic drugs are regularly approved for treatment and offer large therapeutic opportunities. Efficacy of these drugs is relatively similar on-label with different mechanisms to be combined for a synergic effect. Treatments such as cannabidiol have benefitted from large media coverage despite limited clinical evidence so far. The objective of antiepileptic drugs is to stop the recurrence of epileptic seizures with as few adverse events as possible. When confronted to a difficult-to-treat epilepsy, referral to a specialised centre is strongly advised. The aim is to confirm that the diagnosis is correct, that the treatment is well adapted (indication, pharmacokinetic and compliance) and to evaluate the indication for non-pharmacological treatments such as epilepsy surgery.
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April 2019

Persistently Elevated Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Levels among Critically Ill Surgical Patients after Sepsis and Development of Chronic Critical Illness and Dismal Long-Term Outcomes.

J Am Coll Surg 2019 07 13;229(1):58-67.e1. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Department of Surgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Electronic address:

Background: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gut-derived incretin hormone that stimulates insulin secretion, cellular glucose uptake, and has immune-regulatory functions. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is markedly altered after trauma and sepsis, but the implications remain unclear.

Study Design: We performed an analysis of a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of critically ill surgical patients with sepsis. Patient characteristics and clinical data were collected, as well as peripheral blood sampling for biomarker analysis, out to 28 days after sepsis onset. We prospectively adjudicated sepsis diagnosis, severity, clinical outcomes, and 6-month follow-up.

Results: The cohort included 157 septic surgical patients with significant physiologic derangement (Maximum Sequential Organ Failure Assessment [SOFA] score 8, interquartile range [IQR] 4 to 11), a high rate of multiple organ failure (50.3%), and septic shock (24.2%). Despite high disease severity, both early death (<14 days; n = 4, 2.9%) and overall inpatient mortality were low (n = 12, 7.6%). However, post-discharge 6-month mortality was nearly 3-fold higher (19.7%). Both GLP-1 and interleukin [IL]-6 levels were significantly elevated for 21 days (p ≤ 0.01) in patients who developed chronic critical illness (CCI) compared with patients with a rapid recovery. Elevated GLP-1 at 24 hours was a significant independent predictor for the development of CCI after controlling for IL-6 and glucose levels (p = 0.027), and at day 14 for death or severe functional disability at 6 months (WHO/Zubrod score 4-5, p = 0.014).

Conclusions: Elevated GLP-1 within 24 hours of sepsis is a predictor of early death or persistent organ dysfunction. Among early survivors, persistently elevated GLP-1 levels at day 14 are strongly predictive of death or severe functional disability at 6 months. Persistently elevated GLP-1 levels may be a marker of a nonresolving catabolic state that is associated with muscle wasting and dismal outcomes after sepsis and chronic critical illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2019.04.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6599553PMC
July 2019

Quantum and Dielectric Confinement Effects in Lower-Dimensional Hybrid Perovskite Semiconductors.

Chem Rev 2019 Mar 14;119(5):3140-3192. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Univ Rennes, INSA Rennes, CNRS, Institut FOTON - UMR 6082 , F-35000 Rennes , France.

Hybrid halide perovskites are now superstar materials leading the field of low-cost thin film photovoltaics technologies. Following the surge for more efficient and stable 3D bulk alloys, multilayered halide perovskites and colloidal perovskite nanostructures appeared in 2016 as viable alternative solutions to this challenge, largely exceeding the original proof of concept made in 2009 and 2014, respectively. This triggered renewed interest in lower-dimensional hybrid halide perovskites and at the same time increasingly more numerous and differentiated applications. The present paper is a review of the past and present literature on both colloidal nanostructures and multilayered compounds, emphasizing that availability of accurate structural information is of dramatic importance to reach a fair understanding of quantum and dielectric confinement effects. Layered halide perovskites occupy a special place in the history of halide perovskites, with a large number of seminal papers in the 1980s and 1990s. In recent years, the rationalization of structure-properties relationship has greatly benefited from new theoretical approaches dedicated to their electronic structures and optoelectronic properties, as well as a growing number of contributions based on modern experimental techniques. This is a necessary step to provide in-depth tools to decipher their extensive chemical engineering possibilities which surpass the ones of their 3D bulk counterparts. Comparisons to classical semiconductor nanostructures and 2D van der Waals heterostructures are also stressed. Since 2015, colloidal nanostructures have undergone a quick development for applications based on light emission. Although intensively studied in the last two years by various spectroscopy techniques, the description of quantum and dielectric confinement effects on their optoelectronic properties is still in its infancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.8b00417DOI Listing
March 2019

Smell training improves olfactory function and alters brain structure.

