Publications by authors named "N C Tolga Emre"

34 Publications

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Authors:
Daniel J Klionsky Amal Kamal Abdel-Aziz Sara Abdelfatah Mahmoud Abdellatif Asghar Abdoli Steffen Abel Hagai Abeliovich Marie H Abildgaard Yakubu Princely Abudu Abraham Acevedo-Arozena Iannis E Adamopoulos Khosrow Adeli Timon E Adolph Annagrazia Adornetto Elma Aflaki Galila Agam Anupam Agarwal Bharat B Aggarwal Maria Agnello Patrizia Agostinis Javed N Agrewala Alexander Agrotis Patricia V Aguilar S Tariq Ahmad Zubair M Ahmed Ulises Ahumada-Castro Sonja Aits Shu Aizawa Yunus Akkoc Tonia Akoumianaki Hafize Aysin Akpinar Ahmed M Al-Abd Lina Al-Akra Abeer Al-Gharaibeh Moulay A Alaoui-Jamali Simon Alberti Elísabet Alcocer-Gómez Cristiano Alessandri Muhammad Ali M Abdul Alim Al-Bari Saeb Aliwaini Javad Alizadeh Eugènia Almacellas Alexandru Almasan Alicia Alonso Guillermo D Alonso Nihal Altan-Bonnet Dario C Altieri Élida M C Álvarez Sara Alves Cristine Alves da Costa Mazen M Alzaharna Marialaura Amadio Consuelo Amantini Cristina Amaral Susanna Ambrosio Amal O Amer Veena Ammanathan Zhenyi An Stig U Andersen Shaida A Andrabi Magaiver Andrade-Silva Allen M Andres Sabrina Angelini David Ann Uche C Anozie Mohammad Y Ansari Pedro Antas Adam Antebi Zuriñe Antón Tahira Anwar Lionel Apetoh Nadezda Apostolova Toshiyuki Araki Yasuhiro Araki Kohei Arasaki Wagner L Araújo Jun Araya Catherine Arden Maria-Angeles Arévalo Sandro Arguelles Esperanza Arias Jyothi Arikkath Hirokazu Arimoto Aileen R Ariosa Darius Armstrong-James Laetitia Arnauné-Pelloquin Angeles Aroca Daniela S Arroyo Ivica Arsov Rubén Artero Dalia Maria Lucia Asaro Michael Aschner Milad Ashrafizadeh Osnat Ashur-Fabian Atanas G Atanasov Alicia K Au Patrick Auberger Holger W Auner Laure Aurelian Riccardo Autelli Laura Avagliano Yenniffer Ávalos Sanja Aveic Célia Alexandra Aveleira Tamar Avin-Wittenberg Yucel Aydin Scott Ayton Srinivas Ayyadevara Maria Azzopardi Misuzu Baba Jonathan M Backer Steven K Backues Dong-Hun Bae Ok-Nam Bae Soo Han Bae Eric H Baehrecke Ahruem Baek Seung-Hoon Baek Sung Hee Baek Giacinto Bagetta Agnieszka Bagniewska-Zadworna Hua Bai Jie Bai Xiyuan Bai Yidong Bai Nandadulal Bairagi Shounak Baksi Teresa Balbi Cosima T Baldari Walter Balduini Andrea Ballabio Maria Ballester Salma Balazadeh Rena Balzan Rina Bandopadhyay Sreeparna Banerjee Sulagna Banerjee Ágnes Bánréti Yan Bao Mauricio S Baptista Alessandra Baracca Cristiana Barbati Ariadna Bargiela Daniela Barilà Peter G Barlow Sami J Barmada Esther Barreiro George E Barreto Jiri Bartek Bonnie Bartel Alberto Bartolome Gaurav R Barve Suresh H Basagoudanavar Diane C Bassham Robert C Bast Alakananda Basu Henri Batoko Isabella Batten Etienne E Baulieu Bradley L Baumgarner Jagadeesh Bayry Rupert Beale Isabelle Beau Florian Beaumatin Luiz R G Bechara George R Beck Michael F Beers Jakob Begun Christian Behrends Georg M N Behrens Roberto Bei Eloy Bejarano Shai Bel Christian Behl Amine Belaid Naïma Belgareh-Touzé Cristina Bellarosa Francesca Belleudi Melissa Belló Pérez Raquel Bello-Morales Jackeline Soares de Oliveira Beltran Sebastián Beltran Doris Mangiaracina Benbrook Mykolas Bendorius Bruno A Benitez Irene Benito-Cuesta Julien Bensalem Martin W Berchtold Sabina Berezowska Daniele Bergamaschi Matteo Bergami Andreas Bergmann Laura Berliocchi Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent Amélie Bernard Lionel Berthoux Cagri G Besirli Sebastien Besteiro Virginie M Betin Rudi Beyaert Jelena S Bezbradica Kiran Bhaskar Ingrid Bhatia-Kissova Resham Bhattacharya Sujoy Bhattacharya Shalmoli Bhattacharyya Md Shenuarin Bhuiyan Sujit Kumar Bhutia Lanrong Bi Xiaolin Bi Trevor J Biden Krikor Bijian Viktor A Billes Nadine Binart Claudia Bincoletto Asa B Birgisdottir Geir Bjorkoy Gonzalo Blanco Ana Blas-Garcia Janusz Blasiak Robert Blomgran Klas Blomgren Janice S Blum Emilio Boada-Romero Mirta Boban Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia Philippe Boeuf Barry Boland Pascale Bomont Paolo Bonaldo Srinivasa Reddy Bonam Laura Bonfili Juan S Bonifacino Brian A Boone Martin D Bootman Matteo Bordi Christoph Borner Beat C Bornhauser Gautam Borthakur Jürgen Bosch Santanu Bose Luis M Botana Juan Botas Chantal M Boulanger Michael E Boulton Mathieu Bourdenx Benjamin Bourgeois Nollaig M Bourke Guilhem Bousquet Patricia Boya Peter V Bozhkov Luiz H M Bozi Tolga O Bozkurt Doug E Brackney Christian H Brandts Ralf J Braun Gerhard H Braus Roberto Bravo-Sagua José M Bravo-San Pedro Patrick Brest Marie-Agnès Bringer Alfredo Briones-Herrera V Courtney Broaddus Peter Brodersen Jeffrey L Brodsky Steven L Brody Paola G Bronson Jeff M Bronstein Carolyn N Brown Rhoderick E Brown Patricia C Brum John H Brumell Nicola Brunetti-Pierri Daniele Bruno Robert J Bryson-Richardson Cecilia Bucci Carmen Buchrieser Marta Bueno Laura Elisa Buitrago-Molina Simone Buraschi Shilpa Buch J Ross Buchan Erin M Buckingham Hikmet Budak Mauricio Budini Geert Bultynck Florin Burada Joseph R Burgoyne M Isabel Burón Victor Bustos Sabrina Büttner Elena Butturini Aaron Byrd Isabel Cabas Sandra Cabrera-Benitez Ken Cadwell Jingjing Cai Lu Cai Qian Cai Montserrat Cairó Jose A Calbet Guy A Caldwell Kim A Caldwell Jarrod A Call Riccardo Calvani Ana C Calvo Miguel Calvo-Rubio Barrera Niels Os Camara Jacques H Camonis Nadine Camougrand Michelangelo Campanella Edward M Campbell François-Xavier Campbell-Valois Silvia Campello Ilaria Campesi Juliane C Campos Olivier Camuzard Jorge Cancino Danilo Candido de Almeida Laura Canesi Isabella Caniggia Barbara Canonico Carles Cantí Bin Cao Michele Caraglia Beatriz Caramés Evie H Carchman Elena Cardenal-Muñoz Cesar Cardenas Luis Cardenas Sandra M Cardoso Jennifer S Carew Georges F Carle Gillian Carleton Silvia Carloni Didac Carmona-Gutierrez Leticia A Carneiro Oliana Carnevali Julian M Carosi Serena Carra Alice Carrier Lucie Carrier Bernadette Carroll A Brent Carter Andreia Neves Carvalho Magali Casanova Caty Casas Josefina Casas Chiara Cassioli Eliseo F Castillo Karen Castillo Sonia Castillo-Lluva Francesca Castoldi Marco Castori Ariel F Castro Margarida Castro-Caldas Javier Castro-Hernandez Susana Castro-Obregon Sergio D Catz Claudia Cavadas Federica Cavaliere Gabriella Cavallini Maria Cavinato Maria L Cayuela Paula Cebollada Rica Valentina Cecarini Francesco Cecconi Marzanna Cechowska-Pasko Simone Cenci Victòria Ceperuelo-Mallafré João J Cerqueira Janete M Cerutti Davide Cervia Vildan Bozok Cetintas Silvia Cetrullo Han-Jung Chae Andrei S Chagin Chee-Yin Chai Gopal Chakrabarti Oishee Chakrabarti Tapas Chakraborty Trinad Chakraborty Mounia Chami Georgios Chamilos David W Chan Edmond Y W Chan Edward D Chan H Y Edwin Chan Helen H Chan Hung Chan Matthew T V Chan Yau Sang Chan Partha K Chandra Chih-Peng Chang Chunmei Chang Hao-Chun Chang Kai Chang Jie Chao Tracey Chapman Nicolas Charlet-Berguerand Samrat Chatterjee Shail K Chaube Anu Chaudhary Santosh Chauhan Edward Chaum Frédéric Checler Michael E Cheetham Chang-Shi Chen Guang-Chao Chen Jian-Fu Chen Liam L Chen Leilei Chen Lin Chen Mingliang Chen Mu-Kuan Chen Ning Chen Quan Chen Ruey-Hwa Chen Shi Chen Wei Chen Weiqiang Chen Xin-Ming Chen Xiong-Wen Chen Xu Chen Yan Chen Ye-Guang Chen Yingyu Chen Yongqiang Chen Yu-Jen Chen Yue-Qin Chen Zhefan Stephen Chen Zhi Chen Zhi-Hua Chen Zhijian J Chen Zhixiang Chen Hanhua Cheng Jun Cheng Shi-Yuan Cheng Wei Cheng Xiaodong Cheng Xiu-Tang Cheng Yiyun Cheng Zhiyong Cheng Zhong Chen Heesun Cheong Jit Kong Cheong Boris V Chernyak Sara Cherry Chi Fai Randy Cheung Chun Hei Antonio Cheung King-Ho Cheung Eric Chevet Richard J Chi Alan Kwok Shing Chiang Ferdinando Chiaradonna Roberto