Publications by authors named "N Irshad"

18 Publications

Comparison of HRCT Chest and RT-PCR in Diagnosis of COVID-19.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2021 Jan;31(1):S1-S6

Department of Community Medicine, PGMI / AMC / Lahore General Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan.

Objective: To compare the diagnostic accuracies of HRCT chest and RT-PCR results in diagnosis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in a tertiary care hospital in Lahore.

Study Design: Descriptive study.

Place And Duration Of Study: Department of Radiology and Central Research Lab, Lahore General Hospital, Lahore, from April to July, 2020.

Methodology: Patients aged 18 to 83 years, who had clinically suspected symptoms of COVID-19 (fever, cough/sore throat or shortness of breath) presenting in outpatient or emergency department, were included. These patients had their HRCT chest conducted from Radiology Department and RT-PCR performed at Central Research Lab. These data were retrieved from electronic system of PACS. Results were categorised into positive and negative findings for COVID-19. Diagnostic accuracies of HRCT chest and first RT-PCR along with 95% confidence interval were calculated.

Results: A total of 94 patients, 55 (58.5%) males and 39 (41.5%) were females. Out of them, 83% patients had positive HRCT chest findings of COVID-19, 17% had negative HRCT chest findings; while 40.4% had positive and 59.6% had negative first PCR. Among the repeat second PCR, 19.6% had negative, 1.8% had positive PCR results; while 78.6% patients didn't undergo repeat PCR. The sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV and accuracy of HRCT chest was 92%, 23%, 81%, 45%, and 51%; while of first RT-PCR was 45%, 81%, 23%, 92% and 51%, respectively.

Conclusion: The sensitivity of HRCT chest is higher (92%) as compared to first RT-PCR (45%). Key Words: COVID-19, RT-PCR, HRCT chest, Sensitivity, Specificity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29271/jcpsp.2021.Supp1.S1DOI Listing
January 2021

Food habits of indian crested porcupine (Hystrix indica) (Kerr 1792), in district Bagh, Azad Jammu and Kashmir.

Braz J Biol 2021 14;82:e243063. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Zoology, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir Muzaffarabad, AJ&K Pakistan.

The Indian Crested Porcupine (Hystrix indica) is classified as an agricultural pest species. It feeds on plants and crops; hence, it is responsible for massive financial losses worldwide. The current study was conducted to assess the diet composition of Indian Crested Porcupine in District Bagh, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ&K). Thus, fecal samples were collected and examined from different sampling sites. Reference slides of the material collected from the study area were prepared for identification of dietary components in fecal pellets. A total of 80 fecal samples were collected and processed. Percent relative frequencies (P.R.F.) were calculated for each plant species recovered from pellets. Data revealed that Indian Crested Porcupine consumed 31 plant species in its diet, among them Zea mays (34.31±7.76) was the most frequently selected species followed by Rumex obtusifolius (15.32±2.57) and Melia azedarach (12.83±4.79). The study revealed that the greatest diversity of (n=20) plant species were consumed in summer season while minimum (n=13) species were used during winter. Among the parts of plants, stem was highly consumed in spring (57.2%) as compared to seed in fall (36.7%) while spikes and leaf were the least recovered parts from the fecal matter. The Berger-Parker diversity index showed highly diversified food (10.92) in the summer time of the year as compared to the autumn season (2.95). This study provides a baseline for the diet preference of this pest in the study area. Based on current findings, a detailed investigation on damage assessment, exploration, habitat use and management of Indian Crested Porcupine in AJ&K has been recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.243063DOI Listing
July 2021

Statistical modeling for analyzing grain yield of durum wheat under rainfed conditions in Azad Jammu Kashmir, Pakistan.

Braz J Biol 2021 28;82:e240199. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

University of Poonch, Department of Zoology, Rawalakot, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

One of the most important traits that plant breeders aim to improve is grain yield which is a highly quantitative trait controlled by various agro-morphological traits. Twelve morphological traits such as Germination Percentage, Days to Spike Emergence, Plant Height, Spike Length, Awn Length, Tillers/Plant, Leaf Angle, Seeds/Spike, Plant Thickness, 1000-Grain Weight, Harvest Index and Days to Maturity have been considered as independent factors. Correlation, regression, and principal component analysis (PCA) are used to identify the different durum wheat traits, which significantly contribute to the yield. The necessary assumptions required for applying regression modeling have been tested and all the assumptions are satisfied by the observed data. The outliers are detected in the observations of fixed traits and Grain Yield. Some observations are detected as outliers but the outlying observations did not show any influence on the regression fit. For selecting a parsimonious regression model for durum wheat, best subset regression, and stepwise regression techniques have been applied. The best subset regression analysis revealed that Germination Percentage, Tillers/Plant, and Seeds/Spike have a marked increasing effect whereas Plant thickness has a negative effect on durum wheat yield. While stepwise regression analysis identified that the traits, Germination Percentage, Tillers/Plant, and Seeds/Spike significantly contribute to increasing the durum wheat yield. The simple correlation coefficient specified the significant positive correlation of Grain Yield with Germination Percentage, Number of Tillers/Plant, Seeds/Spike, and Harvest Index. These results of correlation analysis directed the importance of morphological characters and their significant positive impact on Grain Yield. The results of PCA showed that most variation (70%) among data set can be explained by the first five components. It also identified that Seeds/Spike; 1000-Grain Weight and Harvest Index have a higher influence in contributing to the durum wheat yield. Based on the results it is recommended that these important parameters might be considered and focused in future durum wheat breeding programs to develop high yield varieties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.240199DOI Listing
July 2021