Neuroimage 2019 04 7;189:45-54. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières (UQTR), Trois-Rivières, QC, Canada; Research Center, Sacré-Cœur Hospital, Montréal, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

Training and repeated exposure to odorants leads to enhanced olfactory sensitivity. So far, the efficacy of intensive olfactory training on olfactory function in a healthy population and its underlying neurobiological basis remain poorly known. This study investigated the effects of a 6-week intensive and well-controlled olfactory training on olfactory function and brain structure/neuroplasticity. Thirty-six healthy young individuals were recruited and randomly distributed in three groups: (1) 12 participants underwent daily intensive olfactory training of at least 20 min that included an (a) odor intensity classification task, an (b) odor quality classification task and an (c) target odor detection task, (2) 12 participants underwent an equivalent visual control training, and (3) 12 control individuals did not participate in any training. Before and after the training period, all participants performed a series of olfactory tests and those from groups 1 and 2 underwent structural magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, from which we obtained measures such as cortical thickness and tissue density. Participants improved in the respectively trained tasks throughout the 6-weeks training period. Those who underwent olfactory training improved general olfactory function compared to control participants, especially in odor identification, thus showing intramodal transfer. Further, MR imaging analysis revealed that olfactory training led to increased cortical thickness in the right inferior frontal gyrus, the bilateral fusiform gyrus and the right entorhinal cortex. This research shows that intensive olfactory training can generally improve olfactory function and that this improvement is associated with changes in the structure of olfactory processing areas of the brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2019.01.008DOI Listing
April 2019

Response to Comment on "The earliest modern humans outside Africa".

Science 2018 10;362(6413)

Zinman Institute of Archaeology, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel 3498838, Israel.

Our original claim, based on three independent numerical dating methods, of an age of ~185,000 years for the Misliya-1 modern human hemi-maxilla from Mount Carmel, Israel, is little affected by discounting uranium-series dating of adhering crusts. It confirms a much earlier out-of-Africa expansion than previously suggested by the considerably younger (90,000 to 120,000 years) Skhul/Qafzeh hominins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aat8964DOI Listing
October 2018

The MIS5 Pietersburg at '28' Bushman Rock Shelter, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

PLoS One 2018 10;13(10):e0202853. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

CNRS, UMR 7041, ArScAn-AnTET, Université Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense, Paris, France.

In the past few decades, a diverse array of research has emphasized the precocity of technically advanced and symbolic practices occurring during the southern African Middle Stone Age. However, uncertainties regarding the regional chrono-cultural framework constrain models and identification of the cultural and ecological mechanisms triggering the development of such early innovative behaviours. Here, we present new results and a refined chronology for the Pietersburg, a techno-complex initially defined in the late 1920's, which has disappeared from the literature since the 1980's. We base our revision of this techno-complex on ongoing excavations at Bushman Rock Shelter (BRS) in Limpopo Province, South Africa, where two Pietersburg phases (an upper phase called '21' and a lower phase called '28') are recognized. Our analysis focuses on the '28' phase, characterized by a knapping strategy based on Levallois and semi-prismatic laminar reduction systems and typified by the presence of end-scrapers. Luminescence chronology provides two sets of ages for the upper and lower Pietersburg of BRS, dated respectively to 73±6ka and 75±6ka on quartz and to 91±10ka and 97±10ka on feldspar, firmly positioning this industry within MIS5. Comparisons with other published lithic assemblages show technological differences between the Pietersburg from BRS and other southern African MIS5 traditions, especially those from the Western and Eastern Cape. We argue that, at least for part of MIS5, human populations in South Africa were regionally differentiated, a process that most likely impacted the way groups were territorially and socially organized. Nonetheless, comparisons between MIS5 assemblages also indicate some typological similarities, suggesting some degree of connection between human groups, which shared similar innovations but manipulated them in different ways. We pay particular attention to the end-scrapers from BRS, which represent thus far the earliest documented wide adoption of such tool-type and provide further evidence for the innovative processes characterizing southern Africa from the MIS5 onwards.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0202853PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6179383PMC
March 2019

Corrigendum to "Dating the Middle Palaeolithic deposits of La Quina Amont (Charente, France) using luminescence methods" [Journal of Human Evolution 109 (2017) 30-45].