Chiarelli Mario Chiariello Nathalia Chica Susanna Chiocca Mario Chiong Shih-Hwa Chiou Abhilash I Chiramel Valerio Chiurchiù Dong-Hyung Cho Seong-Kyu Choe Augustine M K Choi Mary E Choi Kamalika Roy Choudhury Norman S Chow Charleen T Chu Jason P Chua John Jia En Chua Hyewon Chung Kin Pan Chung Seockhoon Chung So-Hyang Chung Yuen-Li Chung Valentina Cianfanelli Iwona A Ciechomska Mariana Cifuentes Laura Cinque Sebahattin Cirak Mara Cirone Michael J Clague Robert Clarke Emilio Clementi Eliana M Coccia Patrice Codogno Ehud Cohen Mickael M Cohen Tania Colasanti Fiorella Colasuonno Robert A Colbert Anna Colell Miodrag Čolić Nuria S Coll Mark O Collins María I Colombo Daniel A Colón-Ramos Lydie Combaret Sergio Comincini Márcia R Cominetti Antonella Consiglio Andrea Conte Fabrizio Conti Viorica Raluca Contu Mark R Cookson Kevin M Coombs Isabelle Coppens Maria Tiziana Corasaniti Dale P Corkery Nils Cordes Katia Cortese Maria do Carmo Costa Sarah Costantino Paola Costelli Ana Coto-Montes Peter J Crack Jose L Crespo Alfredo Criollo Valeria Crippa Riccardo Cristofani Tamas Csizmadia Antonio Cuadrado Bing Cui Jun Cui Yixian Cui Yong Cui Emmanuel Culetto Andrea C Cumino Andrey V Cybulsky Mark J Czaja Stanislaw J Czuczwar Stefania D'Adamo Marcello D'Amelio Daniela D'Arcangelo Andrew C D'Lugos Gabriella D'Orazi James A da Silva Hormos Salimi Dafsari Ruben K Dagda Yasin Dagdas Maria Daglia Xiaoxia Dai Yun Dai Yuyuan Dai Jessica Dal Col Paul Dalhaimer Luisa Dalla Valle Tobias Dallenga Guillaume Dalmasso Markus Damme Ilaria Dando Nico P Dantuma April L Darling Hiranmoy Das Srinivasan Dasarathy Santosh K Dasari Srikanta Dash Oliver Daumke Adrian N Dauphinee Jeffrey S Davies Valeria A Dávila Roger J Davis Tanja Davis Sharadha Dayalan Naidu Francesca De Amicis Karolien De Bosscher Francesca De Felice Lucia De Franceschi Chiara De Leonibus Mayara G de Mattos Barbosa Guido R Y De Meyer Angelo De Milito Cosimo De Nunzio Clara De Palma Mauro De Santi Claudio De Virgilio Daniela De Zio Jayanta Debnath Brian J DeBosch Jean-Paul Decuypere Mark A Deehan Gianluca Deflorian James DeGregori Benjamin Dehay Gabriel Del Rio Joe R Delaney Lea M D Delbridge Elizabeth Delorme-Axford M Victoria Delpino Francesca Demarchi Vilma Dembitz Nicholas D Demers Hongbin Deng Zhiqiang Deng Joern Dengjel Paul Dent Donna Denton Melvin L DePamphilis Channing J Der Vojo Deretic Albert Descoteaux Laura Devis Sushil Devkota Olivier Devuyst Grant Dewson Mahendiran Dharmasivam Rohan Dhiman Diego di Bernardo Manlio Di Cristina Fabio Di Domenico Pietro Di Fazio Alessio Di Fonzo Giovanni Di Guardo Gianni M Di Guglielmo Luca Di Leo Chiara Di Malta Alessia Di Nardo Martina Di Rienzo Federica Di Sano George Diallinas Jiajie Diao Guillermo Diaz-Araya Inés Díaz-Laviada Jared M Dickinson Marc Diederich Mélanie Dieudé Ivan Dikic Shiping Ding Wen-Xing Ding Luciana Dini Jelena Dinić Miroslav Dinic Albena T Dinkova-Kostova Marc S Dionne Jörg H W Distler Abhinav Diwan Ian M C Dixon Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny Ina Dobrinski Oxana Dobrovinskaya Radek Dobrowolski Renwick C J Dobson Jelena Đokić Serap Dokmeci Emre Massimo Donadelli Bo Dong Xiaonan Dong Zhiwu Dong Gerald W Dorn Ii Volker Dotsch Huan Dou Juan Dou Moataz Dowaidar Sami Dridi Liat Drucker Ailian Du Caigan Du Guangwei Du Hai-Ning Du Li-Lin Du André du Toit Shao-Bin Duan Xiaoqiong Duan Sónia P Duarte Anna Dubrovska Elaine A Dunlop Nicolas Dupont Raúl V Durán Bilikere S Dwarakanath Sergey A Dyshlovoy Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari Leopold Eckhart Charles L Edelstein Thomas Efferth Eftekhar Eftekharpour Ludwig Eichinger Nabil Eid Tobias Eisenberg N Tony Eissa Sanaa Eissa Miriam Ejarque Abdeljabar El Andaloussi Nazira El-Hage Shahenda El-Naggar Anna Maria Eleuteri Eman S El-Shafey Mohamed Elgendy Aristides G Eliopoulos María M Elizalde Philip M Elks Hans-Peter Elsasser Eslam S Elsherbiny Brooke M Emerling N C Tolga Emre Christina H Eng Nikolai Engedal Anna-Mart Engelbrecht Agnete S T Engelsen Jorrit M Enserink Ricardo Escalante Audrey Esclatine Mafalda Escobar-Henriques Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen Lucile Espert Makandjou-Ola Eusebio Gemma Fabrias Cinzia Fabrizi Antonio Facchiano Francesco Facchiano Bengt Fadeel Claudio Fader Alex C Faesen W Douglas Fairlie Alberto Falcó Bjorn H Falkenburger Daping Fan Jie Fan Yanbo Fan Evandro F Fang Yanshan Fang Yognqi Fang Manolis Fanto Tamar Farfel-Becker Mathias Faure Gholamreza Fazeli Anthony O Fedele Arthur M Feldman Du Feng Jiachun Feng Lifeng Feng Yibin Feng Yuchen Feng Wei Feng Thais Fenz Araujo Thomas A Ferguson Álvaro F Fernández Jose C Fernandez-Checa Sonia Fernández-Veledo Alisdair R Fernie Anthony W Ferrante Alessandra Ferraresi Merari F Ferrari Julio C B Ferreira Susan Ferro-Novick Antonio Figueras Riccardo Filadi Nicoletta Filigheddu Eduardo Filippi-Chiela Giuseppe Filomeni Gian Maria Fimia Vittorio Fineschi Francesca Finetti Steven Finkbeiner Edward A Fisher Paul B Fisher Flavio Flamigni Steven J Fliesler Trude H Flo Ida Florance Oliver Florey Tullio Florio Erika Fodor Carlo Follo Edward A Fon Antonella Forlino Francesco Fornai Paola Fortini Anna Fracassi Alessandro Fraldi Brunella Franco Rodrigo Franco Flavia Franconi Lisa B Frankel Scott L Friedman Leopold F Fröhlich Gema Frühbeck Jose M Fuentes Yukio Fujiki Naonobu Fujita Yuuki Fujiwara Mitsunori Fukuda Simone Fulda Luc Furic Norihiko Furuya Carmela Fusco Michaela U Gack Lidia Gaffke Sehamuddin Galadari Alessia Galasso Maria F Galindo Sachith Gallolu Kankanamalage Lorenzo Galluzzi Vincent Galy Noor Gammoh Boyi Gan Ian G Ganley Feng Gao Hui Gao Minghui Gao Ping Gao Shou-Jiang Gao Wentao Gao Xiaobo Gao Ana Garcera Maria Noé Garcia Verónica E Garcia Francisco García-Del Portillo Vega Garcia-Escudero Aracely Garcia-Garcia Marina Garcia-Macia Diana García-Moreno Carmen Garcia-Ruiz Patricia García-Sanz Abhishek D Garg Ricardo Gargini Tina Garofalo Robert F Garry Nils C Gassen Damian Gatica Liang Ge Wanzhong Ge Ruth Geiss-Friedlander Cecilia Gelfi Pascal Genschik Ian E Gentle Valeria Gerbino Christoph Gerhardt Kyla Germain Marc Germain David A Gewirtz Elham Ghasemipour Afshar Saeid Ghavami Alessandra Ghigo Manosij Ghosh Georgios Giamas Claudia Giampietri Alexandra Giatromanolaki Gary E Gibson Spencer B Gibson Vanessa Ginet Edward Giniger Carlotta Giorgi Henrique Girao Stephen E Girardin Mridhula Giridharan Sandy Giuliano Cecilia Giulivi Sylvie Giuriato Julien Giustiniani Alexander Gluschko Veit Goder Alexander Goginashvili Jakub Golab David C Goldstone Anna Golebiewska Luciana R Gomes Rodrigo Gomez Rubén Gómez-Sánchez Maria Catalina Gomez-Puerto Raquel Gomez-Sintes Qingqiu Gong Felix M Goni Javier González-Gallego Tomas Gonzalez-Hernandez Rosa A Gonzalez-Polo Jose A Gonzalez-Reyes Patricia González-Rodríguez Ing Swie Goping Marina S Gorbatyuk Nikolai V Gorbunov Kıvanç Görgülü Roxana M Gorojod Sharon M Gorski Sandro Goruppi Cecilia Gotor Roberta A Gottlieb Illana Gozes Devrim Gozuacik Martin Graef Markus H Gräler Veronica Granatiero Daniel Grasso Joshua P Gray Douglas R Green Alexander Greenhough Stephen L Gregory Edward F Griffin Mark W Grinstaff Frederic Gros Charles Grose Angelina S Gross Florian Gruber Paolo Grumati Tilman Grune Xueyan Gu Jun-Lin Guan Carlos M Guardia Kishore Guda Flora Guerra Consuelo Guerri Prasun Guha Carlos Guillén Shashi Gujar Anna Gukovskaya Ilya Gukovsky Jan Gunst Andreas Günther Anyonya R Guntur Chuanyong Guo Chun Guo Hongqing Guo Lian-Wang Guo Ming Guo Pawan Gupta Shashi Kumar Gupta Swapnil Gupta Veer Bala Gupta Vivek Gupta Asa B Gustafsson David D Gutterman Ranjitha H B Annakaisa Haapasalo James