Publications by authors named "N Campain"

21 Publications

Impact of the first surge of the COVID-19 pandemic on a tertiary referral centre for kidney cancer.

BJU Int 2021 May 8. Epub 2021 May 8.

Specialist Centre for Kidney Cancer, Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Objective: To analyse the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on a centralized specialist kidney cancer care pathway.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patient and pathway characteristics including prioritization strategies at the Specialist Centre for Kidney Cancer located at the Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust (RFH) before and during the surge of COVID-19.

Results: On 18 March 2020 all elective surgery was halted at RFH to redeploy resources and staff for the COVID-19 surge. Prioritizing of patients according to European Association of Urology guidance was introduced. Clinics and the specialist multidisciplinary team (SMDT) meetings were maintained with physical distancing, kidney surgery was moved to a COVID-protected site, and infection prevention measurements were enforced. During the 7 weeks of lockdown (23 March to 10 May 2020), 234 cases were discussed at the SMDT meetings, 53% compared to the 446 cases discussed in the 7 weeks pre-lockdown. The reduction in referrals was more pronounced for small and asymptomatic renal masses. Of 62 low-priority cancer patients, 27 (43.5%) were deferred. Only one (4%) COVID-19 infection occurred postoperatively, and the patient made a full recovery. No increase in clinical or pathological upstaging could be detected in patients who underwent deferred surgery compared to pre-COVID practice.

Conclusion: The first surge of the COVID-19 pandemic severely impacted diagnosis, referral and treatment of kidney cancer at a tertiary referral centre. With a policy of prioritization and COVID-protected pathways, capacity for time-sensitive oncological interventions was maintained and no immediate clinical harm was observed.
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May 2021

Percutaneous microwave ablation of renal masses in a UK cohort.

BJU Int 2021 Apr 21;127(4):486-494. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

The Royal Devon and Exeter NHS Foundation Trust, Exeter, UK.

Objectives: To report a tertiary referral centre's experience of microwave ablation (MWA) for suspected renal cell carcinoma (RCC), describing complications and oncological outcomes.

Patients And Methods: Consecutive MWA procedures (n = 113) for renal masses (October 2016 to September 2019) were maintained on a prospective database. Data describing patient, disease, procedure, complications, and oncological outcomes were analysed.

Results: The median (range) age was 68 (33-85) years, 73% were male, and the median Charlson Comorbidity Index was 0. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) tumour diameter was 25 (20-32) mm. In all, 95% had renal mass biopsy, with histologically confirmed cancer in 75%. The median (IQR) R.E.N.A.L. (Radius, Exophytic/Endophytic, Nearness, Anterior/Posterior, Location) nephrometry score was 7 (6-8). The median ablation time was 6 min and length of stay was 1 day for 95% of the patients. Clavien-Dindo complication Grades I, II, IIIb and IV occurred in 18%, 1.8%, 0.9% and 0.9%, respectively. The median follow-up was 12 months and the median (IQR) renal function change was -4 (-18 to 0)%. One patient (0.9%) had local recurrence, treated with re-ablation; two developed metastatic progression; and two (1.8%) had indeterminate findings on follow-up (one lung nodule and one possible local recurrence), managed with ongoing protocolised computed tomography surveillance. Post-procedure complications were associated with total ablation time (odds ratio [OR] 1.152/min, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.040-1.277) and total ablation energy (OR 1.017/kJ, 95% CI 1.001-1.033).

Conclusions: We describe the largest UK series of MWA treatment for T1a/small T1b renal masses to date. MWA was well tolerated, with 95% discharged the following day and low complication/re-admission rates. Current follow-up demonstrates favourable disease control. MWA appears to be safe and effective and should be considered in future prospective comparisons of treatments for T1a/small T1b renal masses.
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April 2021

CALIBER: a phase II randomized feasibility trial of chemoablation with mitomycin-C vs surgical management in low-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

BJU Int 2020 06 3;125(6):817-826. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Institute of Cancer Research, London, UK.

Objectives: To evaluate the activity of intravesical mitomycin-C (MMC) to ablate recurrent low-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and assess whether it may enable patients to avoid surgical intervention for treatment of recurrence.

Patients And Methods: CALIBER is a phase II feasibility study. Participants were randomized (2:1) to treatment with four once-weekly MMC 40-mg intravesical instillations (chemoablation arm) or to surgical management. The surgical group was included to assess the feasibility of randomization. The primary endpoint was complete response to intravesical MMC in the chemoablation arm at 3 months, reported with exact 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Secondary endpoints included time to subsequent recurrence, summarized by Kaplan-Meier methods.

Results: Between February 2015 and August 2017, 82 patients with visual diagnosis of recurrent low-risk NMIBC were enrolled from 24 UK hospitals (chemoablation, n = 54; surgical management, n =28). The median follow-up was 24 months. Complete response at 3 months was 37.0% (20/54; 95% CI 24.3-51.3) with chemoablation and 80.8% (21/26; 95% CI 60.6-93.4) with surgical management. Amongst patients with complete response at 3 months, a similar proportion was recurrence-free by 12 months in both groups (84%). Amongst those with residual disease at 3 months, the 12-month recurrence-free proportion was lower in the surgical management group (40.0%) than in the chemoablation group (84%). Recruitment stopped early as chemoablation did not meet the prespecified threshold of 45% complete responses at 3 months.

Conclusion: Intravesical chemoablation in low-risk NMIBC is feasible and safe, but did not demonstrate sufficient response in the present trial. After chemoablation there may be a reduction in recurrence rate, even in non-responders, that is greater than with surgery alone. Further research is required to investigate the role and optimal schedule of neoadjuvant intravesical chemotherapy prior to surgery for NMIBC.
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June 2020

Impact of sex on response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with bladder cancer.

Urol Oncol 2020 07 11;38(7):639.e1-639.e9. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Urology, The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

Objective: To assess the effect of patient's sex on response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with clinically nonmetastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC).

Methods: Complete pathologic response, defined as ypT0N0 at radical cystectomy, and downstaging were evaluated using sex-adjusted univariable and multivariable logistic regression modeling. We used interaction terms to account for age of menopause and smoking status. The association of sex with overall survival and cancer-specific survival was evaluated using Cox regression analyses.

Results: A total of 1,031 patients were included in the analysis, 227 (22%) of whom were female. Female patients had a higher rate of extravesical disease extension (P = 0.01). After the administration of NAC, ypT stage was equally distributed between sexes (P = 0.39). On multivariable logistic regression analyses, there was no difference between the sexes or age of menopause with regards to ypT0N0 rates or downstaging (all P > 0.5). On Cox regression analyses, sex was associated with neither overall survival (hazard ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 0.75-1.45, P = 0.81) nor cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 0.71-1.58, P = 0.77).

Conclusion: Our study generates the hypothesis that NAC equalizes the preoperative disparity in pathologic stage between males and females suggesting a possible differential response between sexes. This might be the explanation underlying the comparable survival outcomes between sexes despite females presenting with more advanced tumor stage.
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July 2020