J Hum Evol 2018 Nov 6;124:140-141. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

IRAMAT-CRP2A, UMR 5060 CNRS - Université Bordeaux Montaigne - Esplanade des Antilles, 33600, Pessac, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2018.05.003DOI Listing
November 2018

Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta: Implementation and Preliminary Results at an Academic Level I Trauma Center.

J Am Coll Surg 2018 07 27;227(1):127-133. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Division of Acute Care Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Electronic address:

Background: Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) is a novel method of controlling subdiaphragmatic hemorrhage while improving hemodynamic stability. This procedure achieves many of the goals of resuscitative thoracotomy (RT), but is less invasive. Here, we present the initial experience with REBOA at a level 1 academic trauma center.

Study Design: We performed a retrospective review. Orientation of surgeons and residents to REBOA was accomplished by an educational program including a hands-on simulation session (1.5 hours). Surgeons were not required to attend an external training course. Operating room personnel were oriented with a slide presentation. Initially, a 12-Fr introducer and aortic occlusion balloon were used. Subsequently, a 7-Fr device was used. All REBOAs were performed in a dedicated hybrid operating room. Resuscitative thoracotomy was performed in the trauma bays and operating room.

Results: During a 21-month period (June 2015 to March 2017), 16 patients (Injury Severity Score [ISS] 38.6 ± 22.3, Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] 8.9 ± 5.9, lactate 4.91 ± 3.26 mmol/L) had REBOA placed. All patients were hemodynamically unstable (systolic blood pressure 96.5 ± 9.3 mmHg) due to hemorrhage. Preoperative hemoglobin ranged from 5 to 14.4 mg/dL. Etiology of hemorrhage was blunt trauma (n = 11), penetrating injury (n = 2), and nontraumatic mechanisms (n = 3). After REBOA, hemodynamic status improved in 10 of 16 patients. Fourteen patients survived the initial operative intervention and 6 survived 30 days; REBOA was successfully performed in all patients. One survivor developed a common femoral pseudoanuerysm. Survival for RT (ISS 31.3 ± 11.25) during same period was 0%.

Conclusions: Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta is an effective method of improving hemodynamic status in patients with sub-diaphragmatic hemorrhage. Extensive training is not required to implement a REBOA program, and REBOA is a useful technique for trauma surgeons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2018.03.042DOI Listing
July 2018

The earliest modern humans outside Africa.

Science 2018 Jan;359(6374):456-459

Zinman Institute of Archaeology, University of Haifa, Haifa, Mount Carmel 3498838, Israel.

To date, the earliest modern human fossils found outside of Africa are dated to around 90,000 to 120,000 years ago at the Levantine sites of Skhul and Qafzeh. A maxilla and associated dentition recently discovered at Misliya Cave, Israel, was dated to 177,000 to 194,000 years ago, suggesting that members of the clade left Africa earlier than previously thought. This finding changes our view on modern human dispersal and is consistent with recent genetic studies, which have posited the possibility of an earlier dispersal of around 220,000 years ago. The Misliya maxilla is associated with full-fledged Levallois technology in the Levant, suggesting that the emergence of this technology is linked to the appearance of in the region, as has been documented in Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aap8369DOI Listing
January 2018

A robust viologen and Mn-based porous coordination polymer with two types of Lewis acid sites providing high affinity for HO, CO and NH.

Dalton Trans 2017 Nov;46(45):15666-15670

MOLTECH-Anjou UMR-CNRS 6200, 2 Bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers, France.

A novel porous coordination polymer [Mn(pc3)(HO)]·xHO (3 < x < 4) is synthesized in water at pH = 7 using the anionic viologen-carboxylate ligand 4,4'-bipyridinium,1,1'-bis-(2,4-dicarboxyphenyl) (pc3). Dehydration of the material results in the formation of open pores containing two types of accessible Lewis acid sites: exposed Mn cations and N atoms of viologen units. Due to this property the PCP shows high affinity and capacity in the adsorption of HO, CO and NH. Despite the presence of strong adsorption sites this material is stable in liquid water and in gaseous NH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7dt03541aDOI Listing
November 2017

Lead- and Iodide-Deficient (CH NH )PbI (d-MAPI): The Bridge between 2D and 3D Hybrid Perovskites.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2017 12 15;56(50):16067-16072. Epub 2017 Nov 15.