E Haber Aleksandra Hać Shinji Hadano Anders J Hafrén Mansour Haidar Belinda S Hall Gunnel Halldén Anne Hamacher-Brady Andrea Hamann Maho Hamasaki Weidong Han Malene Hansen Phyllis I Hanson Zijian Hao Masaru Harada Ljubica Harhaji-Trajkovic Nirmala Hariharan Nigil Haroon James Harris Takafumi Hasegawa Noor Hasima Nagoor Jeffrey A Haspel Volker Haucke Wayne D Hawkins Bruce A Hay Cole M Haynes Soren B Hayrabedyan Thomas S Hays Congcong He Qin He Rong-Rong He You-Wen He Yu-Ying He Yasser Heakal Alexander M Heberle J Fielding Hejtmancik Gudmundur Vignir Helgason Vanessa Henkel Marc Herb Alexander Hergovich Anna Herman-Antosiewicz Agustín Hernández Carlos Hernandez Sergio Hernandez-Diaz Virginia Hernandez-Gea Amaury Herpin Judit Herreros Javier H Hervás Daniel Hesselson Claudio Hetz Volker T Heussler Yujiro Higuchi Sabine Hilfiker Joseph A Hill William S Hlavacek Emmanuel A Ho Idy H T Ho Philip Wing-Lok Ho Shu-Leong Ho Wan Yun Ho G Aaron Hobbs Mark Hochstrasser Peter H M Hoet Daniel Hofius Paul Hofman Annika Höhn Carina I Holmberg Jose R Hombrebueno Chang-Won Hong Yi-Ren Hong Lora V Hooper Thorsten Hoppe Rastislav Horos Yujin Hoshida I-Lun Hsin Hsin-Yun Hsu Bing Hu Dong Hu Li-Fang Hu Ming Chang Hu Ronggui Hu Wei Hu Yu-Chen Hu Zhuo-Wei Hu Fang Hua Jinlian Hua Yingqi Hua Chongmin Huan Canhua Huang Chuanshu Huang Chuanxin Huang Chunling Huang Haishan Huang Kun Huang Michael L H Huang Rui Huang Shan Huang Tianzhi Huang Xing Huang Yuxiang Jack Huang Tobias B Huber Virginie Hubert Christian A Hubner Stephanie M Hughes William E Hughes Magali Humbert Gerhard Hummer James H Hurley Sabah Hussain Salik Hussain Patrick J Hussey Martina Hutabarat Hui-Yun Hwang Seungmin Hwang Antonio Ieni Fumiyo Ikeda Yusuke Imagawa Yuzuru Imai Carol Imbriano Masaya Imoto Denise M Inman Ken Inoki Juan Iovanna Renato V Iozzo Giuseppe Ippolito Javier E Irazoqui Pablo Iribarren Mohd Ishaq Makoto Ishikawa Nestor Ishimwe Ciro Isidoro Nahed Ismail Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas Eisuke Itakura Daisuke Ito Davor Ivankovic Saška Ivanova Anand Krishnan V Iyer José M Izquierdo Masanori Izumi Marja Jäättelä Majid Sakhi Jabir William T Jackson Nadia Jacobo-Herrera Anne-Claire Jacomin Elise Jacquin Pooja Jadiya Hartmut Jaeschke Chinnaswamy Jagannath Arjen J Jakobi Johan Jakobsson Bassam Janji Pidder Jansen-Dürr Patric J Jansson Jonathan Jantsch Sławomir Januszewski Alagie Jassey Steve Jean Hélène Jeltsch-David Pavla Jendelova Andreas Jenny Thomas E Jensen Niels Jessen Jenna L Jewell Jing Ji Lijun Jia Rui Jia Liwen Jiang Qing Jiang Richeng Jiang Teng Jiang Xuejun Jiang Yu Jiang Maria Jimenez-Sanchez Eun-Jung Jin Fengyan Jin Hongchuan Jin Li Jin Luqi Jin Meiyan Jin Si Jin Eun-Kyeong Jo Carine Joffre Terje Johansen Gail V W Johnson Simon A Johnston Eija Jokitalo Mohit Kumar Jolly Leo A B Joosten Joaquin Jordan Bertrand Joseph Dianwen Ju Jeong-Sun Ju Jingfang Ju Esmeralda Juárez Delphine Judith Gábor Juhász Youngsoo Jun Chang Hwa Jung Sung-Chul Jung Yong Keun Jung Heinz Jungbluth Johannes Jungverdorben Steffen Just Kai Kaarniranta Allen Kaasik Tomohiro Kabuta Daniel Kaganovich Alon Kahana Renate Kain Shinjo Kajimura Maria Kalamvoki Manjula Kalia Danuta S Kalinowski Nina Kaludercic Ioanna Kalvari Joanna Kaminska Vitaliy O Kaminskyy Hiromitsu Kanamori Keizo Kanasaki Chanhee Kang Rui Kang Sang Sun Kang Senthilvelrajan Kaniyappan Tomotake Kanki Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti Anumantha G Kanthasamy Arthi Kanthasamy Marc Kantorow Orsolya Kapuy Michalis V Karamouzis Md Razaul Karim Parimal Karmakar Rajesh G Katare Masaru Kato Stefan H E Kaufmann Anu Kauppinen Gur P Kaushal Susmita Kaushik Kiyoshi Kawasaki Kemal Kazan Po-Yuan Ke Damien J Keating Ursula Keber John H Kehrl Kate E Keller Christian W Keller Jongsook Kim Kemper Candia M Kenific Oliver Kepp Stephanie Kermorgant Andreas Kern Robin Ketteler Tom G Keulers Boris Khalfin Hany Khalil Bilon Khambu Shahid Y Khan Vinoth Kumar Megraj Khandelwal Rekha Khandia Widuri Kho Noopur V Khobrekar Sataree Khuansuwan Mukhran Khundadze Samuel A Killackey Dasol Kim Deok Ryong Kim Do-Hyung Kim Dong-Eun Kim Eun Young Kim Eun-Kyoung Kim Hak-Rim Kim Hee-Sik Kim Hyung-Ryong Kim Jeong Hun Kim Jin Kyung Kim Jin-Hoi Kim Joungmok Kim Ju Hwan Kim Keun Il Kim Peter K Kim Seong-Jun Kim Scot R Kimball Adi Kimchi Alec C Kimmelman Tomonori Kimura Matthew A King Kerri J Kinghorn Conan G Kinsey Vladimir Kirkin Lorrie A Kirshenbaum Sergey L Kiselev Shuji Kishi Katsuhiko Kitamoto Yasushi Kitaoka Kaio Kitazato Richard N Kitsis Josef T Kittler Ole Kjaerulff Peter S Klein Thomas Klopstock Jochen Klucken Helene Knævelsrud Roland L Knorr Ben C B Ko Fred Ko Jiunn-Liang Ko Hotaka Kobayashi Satoru Kobayashi Ina Koch Jan C Koch Ulrich Koenig Donat Kögel Young Ho Koh Masato Koike Sepp D Kohlwein Nur M Kocaturk Masaaki Komatsu Jeannette König Toru Kono Benjamin T Kopp Tamas Korcsmaros Gözde Korkmaz Viktor I Korolchuk Mónica Suárez Korsnes Ali Koskela Janaiah Kota Yaichiro Kotake Monica L Kotler Yanjun Kou Michael I Koukourakis Evangelos Koustas Attila L Kovacs Tibor Kovács Daisuke Koya Tomohiro Kozako Claudine Kraft Dimitri Krainc Helmut Krämer Anna D Krasnodembskaya Carole Kretz-Remy Guido Kroemer Nicholas T Ktistakis Kazuyuki Kuchitsu Sabine Kuenen Lars Kuerschner Thomas Kukar Ajay Kumar Ashok Kumar Deepak Kumar Dhiraj Kumar Sharad Kumar Shinji Kume Caroline Kumsta Chanakya N Kundu Mondira Kundu Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara Lukasz Kurgan Tatiana G Kutateladze Ozlem Kutlu SeongAe Kwak Ho Jeong Kwon Taeg Kyu Kwon Yong Tae Kwon Irene Kyrmizi Albert La Spada Patrick Labonté Sylvain Ladoire Ilaria Laface Frank Lafont Diane C Lagace Vikramjit Lahiri Zhibing Lai Angela S Laird Aparna Lakkaraju Trond Lamark Sheng-Hui Lan Ane Landajuela Darius J R Lane Jon D Lane Charles H Lang Carsten Lange Ülo Langel Rupert Langer Pierre Lapaquette Jocelyn Laporte Nicholas F LaRusso Isabel Lastres-Becker Wilson Chun Yu Lau Gordon W Laurie Sergio Lavandero Betty Yuen Kwan Law Helen Ka-Wai Law Rob Layfield Weidong Le Herve Le Stunff Alexandre Y Leary Jean-Jacques Lebrun Lionel Y W Leck Jean-Philippe Leduc-Gaudet Changwook Lee Chung-Pei Lee Da-Hye Lee Edward B Lee Erinna F Lee Gyun Min Lee He-Jin Lee Heung Kyu Lee Jae Man Lee Jason S Lee Jin-A Lee Joo-Yong Lee Jun Hee Lee Michael Lee Min Goo Lee Min Jae Lee Myung-Shik Lee Sang Yoon Lee Seung-Jae Lee Stella Y Lee Sung Bae Lee Won Hee Lee Ying-Ray Lee Yong-Ho Lee Youngil Lee Christophe Lefebvre Renaud Legouis Yu L Lei Yuchen Lei Sergey Leikin Gerd Leitinger Leticia Lemus Shuilong Leng Olivia Lenoir Guido Lenz Heinz Josef Lenz Paola Lenzi Yolanda León Andréia M Leopoldino Christoph Leschczyk Stina Leskelä Elisabeth Letellier Chi-Ting Leung Po Sing Leung Jeremy S Leventhal Beth Levine Patrick A Lewis Klaus Ley Bin Li Da-Qiang Li Jianming Li Jing Li Jiong Li Ke Li Liwu Li Mei Li Min Li Min Li Ming Li Mingchuan Li Pin-Lan Li Ming-Qing Li Qing Li Sheng Li Tiangang Li Wei Li Wenming Li Xue Li Yi-Ping Li Yuan Li Zhiqiang Li Zhiyong Li Zhiyuan Li Jiqin Lian Chengyu Liang Qiangrong Liang Weicheng Liang Yongheng Liang YongTian Liang Guanghong Liao Lujian Liao Mingzhi Liao Yung-Feng Liao Mariangela Librizzi Pearl P Y Lie Mary A Lilly Hyunjung J Lim Thania R R Lima Federica Limana Chao Lin Chih-Wen Lin Dar-Shong Lin Fu-Cheng Lin Jiandie D Lin Kurt M Lin Kwang-Huei Lin Liang-Tzung Lin Pei-Hui Lin Qiong Lin Shaofeng Lin Su-Ju Lin Wenyu Lin Xueying Lin Yao-Xin Lin Yee-Shin Lin Rafael Linden Paula Lindner Shuo-Chien Ling Paul Lingor Amelia K Linnemann Yih-Cherng Liou Marta M Lipinski Saška Lipovšek Vitor A Lira Natalia Lisiak Paloma B Liton