Publications by authors named "N Jane Harms"

73 Publications

Biological and Host Range Characteristics of (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a Candidate Biological Control Agent of Invasive spp. (Onagraceae) in the USA.

Insects 2021 May 19;12(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

Fundación para el Estudio de Especies Invasivas (FuEDEI), Simón Bolívar 1559, Hurlingham (CP1686), Buenos Aires B1686EFA, Argentina.

Exotic water primroses ( spp.) are aggressive invaders in aquatic ecosystems worldwide. To date, management of exotic spp. has been limited to physical and chemical control methods. Biological control provides an alternative approach for the management of invasive spp. but little is known regarding the natural enemies of these exotic plants. Herein the biology and host range of (Boheman), a herbivorous beetle associated with spp. in Argentina and Uruguay, was studied to determine its suitability as a biocontrol agent for multiple closely related target weeds in the USA. The beetle matures from egg to adult in 19.9 ± 1.4 days at 25 °C; females lived 86.3 ± 35.6 days and laid 1510.6 ± 543.4 eggs over their lifespans. No-choice development and oviposition tests were conducted using four species and seven native plant species. showed little discrimination between plant species: larvae aggressively fed and completed development, and the resulting females (F1 generation) oviposited viable eggs on most plant species regardless of origin. These results indicate that is not sufficiently host-specific for further consideration as a biocontrol agent of exotic spp. in the USA and further testing is not warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects12050471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8159108PMC
May 2021

Experiences of Military Veterans in a Therapeutic Horseback Riding Program.

Clin Nurs Res 2021 Apr 15:10547738211003580. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

University of Missouri-Kansas City, USA.

Posttraumatic stress disorder commonly occurs among U.S. military veterans. Therapeutic horseback riding (THR) has emerged as an adjunct therapy. We explored 20 veterans' perceived benefits, drawbacks and views of a 6-week THR program. Participants had confirmed diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, or both. Veterans rode the same horse weekly, the same day, at the same time. Data were collected as part of a randomized clinical trial testing the effects of THR on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Veterans responded to an open-ended questionnaire. Content analysis was used for data analysis. Benefits were "Connection to the Horse," "Relaxing," "180 Degree Change," and "Meeting New People." Drawbacks were "None," "Struggle to Get There," "Pain," "Too Short," and "It is Structured." Overall perceptions were "I Absolutely Loved It," "Feel Again," "The Horse," "The People," and "No Worries." Participants viewed THR as positive. Findings may elucidate why THR may be clinically beneficial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10547738211003580DOI Listing
April 2021

High Prevalence and Intensity of Trichinella Infection in Yukon American Black (Ursus americanus) and Grizzly (Ursus arctos) Bears.

J Wildl Dis 2021 04;57(2):429-433

Shadow Lake Consulting, PO Box 10038, Whitehorse, Yukon Y1A 7A1, Canada.

Trichinella spp. nematodes are commonly found in bear species (Ursidae) and can pose severe health risks to humans when infective first-stage larvae are ingested in meat. Samples of tongue or masseter muscle from 22 male and 11 female American black bears (Ursus americanus; mean age 6.5 yr, range 1-16 yr) and 22 male, eight female, and one unknown sex grizzly bears (Ursus arctos; mean age 8.8 yr, range 2-28 yr), from Yukon, Canada, were tested to determine prevalence and intensity of Trichinella spp. infection. For black bears, prevalence was 20% and mean intensity was 401 larvae per gram of tissue (LPG), whereas for grizzly bears, prevalence was 71%, and mean infection intensity was 35 LPG. Isolates from all positive samples were identified as genotype Trichinella-T6 by multiplex PCR. For black bears, prevalence is the highest reported in Canada and infection intensity the highest recorded in North America. One black bear had a larval burden of 1,173 LPG, the second highest recorded in any host species. The prevalence in grizzly bears was the highest reported in Canada for this host. In total, 90% (27 of 30) of infected bears had infection burdens above the human food safety threshold of ≥1 LPG, reinforcing the importance of communicating the health risks to people consuming bear meat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/JWD-D-20-00135DOI Listing
April 2021

High prevalence, intensity, and genetic diversity of Trichinella spp. in wolverine (Gulo gulo) from Yukon, Canada.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Mar 8;14(1):146. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 52 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4, Canada.