Chimie ParisTech, PSL Research University, CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris (IRCP), 11 rue P. et M. Curie, 75005, Paris, France.

3D and 2D hybrid perovskites, which have been known for more than 20 years, have emerged recently as promising materials for optoelectronic applications, particularly the 3D compound (CH NH )PbI (MAPI). The discovery of a new family of hybrid perovskites called d-MAPI is reported: the association of PbI with both methyl ammonium (MA ) and hydroxyethyl ammonium (HEA ) cations leads to a series of five compounds with general formulation (MA) (HEA) [Pb I ]. These materials, which are lead- and iodide-deficient compared to MAPI while retaining 3D architecture, can be considered as a bridge between the 2D and 3D materials. Moreover, they can be prepared as crystallized thin films by spin-coating. These new 3D materials appear very promising for optoelectronic applications, not only because of their reduced lead content, but also in account of the large flexibility of their chemical composition through potential substitutions of MA , HEA , Pb and I ions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201710021DOI Listing
December 2017

Dating the Middle Paleolithic deposits of La Quina Amont (Charente, France) using luminescence methods.

J Hum Evol 2017 08 20;109:30-45. Epub 2017 Jun 20.

IRAMAT-CRP2A, UMR 5060 CNRS - Université Bordeaux Montaigne - Esplanade des Antilles, 33600, Pessac Cedex, France.

The site of La Quina Amont, located in the Charente region, is one of the most important sites in southwestern France for studying major changes in human behaviors from the Middle Paleolithic (MP) to the Early Upper Paleolithic (EUP). Extensively excavated over the past 50 years, numerous dating studies have been focused on the Upper Paleolithic deposits using radiocarbon on bone collagen and thermoluminescence (TL) on heated flints; however, the Mousterian levels remain undated due to the scarcity of suitable materials. Our investigations aimed to provide for the first time a chronological framework for the site using luminescence dating methods on different minerals contained in the sediments. Coarse grains of quartz were dated using the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) technique, and polymineral fine grains were dated using both infrared (IRSL) and post-infrared (pIR-IRSL) stimulated luminescence signals. OSL, IRSL and pIR-IRSL results were combined with available TL and radiocarbon data sets to propose a chronology for the site. The agreement between these methods provides key insights into the sedimentological processes involved in the site formation and into the chronology of the human occupations. In particular, it shows that the sequence spans almost ∼20,000 years (20 ka). Moreover, the new chronological framework suggests that the makers of the Quina lithic technocomplex (LTC), who were reindeer hunters, inhabited the site from the end of marine isotope stage (MIS) 4 to the beginning of MIS 3. We also show that Levallois and Discoidal industries occurred successively under temperate paleoclimatic conditions, during MIS 3 but not after ∼40 ka. Finally, we compare the Quina LTC dataset with other sites in southern France in order to shed light upon the variability in Mousterian industries of this region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2017.05.002DOI Listing
August 2017

Rhizopus arrhizus Invasive Infection due to Self-Inflicted Scratch Injuries in a Diabetic Patient with Non-ketotic Acidosis.

Mycopathologia 2017 Oct 23;182(9-10):927-931. Epub 2017 Jun 23.

Hospital Universitario de Burgos, Burgos, Spain.

Mucormycosis is a rare infection caused by members included in the subphylum Mucoromycotina. Characterized by the histopathological hallmark of angioinvasion, these infections affect most often patients with certain underlying conditions carrying immunosuppression (haematological neoplasias, diabetic ketoacidosis and other forms of acidosis, and iron overload) or immunocompetent patients with traumatic mucocutaneous barriers breakdown and direct inoculation of the mould. A case is presented in which a rare underlying condition (non-ketotic acidosis) and a rare cause of cutaneous injuries collide. Prognosis, treatment options and management decisions are described thoroughly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11046-017-0158-0DOI Listing
October 2017

Porous Coordination Polymer Based on Bipyridinium Carboxylate Linkers with High and Reversible Ammonia Uptake.

Inorg Chem 2016 Sep 8;55(17):8587-94. Epub 2016 Aug 8.

ICB, UMR-CNRS 6303, Université de Bourgogne-Franche Comté , 9 A. Savary, 21078 Dijon, France.