Chao Liu Ching-Hsuan Liu Chun-Feng Liu Cui Hua Liu Fang Liu Hao Liu Hsiao-Sheng Liu Hua-Feng Liu Huifang Liu Jia Liu Jing Liu Julia Liu Leyuan Liu Longhua Liu Meilian Liu Qin Liu Wei Liu Wende Liu Xiao-Hong Liu Xiaodong Liu Xingguo Liu Xu Liu Xuedong Liu Yanfen Liu Yang Liu Yang Liu Yueyang Liu Yule Liu J Andrew Livingston Gerard Lizard Jose M Lizcano Senka Ljubojevic-Holzer Matilde E LLeonart David Llobet-Navàs Alicia Llorente Chih Hung Lo Damián Lobato-Márquez Qi Long Yun Chau Long Ben Loos Julia A Loos Manuela G López Guillermo López-Doménech José Antonio López-Guerrero Ana T López-Jiménez Óscar López-Pérez Israel López-Valero Magdalena J Lorenowicz Mar Lorente Peter Lorincz Laura Lossi Sophie Lotersztajn Penny E Lovat Jonathan F Lovell Alenka Lovy Péter Lőw Guang Lu Haocheng Lu Jia-Hong Lu Jin-Jian Lu Mengji Lu Shuyan Lu Alessandro Luciani John M Lucocq Paula Ludovico Micah A Luftig Morten Luhr Diego Luis-Ravelo Julian J Lum Liany Luna-Dulcey Anders H Lund Viktor K Lund Jan D Lünemann Patrick Lüningschrör Honglin Luo Rongcan Luo Shouqing Luo Zhi Luo Claudio Luparello Bernhard Lüscher Luan Luu Alex Lyakhovich Konstantin G Lyamzaev Alf Håkon Lystad Lyubomyr Lytvynchuk Alvin C Ma Changle Ma Mengxiao Ma Ning-Fang Ma Quan-Hong Ma Xinliang Ma Yueyun Ma Zhenyi Ma Ormond A MacDougald Fernando Macian Gustavo C MacIntosh Jeffrey P MacKeigan Kay F Macleod Sandra Maday Frank Madeo Muniswamy Madesh Tobias Madl Julio Madrigal-Matute Akiko Maeda Yasuhiro Maejima Marta Magarinos Poornima Mahavadi Emiliano Maiani Kenneth Maiese Panchanan Maiti Maria Chiara Maiuri Barbara Majello Michael B Major Elena Makareeva Fayaz Malik Karthik Mallilankaraman Walter Malorni Alina Maloyan Najiba Mammadova Gene Chi Wai Man Federico Manai Joseph D Mancias Eva-Maria Mandelkow Michael A Mandell Angelo A Manfredi Masoud H Manjili Ravi Manjithaya Patricio Manque Bella B Manshian Raquel Manzano Claudia Manzoni Kai Mao Cinzia Marchese Sandrine Marchetti Anna Maria Marconi Fabrizio Marcucci Stefania Mardente Olga A Mareninova Marta Margeta Muriel Mari Sara Marinelli Oliviero Marinelli Guillermo Mariño Sofia Mariotto Richard S Marshall Mark R Marten Sascha Martens Alexandre P J Martin Katie R Martin Sara Martin Shaun Martin Adrián Martín-Segura Miguel A Martín-Acebes Inmaculada Martin-Burriel Marcos Martin-Rincon Paloma Martin-Sanz José A Martina Wim Martinet Aitor Martinez Ana Martinez Jennifer Martinez Moises Martinez Velazquez Nuria Martinez-Lopez Marta Martinez-Vicente Daniel O Martins Joilson O Martins Waleska K Martins Tania Martins-Marques Emanuele Marzetti Shashank Masaldan Celine Masclaux-Daubresse Douglas G Mashek Valentina Massa Lourdes Massieu Glenn R Masson Laura Masuelli Anatoliy I Masyuk Tetyana V Masyuk Paola Matarrese Ander Matheu Satoaki Matoba Sachiko Matsuzaki Pamela Mattar Alessandro Matte Domenico Mattoscio José L Mauriz Mario Mauthe Caroline Mauvezin Emanual Maverakis Paola Maycotte Johanna Mayer Gianluigi Mazzoccoli Cristina Mazzoni Joseph R Mazzulli Nami McCarty Christine McDonald Mitchell R McGill Sharon L McKenna BethAnn McLaughlin Fionn McLoughlin Mark A McNiven Thomas G McWilliams Fatima Mechta-Grigoriou Tania Catarina Medeiros Diego L Medina Lynn A Megeney Klara Megyeri Maryam Mehrpour Jawahar L Mehta Alfred J Meijer Annemarie H Meijer Jakob Mejlvang Alicia Meléndez Annette Melk Gonen Memisoglu Alexandrina F Mendes Delong Meng Fei Meng Tian Meng Rubem Menna-Barreto Manoj B Menon Carol Mercer Anne E Mercier Jean-Louis Mergny Adalberto Merighi Seth D Merkley Giuseppe Merla Volker Meske Ana Cecilia Mestre Shree Padma Metur Christian Meyer Hemmo Meyer Wenyi Mi Jeanne Mialet-Perez Junying Miao Lucia Micale Yasuo Miki Enrico Milan Małgorzata Milczarek Dana L Miller Samuel I Miller Silke Miller Steven W Millward Ira Milosevic Elena A Minina Hamed Mirzaei Hamid Reza Mirzaei Mehdi Mirzaei Amit Mishra Nandita Mishra Paras Kumar Mishra Maja Misirkic Marjanovic Roberta Misasi Amit Misra Gabriella Misso Claire Mitchell Geraldine Mitou Tetsuji Miura Shigeki Miyamoto Makoto Miyazaki Mitsunori Miyazaki Taiga Miyazaki Keisuke Miyazawa Noboru Mizushima Trine H Mogensen Baharia Mograbi Reza Mohammadinejad Yasir Mohamud Abhishek Mohanty Sipra Mohapatra Torsten Möhlmann Asif Mohmmed Anna Moles Kelle H Moley Maurizio Molinari Vincenzo Mollace Andreas Buch Møller Bertrand Mollereau Faustino Mollinedo Costanza Montagna Mervyn J Monteiro Andrea Montella L Ruth Montes Barbara Montico Vinod K Mony Giacomo Monzio Compagnoni Michael N Moore Mohammad A Moosavi Ana L Mora Marina Mora David Morales-Alamo Rosario Moratalla Paula I Moreira Elena Morelli Sandra Moreno Daniel Moreno-Blas Viviana Moresi Benjamin Morga Alwena H Morgan Fabrice Morin Hideaki Morishita Orson L Moritz Mariko Moriyama Yuji Moriyasu Manuela Morleo Eugenia Morselli Jose F Moruno-Manchon Jorge Moscat Serge Mostowy Elisa Motori Andrea Felinto Moura Naima Moustaid-Moussa Maria Mrakovcic Gabriel Muciño-Hernández Anupam Mukherjee Subhadip Mukhopadhyay Jean M Mulcahy Levy Victoriano Mulero Sylviane Muller Christian Münch Ashok Munjal Pura Munoz-Canoves Teresa Muñoz-Galdeano Christian Münz Tomokazu Murakawa Claudia Muratori Brona M Murphy J Patrick Murphy Aditya Murthy Timo T Myöhänen Indira U Mysorekar Jennifer Mytych Seyed Mohammad Nabavi Massimo Nabissi Péter Nagy Jihoon Nah Aimable Nahimana Ichiro Nakagawa Ken Nakamura Hitoshi Nakatogawa Shyam S Nandi Meera Nanjundan Monica Nanni Gennaro Napolitano Roberta Nardacci Masashi Narita Melissa Nassif Ilana Nathan Manabu Natsumeda Ryno J Naude Christin Naumann Olaia Naveiras Fatemeh Navid Steffan T Nawrocki Taras Y Nazarko Francesca Nazio Florentina Negoita Thomas Neill Amanda L Neisch Luca M Neri Mihai G Netea Patrick Neubert Thomas P Neufeld Dietbert Neumann Albert Neutzner Phillip T Newton Paul A Ney Ioannis P Nezis Charlene C W Ng Tzi Bun Ng Hang T T Nguyen Long T Nguyen Hong-Min Ni Clíona Ní Cheallaigh Zhenhong Ni M Celeste Nicolao Francesco Nicoli Manuel Nieto-Diaz Per Nilsson Shunbin Ning Rituraj Niranjan Hiroshi Nishimune Mireia Niso-Santano Ralph A Nixon Annalisa Nobili Clevio Nobrega Takeshi Noda Uxía Nogueira-Recalde Trevor M Nolan Ivan Nombela Ivana Novak Beatriz Novoa Takashi Nozawa Nobuyuki Nukina Carmen Nussbaum-Krammer Jesper Nylandsted Tracey R O'Donovan Seónadh M O'Leary Eyleen J O'Rourke Mary P O'Sullivan Timothy E O'Sullivan Salvatore Oddo Ina Oehme Michinaga Ogawa Eric Ogier-Denis Margret H Ogmundsdottir Besim Ogretmen Goo Taeg Oh Seon-Hee Oh Young J Oh Takashi Ohama Yohei Ohashi Masaki Ohmuraya Vasileios Oikonomou Rani Ojha Koji Okamoto Hitoshi Okazawa Masahide Oku Sara Oliván Jorge M A Oliveira Michael Ollmann James A Olzmann Shakib Omari M Bishr Omary Gizem Önal Martin Ondrej Sang-Bing Ong Sang-Ging Ong Anna Onnis Juan A Orellana Sara Orellana-Muñoz Maria Del Mar Ortega-Villaizan Xilma R Ortiz-Gonzalez Elena Ortona Heinz D Osiewacz Abdel-Hamid K Osman Rosario Osta Marisa S Otegui Kinya Otsu Christiane Ott Luisa Ottobrini Jing-Hsiung James Ou Tiago F Outeiro Inger Oynebraten Melek Ozturk Gilles Pagès Susanta Pahari Marta Pajares Utpal B Pajvani Rituraj Pal Simona Paladino Nicolas Pallet Michela Palmieri Giuseppe Palmisano Camilla Palumbo Francesco Pampaloni Lifeng Pan Qingjun Pan Wenliang Pan Xin Pan Ganna Panasyuk Rahul Pandey Udai B Pandey Vrajesh Pandya Francesco Paneni Shirley Y Pang Elisa Panzarini Daniela L Papademetrio Elena Papaleo Daniel Papinski Diana Papp Eun Chan Park Hwan Tae Park Ji-Man Park Jong-In Park Joon Tae Park Junsoo Park Sang Chul Park Sang-Youel Park Abraham H Parola Jan B Parys Adrien Pasquier Benoit Pasquier João F Passos Nunzia Pastore Hemal H Patel Daniel