Antihyperlipidemic effect of selected pyrimidine derivatives mediated through multiple pathways.

Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

State Key Laboratory of Oncogenomics, School of Chemical Biology and Biotechnology, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen, China.

Hyperlipidemia is worth-mentioning risk factor in quickly expanding atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and stroke. This study attempted to determine effectiveness of selected pyrimidine derivatives: 5-(3-Hydroxybenzylidene)-2, 4, 6(1H, 3H, 5H)-pyrimidinetrione (SR-5), 5-(4-Hydroxybenzylidene)-2, 4, 6(1H, 3H, 5H)-pyrimidinetrione (SR-8), 5-(3-Chlorobenzylidene)-2, 4, 6(1H, 3H, 5H)-pyrimidinetrione (SR-9), and 5-(4-Chlorobenzylidene)-2, 4, 6(1H, 3H, 5H)-pyrimidinetrione (SR-10) against hyperlipidemia. In silico results revealed that SR-5, SR-8, SR-9, and SR-10 exhibited high affinity with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMGCoA) possessing binding energy values of -8.2, -8.4, -8.6, and -9.5 Kcal/mol, respectively, and moderate (<-8 Kcal/mol) against other selected targets. In vivo findings showed that test drugs (25 and 50 mg/Kg) significantly decreased HFD rat total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein, atherogenic index, coronary risk index, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and bilirubin and increased high-density lipoprotein (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.001 vs HFD group). In animal liver tissues, SR-5, SR-8, SR-9, and SR-10 inhibited HMGCoA reductase enzyme, enhanced glutathione-s-transferase, reduced glutathione, catalase levels, improved cellular architecture in histopathological examination, and decreased expression of inflammatory markers: cyclo-oxygenase 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and phosphorylated-nuclear factor kappa B, evidenced in immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay molecular investigations. This study indicates that SR-5, SR-8, SR-9, and SR-10 exhibit antihyperlipidemic action, mediated possibly through HMGCoA inhibition, hepatoprotection, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/fcp.12682DOI Listing
April 2021

Antihypertensive potential of selected pyrimidine derivatives: Explanation of underlying mechanistic pathways.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jul 10;139:111567. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj, Saudi Arabia.

This study was designed to determine the effectiveness of 5-(3-Hydroxybenzylidene)-2, 4, 6(1H, 3H, 5H)-pyrimidinetrione (SR-5), 5-(4-Hydroxybenzylidene)-2, 4, 6(1H, 3H, 5H)-pyrimidinetrione (SR-8), 5-(3-Chlorobenzylidene)-2, 4, 6(1H, 3H, 5H)-pyrimidinetrione (SR-9) and 5-(4-Chlorobenzylidene)-2, 4, 6(1H, 3H, 5H)-pyrimidinetrione (SR-10) against hypertension. In deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt rats, SR-5, SR-8, SR-9, and SR-10 reduced blood pressure and normalized renal functions. In isolated rat aortic rings, SR-5, SR-8, SR-9, and SR-10 relaxed phenylephrine (PE) and K-induced contractions. The vasodilator effect was endothelium-independent. Test compounds caused a rightward shift of Ca and PE concentration-response curves with a reduction of maximum response. SR-5, SR-8, SR-9, and SR-10 inhibited PE peak contractions in a Ca free medium. In guinea-pig atria, SR5, SR-8, SR-9, and SR-10 caused a mild-to-moderate inhibition of force and rate of contractions. In the aorta and heart tissues, the test compounds enhanced glutathione-s-transferase, reduced glutathione and catalase levels, improved cellular architecture, and decreased lipid peroxidation and expression of inflammatory markers: cyclooxygenase 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and phosphorylated-nuclear factor kappa B, evidenced in the immunohistochemistry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blot molecular investigations and a decreased mRNA expression of calcium channel in RT-PCR analysis. SR-5, SR-8, SR-9, and SR-10 increased the urinary output in rats and inhibited the human platelet aggregation. This study revealed that SR-5, SR-8, SR-9, and SR-10 possess BP lowering, reno-protective, vasodilatory (mediated via Ca antagonist, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways), partial cardio-suppressant, diuretic, and antiplatelet effects, demonstrating their therapeutic potential in hypertension management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111567DOI Listing
July 2021
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