The zwitterionic bipyridinium carboxylate ligand 1,1'-bis(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4'-bipyridinium (pc1) in the presence of cadmium chloride affords novel porous coordination polymers (PCPs): [Cd4(pc1)3Cl6]·CdCl4·guest (1) crystallizing in the P3̅1c space group. In the structure, [Cd4Cl6(CO2)6] building units are linked together by six pc1 ligands, leading to a 3D high-symmetrical network exhibiting hexagonal channels along the c axis. The walls of this PCP consist of cationic electron-acceptor bipyridinium units. The PCP 1 reversibly adsorbs H2O and CH3OH up to about 0.1 g/g at saturation showing the adsorption isotherms characteristic of a moderately hydrophilic sorbent. Adsorption of ammonia (NH3) follows a different pattern, reaching an exceptional uptake of 0.39 g/g (22.3 mmol/g) after the first adsorption cycle. Although the crystalline structure of 1 collapses after the first adsorption, the solid can be regenerated and maintains the capacity of 0.29 g/g (17 mmol/g) in the following cycles. We found that the high NH3 uptake is due to a combination of pore filling taking place below 150 h·Pa and chemisorption occurring at higher pressures. The latter process was shown to involve two phenomena: (i) coordination of NH3 molecules to Cd(2+) cations as follows from (113)Cd NMR and (ii) strong donor-acceptor interactions between NH3 molecules and pc1 ligands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.6b01119DOI Listing
September 2016

Bismuth-Based Coordination Polymers with Efficient Aggregation-Induced Phosphorescence and Reversible Mechanochromic Luminescence.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2016 07 11;55(28):7998-8002. Epub 2016 May 11.

MOLTECH-Anjou, UMR-CNRS 6200, University of Angers, 2 Bd Lavoisier, 49045, Angers, France.

Two bismuth coordination polymers (CPs), (TBA)[BiBr4 (bp4mo)] (TBA=tetrabutylammonium) and [BiBr3 (bp4mo)2 ], which are based on the rarely used simple ditopic ligand N-oxide-4,4'-bipyridine (bp4mo), show mechanochromic luminescence (MCL). High solid-state phosphorescence quantum yields of up to 85 % were determined for (TBA)[BiBr4 (bp4mo)] (λem =540 nm). Thorough investigations of the luminescence properties combined with DFT and TDDFT calculations revealed that the emission is due to aggregation-induced phosphorescence (AIP). Upon grinding, both samples became amorphous, and their luminescence changed from yellow to orange and red, respectively. Heating or exposure to water vapor led to the recovery of the initial luminescence. These materials are the first examples of mechanochromic phosphors based on bismuth(III).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201602602DOI Listing
July 2016

Expression of the semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase in articular cartilage: its role in terminal differentiation of chondrocytes in rat and human.

Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2016 07 4;24(7):1223-34. Epub 2016 Feb 4.

UMR S_ 1116 Université de Lorraine-INSERM, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France; Fédération de Recherche 3209 Université de Lorraine-CNRS, Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France. Electronic address:

Objective: Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) catalyzes the oxidation of primary amines into ammonia and reactive species (hydrogen peroxide, aldehydes). It is highly expressed in mammalian tissues, especially in vascular smooth muscle cells and adipocytes, where it plays a role in cell differentiation and glucose transport. The study aims at characterizing the expression and the activity of SSAO in rat and human articular cartilage of the knee, and to investigate its potential role in chondrocyte terminal differentiation.

Design: SSAO expression was examined by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Enzyme activity was measured using radiolabeled benzylamine as a substrate. Primary cell cultures of rat chondrocytes were treated for 21 days by a specific SSAO inhibitor, LJP 1586. Terminal chondrocyte differentiation markers were quantified by RT-qPCR. The basal and IL1β-stimulated glucose transport was monitored by the entrance of (3)[H]2-deoxyglucose in chondrocytes.

Results: SSAO was expressed in chondrocytes of rat and human articular cartilage. SSAO expression was significantly enhanced during the hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes characterized by an increase in MMP13 and in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expressions. SSAO inhibition delayed the late stage of chondrocyte differentiation without cell survival alteration and diminished the basal and IL1β-stimulated glucose transport. Interestingly, SSAO activity was strongly increased in human osteoarthritic cartilage.

Conclusions: SSAO was expressed as an active form in rat and human cartilage. The results suggest the involvement of SSAO in rat chondrocyte terminal differentiation via a modulation of the glucose transport. In man, the increased SSAO activity detected in osteoarthritic patients may trigger hypertrophy and cartilage degeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2016.01.340DOI Listing
July 2016