Patschan Sophie Pattingre Gustavo Pedraza-Alva Jose Pedraza-Chaverri Zully Pedrozo Gang Pei Jianming Pei Hadas Peled-Zehavi Joaquín M Pellegrini Joffrey Pelletier Miguel A Peñalva Di Peng Ying Peng Fabio Penna Maria Pennuto Francesca Pentimalli Cláudia Mf Pereira Gustavo J S Pereira Lilian C Pereira Luis Pereira de Almeida Nirma D Perera Ángel Pérez-Lara Ana B Perez-Oliva María Esther Pérez-Pérez Palsamy Periyasamy Andras Perl Cristiana Perrotta Ida Perrotta Richard G Pestell Morten Petersen Irina Petrache Goran Petrovski Thorsten Pfirrmann Astrid S Pfister Jennifer A Philips Huifeng Pi Anna Picca Alicia M Pickrell Sandy Picot Giovanna M Pierantoni Marina Pierdominici Philippe Pierre Valérie Pierrefite-Carle Karolina Pierzynowska Federico Pietrocola Miroslawa Pietruczuk Claudio Pignata Felipe X Pimentel-Muiños Mario Pinar Roberta O Pinheiro Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski Paolo Pinton Karolina Pircs Sujan Piya Paola Pizzo Theo S Plantinga Harald W Platta Ainhoa Plaza-Zabala Markus Plomann Egor Y Plotnikov Helene Plun-Favreau Ryszard Pluta Roger Pocock Stefanie Pöggeler Christian Pohl Marc Poirot Angelo Poletti Marisa Ponpuak Hana Popelka Blagovesta Popova Helena Porta Soledad Porte Alcon Eliana Portilla-Fernandez Martin Post Malia B Potts Joanna Poulton Ted Powers Veena Prahlad Tomasz K Prajsnar Domenico Praticò Rosaria Prencipe Muriel Priault Tassula Proikas-Cezanne Vasilis J Promponas Christopher G Proud Rosa Puertollano Luigi Puglielli Thomas Pulinilkunnil Deepika Puri Rajat Puri Julien Puyal Xiaopeng Qi Yongmei Qi Wenbin Qian Lei Qiang Yu Qiu Joe Quadrilatero Jorge Quarleri Nina Raben Hannah Rabinowich Debora Ragona Michael J Ragusa Nader Rahimi Marveh Rahmati Valeria Raia Nuno Raimundo Namakkal-Soorappan Rajasekaran Sriganesh Ramachandra Rao Abdelhaq Rami Ignacio Ramírez-Pardo David B Ramsden Felix Randow Pundi N Rangarajan Danilo Ranieri Hai Rao Lang Rao Rekha Rao Sumit Rathore J Arjuna Ratnayaka Edward A Ratovitski Palaniyandi Ravanan Gloria Ravegnini Swapan K Ray Babak Razani Vito Rebecca Fulvio Reggiori Anne Régnier-Vigouroux Andreas S Reichert David Reigada Jan H Reiling Theo Rein Siegfried Reipert Rokeya Sultana Rekha Hongmei Ren Jun Ren Weichao Ren Tristan Renault Giorgia Renga Karen Reue Kim Rewitz Bruna Ribeiro de Andrade Ramos S Amer Riazuddin Teresa M Ribeiro-Rodrigues Jean-Ehrland Ricci Romeo Ricci Victoria Riccio Des R Richardson Yasuko Rikihisa Makarand V Risbud Ruth M Risueño Konstantinos Ritis Salvatore Rizza Rosario Rizzuto Helen C Roberts Luke D Roberts Katherine J Robinson Maria Carmela Roccheri Stephane Rocchi George G Rodney Tiago Rodrigues Vagner Ramon Rodrigues Silva Amaia Rodriguez Ruth Rodriguez-Barrueco Nieves Rodriguez-Henche Humberto Rodriguez-Rocha Jeroen Roelofs Robert S Rogers Vladimir V Rogov Ana I Rojo Krzysztof Rolka Vanina Romanello Luigina Romani Alessandra Romano Patricia S Romano David Romeo-Guitart Luis C Romero Montserrat Romero Joseph C Roney Christopher Rongo Sante Roperto Mathias T Rosenfeldt Philip Rosenstiel Anne G Rosenwald Kevin A Roth Lynn Roth Steven Roth Kasper M A Rouschop Benoit D Roussel Sophie Roux Patrizia Rovere-Querini Ajit Roy Aurore Rozieres Diego Ruano David C Rubinsztein Maria P Rubtsova Klaus Ruckdeschel Christoph Ruckenstuhl Emil Rudolf Rüdiger Rudolf Alessandra Ruggieri Avnika Ashok Ruparelia Paola Rusmini Ryan R Russell Gian Luigi Russo Maria Russo Rossella Russo Oxana O Ryabaya Kevin M Ryan Kwon-Yul Ryu Maria Sabater-Arcis Ulka Sachdev Michael Sacher Carsten Sachse Abhishek Sadhu Junichi Sadoshima Nathaniel Safren Paul Saftig Antonia P Sagona Gaurav Sahay Amirhossein Sahebkar Mustafa Sahin Ozgur Sahin Sumit Sahni Nayuta Saito Shigeru Saito Tsunenori Saito Ryohei Sakai Yasuyoshi Sakai Jun-Ichi Sakamaki Kalle Saksela Gloria Salazar Anna Salazar-Degracia Ghasem H Salekdeh Ashok K Saluja Belém Sampaio-Marques Maria Cecilia Sanchez Jose A Sanchez-Alcazar Victoria Sanchez-Vera Vanessa Sancho-Shimizu J Thomas Sanderson Marco Sandri Stefano Santaguida Laura Santambrogio Magda M Santana Giorgio Santoni Alberto Sanz Pascual Sanz Shweta Saran Marco Sardiello Timothy J Sargeant Apurva Sarin Chinmoy Sarkar Sovan Sarkar Maria-Rosa Sarrias Surajit Sarkar Dipanka Tanu Sarmah Jaakko Sarparanta Aishwarya Sathyanarayan Ranganayaki Sathyanarayanan K Matthew Scaglione Francesca Scatozza Liliana Schaefer Zachary T Schafer Ulrich E Schaible Anthony H V Schapira Michael Scharl Hermann M Schatzl Catherine H Schein Wiep Scheper David Scheuring Maria Vittoria Schiaffino Monica Schiappacassi Rainer Schindl Uwe Schlattner Oliver Schmidt Roland Schmitt Stephen D Schmidt Ingo Schmitz Eran Schmukler Anja Schneider Bianca E Schneider Romana Schober Alejandra C Schoijet Micah B Schott Michael Schramm Bernd Schröder Kai Schuh Christoph Schüller Ryan J Schulze Lea Schürmanns Jens C Schwamborn Melanie Schwarten Filippo Scialo Sebastiano Sciarretta Melanie J Scott Kathleen W Scotto A Ivana Scovassi Andrea Scrima Aurora Scrivo David Sebastian Salwa Sebti Simon Sedej Laura Segatori Nava Segev Per O Seglen Iban Seiliez Ekihiro Seki Scott B Selleck Frank W Sellke Joshua T Selsby Michael Sendtner Serif Senturk Elena Seranova Consolato Sergi Ruth Serra-Moreno Hiromi Sesaki Carmine Settembre Subba Rao Gangi Setty Gianluca Sgarbi Ou Sha John J Shacka Javeed A Shah Dantong Shang Changshun Shao Feng Shao Soroush Sharbati Lisa M Sharkey Dipali Sharma Gaurav Sharma Kulbhushan Sharma Pawan Sharma Surendra Sharma Han-Ming Shen Hongtao Shen Jiangang Shen Ming Shen Weili Shen Zheni Shen Rui Sheng Zhi Sheng Zu-Hang Sheng Jianjian Shi Xiaobing Shi Ying-Hong Shi Kahori Shiba-Fukushima Jeng-Jer Shieh Yohta Shimada Shigeomi Shimizu Makoto Shimozawa Takahiro Shintani Christopher J Shoemaker Shahla Shojaei Ikuo Shoji Bhupendra V Shravage Viji Shridhar Chih-Wen Shu Hong-Bing Shu Ke Shui Arvind K Shukla Timothy E Shutt Valentina Sica Aleem Siddiqui Amanda Sierra Virginia Sierra-Torre Santiago Signorelli Payel Sil Bruno J de Andrade Silva Johnatas D Silva Eduardo Silva-Pavez Sandrine Silvente-Poirot Rachel E Simmonds Anna Katharina Simon Hans-Uwe Simon Matias Simons Anurag Singh Lalit P Singh Rajat Singh Shivendra V Singh Shrawan K Singh Sudha B Singh Sunaina Singh Surinder Pal Singh Debasish Sinha Rohit Anthony Sinha Sangita Sinha Agnieszka Sirko Kapil Sirohi Efthimios L Sivridis Panagiotis Skendros Aleksandra Skirycz Iva Slaninová Soraya S Smaili Andrei Smertenko Matthew D Smith Stefaan J Soenen Eun Jung Sohn Sophia P M Sok Giancarlo Solaini Thierry Soldati Scott A Soleimanpour Rosa M Soler Alexei Solovchenko Jason A Somarelli Avinash Sonawane Fuyong Song Hyun Kyu Song Ju-Xian Song Kunhua Song Zhiyin Song Leandro R Soria Maurizio Sorice Alexander A Soukas Sandra-Fausia Soukup Diana Sousa Nadia Sousa Paul A Spagnuolo Stephen A Spector M M Srinivas Bharath Daret St Clair Venturina Stagni Leopoldo Staiano Clint A Stalnecker Metodi V Stankov Peter B Stathopulos Katja Stefan Sven Marcel Stefan Leonidas Stefanis Joan S Steffan Alexander Steinkasserer Harald Stenmark Jared Sterneckert Craig Stevens Veronika Stoka Stephan Storch Björn Stork Flavie Strappazzon Anne Marie Strohecker Dwayne G Stupack Huanxing Su Ling-Yan Su Longxiang Su Ana M Suarez-Fontes Carlos S Subauste Selvakumar Subbian Paula V Subirada Ganapasam Sudhandiran Carolyn M Sue Xinbing Sui Corey Summers Guangchao Sun Jun Sun Kang Sun Meng-Xiang Sun Qiming Sun Yi Sun Zhongjie Sun Karen K S Sunahara Eva Sundberg Katalin Susztak Peter Sutovsky Hidekazu Suzuki Gary Sweeney J David Symons Stephen Cho Wing Sze Nathaniel J Szewczyk Anna Tabęcka-Łonczynska Claudio Tabolacci Frank Tacke Heinrich