Background: Species of Trichinella are globally important foodborne parasites infecting a number of domestic and wild vertebrates, including humans. Free-ranging carnivores can act as sentinel species for detection of Trichinella spp. Knowledge of the epidemiology of these parasites may help prevent Trichinella spp. infections in northern Canadian animals and people. Previous research on Trichinella spp. in wildlife from Yukon did not identify risk factors associated with infection, or the diversity and identity of species of Trichinella in regional circulation, based on geographically extensive sampling with large sample sizes.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study, we determined the prevalence, infection intensity, risk factors, and species or genotypes of Trichinella in wolverine (Gulo gulo) in two regions of Yukon, Canada, from 2013-2017. A double separatory funnel digestion method followed by mutiplex PCR and PCR-RFLP were used to recover and identify species of Trichinella, respectively.

Results: We found larvae of Trichinella in the tongues of 78% (95% CI 73-82) of 338 wolverine sampled. The odds of adult (≥ 2 years) and yearling (1 year) wolverine being Trichinella spp.-positive were four and two times higher, respectively, compared to juveniles (<1 year). The odds of Trichinella spp. presence were three times higher in wolverine from southeast than northwest Yukon. The mean intensity of infection was 22.6 ± 39 (SD, range 0.1-295) larvae per gram. Trichinella T6 was the predominant genotype (76%), followed by T. nativa (8%); mixed infections with Trichinella T6 and T. nativa (12%) were observed. In addition, T. spiralis was detected in one wolverine. Out of 22 isolates initially identified as T. nativa in multiplex PCR, 14 were analyzed by PCR-RFLP to distinguish them from T. chanchalensis, a recently discovered cryptic species, which cannot be distinguished from the T. nativa on multiplex PCR. Ten isolates were identified either as T. chanchalensis alone (n = 7), or mixed infection with T. chanchalensis and T. nativa (n = 2) or T. chanchalensis and Trichinella T6 (n = 1)].

Conclusions: Wolverine hosted high prevalence, high larval intensity, and multiple species of Trichinella, likely due to their scavenging habits, apex position in the food chain, and wide home range. Wolverine (especially adult males) should be considered as a sentinel species for surveys for Trichinella spp. across their distributional range.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-021-04636-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938582PMC
March 2021

Herd immunity drives the epidemic fadeout of avian cholera in Arctic-nesting seabirds.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 13;11(1):1046. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 5B4, Canada.

Avian cholera, caused by the bacterium Pasteurella multocida, is a common and important infectious disease of wild birds in North America. Between 2005 and 2012, avian cholera caused annual mortality of widely varying magnitudes in Northern common eiders (Somateria mollissima borealis) breeding at the largest colony in the Canadian Arctic, Mitivik Island, Nunavut. Although herd immunity, in which a large proportion of the population acquires immunity to the disease, has been suggested to play a role in epidemic fadeout, immunological studies exploring this hypothesis have been missing. We investigated the role of three potential drivers of fadeout of avian cholera in eiders, including immunity, prevalence of infection, and colony size. Each potential driver was examined in relation to the annual real-time reproductive number (R) of P. multocida, previously calculated for eiders at Mitivik Island. Each year, colony size was estimated and eiders were closely monitored, and evaluated for infection and serological status. We demonstrate that acquired immunity approximated using antibody titers to P. multocida in both sexes was likely a key driver for the epidemic fadeout. This study exemplifies the importance of herd immunity in influencing the dynamics and fadeout of epidemics in a wildlife population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79888-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7806777PMC
January 2021