Taegtmeyer Marco Tafani Mitsuo Tagaya Haoran Tai Stephen W G Tait Yoshinori Takahashi Szabolcs Takats Priti Talwar Chit Tam Shing Yau Tam Davide Tampellini Atsushi Tamura Chong Teik Tan Eng-King Tan Ya-Qin Tan Masaki Tanaka Motomasa Tanaka Daolin Tang Jingfeng Tang Tie-Shan Tang Isei Tanida Zhipeng Tao Mohammed Taouis Lars Tatenhorst Nektarios Tavernarakis Allen Taylor Gregory A Taylor Joan M Taylor Elena Tchetina Andrew R Tee Irmgard Tegeder David Teis Natercia Teixeira Fatima Teixeira-Clerc Kumsal A Tekirdag Tewin Tencomnao Sandra Tenreiro Alexei V Tepikin Pilar S Testillano Gianluca Tettamanti Pierre-Louis Tharaux Kathrin Thedieck Arvind A Thekkinghat Stefano Thellung Josephine W Thinwa V P Thirumalaikumar Sufi Mary Thomas Paul G Thomes Andrew Thorburn Lipi Thukral Thomas Thum Michael Thumm Ling Tian Ales Tichy Andreas Till Vincent Timmerman Vladimir I Titorenko Sokol V Todi Krassimira Todorova Janne M Toivonen Luana Tomaipitinca Dhanendra Tomar Cristina Tomas-Zapico Sergej Tomić Benjamin Chun-Kit Tong Chao Tong Xin Tong Sharon A Tooze Maria L Torgersen Satoru Torii Liliana Torres-López Alicia Torriglia Christina G Towers Roberto Towns Shinya Toyokuni Vladimir Trajkovic Donatella Tramontano Quynh-Giao Tran Leonardo H Travassos Charles B Trelford Shirley Tremel Ioannis P Trougakos Betty P Tsao Mario P Tschan Hung-Fat Tse Tak Fu Tse Hitoshi Tsugawa Andrey S Tsvetkov David A Tumbarello Yasin Tumtas María J Tuñón Sandra Turcotte Boris Turk Vito Turk Bradley J Turner Richard I Tuxworth Jessica K Tyler Elena V Tyutereva Yasuo Uchiyama Aslihan Ugun-Klusek Holm H Uhlig Marzena Ułamek-Kozioł Ilya V Ulasov Midori Umekawa Christian Ungermann Rei Unno Sylvie Urbe Elisabet Uribe-Carretero Suayib Üstün Vladimir N Uversky Thomas Vaccari Maria I Vaccaro Björn F Vahsen Helin Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg Rut Valdor Maria J Valente Ayelén Valko Richard B Vallee Angela M Valverde Greet Van den Berghe Stijn van der Veen Luc Van Kaer Jorg van Loosdregt Sjoerd J L van Wijk Wim Vandenberghe Ilse Vanhorebeek Marcos A Vannier-Santos Nicola Vannini M Cristina Vanrell Chiara Vantaggiato Gabriele Varano Isabel Varela-Nieto Máté Varga M Helena Vasconcelos Somya Vats Demetrios G Vavvas Ignacio Vega-Naredo Silvia Vega-Rubin-de-Celis Guillermo Velasco Ariadna P Velázquez Tibor Vellai Edo Vellenga Francesca Velotti Mireille Verdier Panayotis Verginis Isabelle Vergne Paul Verkade Manish Verma Patrik Verstreken Tim Vervliet Jörg Vervoorts Alexandre T Vessoni Victor M Victor Michel Vidal Chiara Vidoni Otilia V Vieira Richard D Vierstra Sonia Viganó Helena Vihinen Vinoy Vijayan Miquel Vila Marçal Vilar José M Villalba Antonio Villalobo Beatriz Villarejo-Zori Francesc Villarroya Joan Villarroya Olivier Vincent Cecile Vindis Christophe Viret Maria Teresa Viscomi Dora Visnjic Ilio Vitale David J Vocadlo Olga V Voitsekhovskaja Cinzia Volonté Mattia Volta Marta Vomero Clarissa Von Haefen Marc A Vooijs Wolfgang Voos Ljubica Vucicevic Richard Wade-Martins Satoshi Waguri Kenrick A Waite Shuji Wakatsuki David W Walker Mark J Walker Simon A Walker Jochen Walter Francisco G Wandosell Bo Wang Chao-Yung Wang Chen Wang Chenran Wang Chenwei Wang Cun-Yu Wang Dong Wang Fangyang Wang Feng Wang Fengming Wang Guansong Wang Han Wang Hao Wang Hexiang Wang Hong-Gang Wang Jianrong Wang Jigang Wang Jiou Wang Jundong Wang Kui Wang Lianrong Wang Liming Wang Maggie Haitian Wang Meiqing Wang Nanbu Wang Pengwei Wang Peipei Wang Ping Wang Ping Wang Qing Jun Wang Qing Wang Qing Kenneth Wang Qiong A Wang Wen-Tao Wang Wuyang Wang Xinnan Wang Xuejun Wang Yan Wang Yanchang Wang Yanzhuang Wang Yen-Yun Wang Yihua Wang Yipeng Wang Yu Wang Yuqi Wang Zhe Wang Zhenyu Wang Zhouguang Wang Gary Warnes Verena Warnsmann Hirotaka Watada Eizo Watanabe Maxinne Watchon Anna Wawrzyńska Timothy E Weaver Grzegorz Wegrzyn Ann M Wehman Huafeng Wei Lei Wei Taotao Wei Yongjie Wei Oliver H Weiergräber Conrad C Weihl Günther Weindl Ralf Weiskirchen Alan Wells Runxia H Wen Xin Wen Antonia Werner Beatrice Weykopf Sally P Wheatley J Lindsay Whitton Alexander J Whitworth Katarzyna Wiktorska Manon E Wildenberg Tom Wileman Simon Wilkinson Dieter Willbold Brett Williams Robin S B Williams Roger L Williams Peter R Williamson Richard A Wilson Beate Winner Nathaniel J Winsor Steven S Witkin Harald Wodrich Ute Woehlbier Thomas Wollert Esther Wong Jack Ho Wong Richard W Wong Vincent Kam Wai Wong W Wei-Lynn Wong An-Guo Wu Chengbiao Wu Jian Wu Junfang Wu Kenneth K Wu Min Wu Shan-Ying Wu Shengzhou Wu Shu-Yan Wu Shufang Wu William K K Wu Xiaohong Wu Xiaoqing Wu Yao-Wen Wu Yihua Wu Ramnik J Xavier Hongguang Xia Lixin Xia Zhengyuan Xia Ge Xiang Jin Xiang Mingliang Xiang Wei Xiang Bin Xiao Guozhi Xiao Hengyi Xiao Hong-Tao Xiao Jian Xiao Lan Xiao Shi Xiao Yin Xiao Baoming Xie Chuan-Ming Xie Min Xie Yuxiang Xie Zhiping Xie Zhonglin Xie Maria Xilouri Congfeng Xu En Xu Haoxing Xu Jing Xu JinRong Xu Liang Xu Wen Wen Xu Xiulong Xu Yu Xue Sokhna M S Yakhine-Diop Masamitsu Yamaguchi Osamu Yamaguchi Ai Yamamoto Shunhei Yamashina Shengmin Yan Shian-Jang Yan Zhen Yan Yasuo Yanagi Chuanbin Yang Dun-Sheng Yang Huan Yang Huang-Tian Yang Hui Yang Jin-Ming Yang Jing Yang Jingyu Yang Ling Yang Liu Yang Ming Yang Pei-Ming Yang Qian Yang Seungwon Yang Shu Yang Shun-Fa Yang Wannian Yang Wei Yuan Yang Xiaoyong Yang Xuesong Yang Yi Yang Ying Yang Honghong Yao Shenggen Yao Xiaoqiang Yao Yong-Gang Yao Yong-Ming Yao Takahiro Yasui Meysam Yazdankhah Paul M Yen Cong Yi Xiao-Ming Yin Yanhai Yin Zhangyuan Yin Ziyi Yin Meidan Ying Zheng Ying Calvin K Yip Stephanie Pei Tung Yiu Young H Yoo Kiyotsugu Yoshida Saori R Yoshii Tamotsu Yoshimori Bahman Yousefi Boxuan Yu Haiyang Yu Jun Yu Jun Yu Li Yu Ming-Lung Yu Seong-Woon Yu Victor C Yu W Haung Yu Zhengping Yu Zhou Yu Junying Yuan Ling-Qing Yuan Shilin Yuan Shyng-Shiou F Yuan Yanggang Yuan Zengqiang Yuan Jianbo Yue Zhenyu Yue Jeanho Yun Raymond L Yung David N Zacks Gabriele Zaffagnini Vanessa O Zambelli Isabella Zanella Qun S Zang Sara Zanivan Silvia Zappavigna Pilar Zaragoza Konstantinos S Zarbalis Amir Zarebkohan Amira Zarrouk Scott O Zeitlin Jialiu Zeng Ju-Deng Zeng Eva Žerovnik Lixuan Zhan Bin Zhang Donna D Zhang Hanlin Zhang Hong Zhang Hong Zhang Honghe Zhang Huafeng Zhang Huaye Zhang Hui Zhang Hui-Ling Zhang Jianbin Zhang Jianhua Zhang Jing-Pu Zhang Kalin Y B Zhang Leshuai W Zhang Lin Zhang Lisheng Zhang Lu Zhang Luoying Zhang Menghuan Zhang Peng Zhang Sheng Zhang Wei Zhang Xiangnan Zhang Xiao-Wei Zhang Xiaolei Zhang Xiaoyan Zhang Xin Zhang Xinxin Zhang Xu Dong Zhang Yang Zhang Yanjin Zhang Yi Zhang Ying-Dong Zhang Yingmei Zhang Yuan-Yuan Zhang Yuchen Zhang Zhe Zhang Zhengguang Zhang Zhibing Zhang Zhihai Zhang Zhiyong Zhang Zili Zhang Haobin Zhao Lei Zhao Shuang Zhao Tongbiao Zhao Xiao-Fan Zhao Ying Zhao Yongchao Zhao Yongliang Zhao Yuting Zhao Guoping Zheng Kai Zheng Ling Zheng Shizhong Zheng Xi-Long Zheng Yi Zheng Zu-Guo Zheng Boris Zhivotovsky Qing Zhong Ao Zhou Ben Zhou Cefan Zhou Gang Zhou Hao Zhou Hong Zhou Hongbo Zhou Jie Zhou Jing Zhou Jing Zhou Jiyong Zhou Kailiang Zhou Rongjia Zhou Xu-Jie Zhou Yanshuang Zhou Yinghong Zhou Yubin Zhou Zheng-Yu Zhou Zhou Zhou Binglin Zhu Changlian Zhu Guo-Qing Zhu Haining Zhu Hongxin Zhu Hua Zhu Wei-Guo Zhu Yanping Zhu Yushan Zhu Haixia Zhuang Xiaohong Zhuang Katarzyna Zientara-Rytter Christine M Zimmermann Elena Ziviani Teresa Zoladek Wei-Xing Zong Dmitry B Zorov Antonio Zorzano Weiping Zou Zhen Zou Zhengzhi Zou Steven Zuryn Werner Zwerschke Beate Brand-Saberi X Charlie Dong Chandra Shekar Kenchappa Zuguo Li Yong Lin Shigeru Oshima Yueguang Rong Judith C Sluimer Christina L Stallings Chun-Kit Tong

Autophagy 2021 Feb 8:1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Hong Kong Baptist University, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong, China.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
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February 2021

Contraceptive use and fertility behaviour among Syrian migrant women.

Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care 2021 Jan 21:1-12. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Family Medicine, Pamukkale University School of Medicine, Denizli, Turkey.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate fertility behaviours and contraceptive use among Syrian migrant women in western Turkey.

Methods: An epidemiological, single-centre, cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted. The survey collected data on sociodemographic characteristics and types of marriage, use of contraceptive methods and fertility behaviours among 223 Syrian migrant women.

Results: The women's mean (± standard deviation) age range was 29.6 ± 9.1 (range 18-49) years; 29.6% had no formal marriage status; 61.0% had had an arranged marriage. The mean age at first pregnancy was 19.5 ± 3.4 (13-39) years; 26.4% had become pregnant before the age of 18. In total, 94.2% of participants had knowledge of contraceptive methods. However, 47.5% did not use contraception and the main reason for this was to become pregnant again. Intrauterine devices and oral contraceptive pills were known as contraceptive methods by 67.7% and 72.2% of women, but used by only 16.1% and 8.5%, respectively. Withdrawal (22.0%) was the most used contraceptive method. There was a risk of unwanted pregnancy in 13.0% of participants. Arranged marriage and low educational level were determined to be risk factors for adolescent pregnancy.

Conclusion: Although Syrian migrant women were aware of contraceptive methods, the rate of method use was low.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13625187.2020.1867842DOI Listing
January 2021

Waterpipe smoking, internet addiction and depression: A public health problem trio?

Int J Clin Pract 2020 Nov 25:e13852. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Medical School, Department of Family Medicine, Pamukkale University, Denizli, Turkey.

Background: Waterpipe smoking and Internet addiction may result in a new public health problem globally. This study aimed to explore waterpipe use among a large group of adolescents and its association with Internet use, mental health, primarily depression and their demographic characteristics.

Methods: Using a stratified random sampling method, 2054 tertiary school students aged 14-18 years were recruited in 2019. Demographical information and use of tobacco products (eg, waterpipe) were explored and compared with severity of Internet addiction and mental status.

Results: A total of 288 (14.0%) adolescents had ever used waterpipe. Multivariate logistic regression analyses suggested that being male (OR = 2.55 and 95% CI = 1.98-3.30; P = .0001), being depressed (OR = 1.62 and 95% CI = 1.24-2.11) and excessive Internet use (OR = 1.94 and 95% CI = 1.50-2.52; P = .0001) were significantly associated with waterpipe use. Family income and parents' educational status showed no relationship with waterpipe smoking.

Conclusions: We suggest that adolescents who are depressed and who use the Internet excessively are at an increased risk for waterpipe use, independent of income and parenteral education.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.13852DOI Listing
November 2020

Cell-Surface Marker Signature for Enrichment of Ventricular Cardiomyocytes Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

Stem Cell Reports 2018 09 16;11(3):828-841. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA; Skaggs School of Pharmacy, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA. Electronic address:

To facilitate understanding of human cardiomyocyte (CM) subtype specification, and the study of ventricular CM biology in particular, we developed a broadly applicable strategy for enrichment of ventricular cardiomyocytes (VCMs) derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). A bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic H9 hESC line in which GFP expression was driven by the human ventricular-specific myosin light chain 2 (MYL2) promoter was generated, and screened to identify cell-surface markers specific for MYL2-GFP-expressing VCMs. A CD77/CD200 cell-surface signature facilitated isolation of >97% cardiac troponin I-positive cells from H9 hESC differentiation cultures, with 65% expressing MYL2-GFP. This study provides a tool for VCM enrichment when using some, but not all, human pluripotent stem cell lines. Tools generated in this study can be utilized toward understanding CM subtype specification, and enriching for VCMs for therapeutic applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2018.07.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6135222PMC
September 2018

Population dynamics of two diplectanid species (Monogenea) parasitising sparid hosts (Sparidae).

Parasitol Res 2015 Mar 7;114(3):1079-86. Epub 2015 Jan 7.

Mediterranean Fisheries Research, Production and Training Institute, Kepez, Antalya, Turkey.

Economically important sparid fish species, gilthead (Sparus aurata) and white seabream (Diplodus sargus) (Sparidae) are frequently parasitised by diplectanid monogeneans, known to induce severe losses in farming conditions. We have analysed population dynamic of two diplectanid species, Lamellodiscus echeneis and Lamellodiscus ignoratus (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) collected from two bream species in the Beymelek Lagoon (southwest coast of Turkey), comparing it between different host variables (fish size, age and sex) in order to have insight in parasites' ecology, important for managing parasitosis in the intensive aquaculture system. In seabream (N = 127), L. echeneis prevalence was 46.5 % (exact 95 % confidence limits 38.90-54.14), mean abundance 5.64 (bootstrap 95 % confidence limits 4.20-7.65) and mean intensity 12.14 (bootstrap 95 % confidence limits 9.49-15.59). In white seabream (N = 102), L. ignoratus prevalence was 24.5 % (exact 95 % confidence limits 16.53-34.03), mean abundance 1.73 (bootstrap 95 % confidence limits 0.98-3.21) and mean intensity 7.04 (bootstrap 95 % confidence limits 4.60-11.40). Parasites' parameters differed only between seasons in both hosts and between age categories in gilthead, but not in white seabream.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-014-4278-xDOI Listing
March 2015

Byzantium period water architecture and a masterpiece in Istanbul: the big basilica cistern.

Turk Neurosurg 2014 ;24(6):823-7

Archaeologist.

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October 2015

Essential role of IRF4 and MYC signaling for survival of anaplastic large cell lymphoma.

Blood 2015 Jan 30;125(1):124-32. Epub 2014 Oct 30.

Department of Medicine A, Translational Oncology, Albert-Schweitzer Campus 1, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Germany; Department of Hematology, Oncology, and Tumor Immunology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Cells in Motion Cluster of Excellence, Münster, Germany;

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a distinct entity of T-cell lymphoma that can be divided into 2 subtypes based on the presence of translocations involving the ALK gene (ALK(+) and ALK(-) ALCL). The interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) is known to be highly expressed in both ALK(+) and ALK(-) ALCLs. However, the role of IRF4 in the pathogenesis of these lymphomas remains unclear. Here we show that ALCLs of both subtypes are addicted to IRF4 signaling, as knockdown of IRF4 by RNA interference was toxic to ALCL cell lines in vitro and in ALCL xenograft mouse models in vivo. Gene expression profiling after IRF4 knockdown demonstrated a significant downregulation of a variety of known MYC target genes. Furthermore, our analyses revealed that MYC is a primary target of IRF4, identifying a novel regulatory mechanism of MYC expression and its target gene network in ALCL. MYC, itself, is essential for ALCL survival, as both knockdown of MYC and pharmacologic inhibition of MYC signaling were toxic to ALCL cell lines. Collectively, our results demonstrate that ALCLs are dependent on IRF4 and MYC signaling and that MYC may represent a promising target for future therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2014-08-594507DOI Listing
January 2015

Church of divine wisdom: Hagia Sophia.

Turk Neurosurg 2014 ;24(3):297-301

Archaeologist.

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February 2015

Two new Dactylogyrus species (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) D. angorae and D. turcicus from Capoeta angorae and C. mauricii endemic fishes in Turkey.

Acta Parasitol 2014 Mar;60(1):130-3

Two new Dactylogyrus spp., D. angorae and D. turcicus have been described from the gills of the endemic cyprinid fishes, Capoeta angorae and C. mauricii from the Anatolian Region of Turkey. The shape of the anchors, hooks and the copulation organ of both species differ from those of the Dactylogyrus spp. found on other Capoeta species known from the Ponto-Caspian and Tigris-Euphrates regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ap-2015-0017DOI Listing
March 2014

Mental health screening and increased risk for anxiety and depression among treatment-seeking smokers.

Tob Induc Dis 2014 4;12(1):20. Epub 2014 Nov 4.

Department of Family Medicine, Pamukkale University Faculty of Medicine, C103, 20070 Kinikli, Denizli, Turkey.

Background: The aim of this study was to compare the risk for mental health disorders between smokers and non-smokers and to assess the risk for depression and anxiety according to addiction severity.

Methods: This cross-sectional study assesses the mental health status and relationship with the severity of nicotine addiction in a sample of smokers admitted to Pamukkale University Hospital Smoking Cessation Clinic (n = 101) from 1 June 2012 to 31 August 2012 compared to a group of non-smokers from the general population (n = 101). We conducted semi-structured face-to-face interviews to collect sociodemographic data; we assessed the participants' mental health status with the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and we measured nicotine addiction severity with the Fagerström Test.

Results: The risk for mental illness reported by smokers based on the GHQ-12 was significantly higher than that for non-smokers (p = 0.001). The anxiety and depression scores according to HADS were higher among smokers (16.8% and 22.8%, respectively) than non-smokers (4.0% and 5.0%, respectively) (p = 0.006 and p = 0.001, respectively). The nicotine addiction severity was higher in smokers with higher anxiety and depression scores (p = 0.008).

Conclusions: We found high scores for mental illness in treatment-seeking smokers compared with non-smokers. The risk for anxiety and depression was higher among smokers. Increased nicotine addiction severity was associated with increased risk for mental illness and increased scores of anxiety and depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1617-9625-12-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4350969PMC
March 2015

A polymorphism in IRF4 affects human pigmentation through a tyrosinase-dependent MITF/TFAP2A pathway.

Cell 2013 Nov;155(5):1022-33

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Biomedical Center, Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Vatnsmyrarvegur 16, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.

Sequence polymorphisms linked to human diseases and phenotypes in genome-wide association studies often affect noncoding regions. A SNP within an intron of the gene encoding Interferon Regulatory Factor 4 (IRF4), a transcription factor with no known role in melanocyte biology, is strongly associated with sensitivity of skin to sun exposure, freckles, blue eyes, and brown hair color. Here, we demonstrate that this SNP lies within an enhancer of IRF4 transcription in melanocytes. The allele associated with this pigmentation phenotype impairs binding of the TFAP2A transcription factor that, together with the melanocyte master regulator MITF, regulates activity of the enhancer. Assays in zebrafish and mice reveal that IRF4 cooperates with MITF to activate expression of Tyrosinase (TYR), an essential enzyme in melanin synthesis. Our findings provide a clear example of a noncoding polymorphism that affects a phenotype by modulating a developmental gene regulatory network.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2013.10.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3873608PMC
November 2013

Control of autophagic cell death by caspase-10 in multiple myeloma.

Cancer Cell 2013 Apr 28;23(4):435-49. Epub 2013 Mar 28.

Metabolism Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

We performed a loss-of-function RNA interference screen to define therapeutic targets in multiple myeloma, a genetically diverse plasma cell malignancy. Unexpectedly, we discovered that all myeloma lines require caspase-10 for survival irrespective of their genetic abnormalities. The transcription factor IRF4 induces both caspase-10 and its associated protein cFLIPL in myeloma, generating a protease that does not induce apoptosis but rather blocks an autophagy-dependent cell death pathway. Caspase-10 inhibits autophagy by cleaving the BCL2-interacting protein BCLAF1, itself a strong inducer of autophagy that acts by displacing beclin-1 from BCL2. While myeloma cells require a basal level of autophagy for survival, caspase-10 tempers this response to avoid cell death. Drugs that disrupt this vital balance may have therapeutic potential in myeloma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2013.02.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4059832PMC
April 2013

Exploiting synthetic lethality for the therapy of ABC diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

Cancer Cell 2012 Jun;21(6):723-37

Metabolism Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Knowledge of oncogenic mutations can inspire therapeutic strategies that are synthetically lethal, affecting cancer cells while sparing normal cells. Lenalidomide is an active agent in the activated B cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but its mechanism of action is unknown. Lenalidomide kills ABC DLBCL cells by augmenting interferon β (IFNβ) production, owing to the oncogenic MYD88 mutations in these lymphomas. In a cereblon-dependent fashion, lenalidomide downregulates IRF4 and SPIB, transcription factors that together prevent IFNβ production by repressing IRF7 and amplify prosurvival NF-κB signaling by transactivating CARD11. Blockade of B cell receptor signaling using the BTK inhibitor ibrutinib also downregulates IRF4 and consequently synergizes with lenalidomide in killing ABC DLBCLs, suggesting attractive therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2012.05.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4059833PMC
June 2012

Cell-surface marker signatures for the isolation of neural stem cells, glia and neurons derived from human pluripotent stem cells.

PLoS One 2011 Mar 2;6(3):e17540. Epub 2011 Mar 2.

Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, United States of America.

Background: Neural induction of human pluripotent stem cells often yields heterogeneous cell populations that can hamper quantitative and comparative analyses. There is a need for improved differentiation and enrichment procedures that generate highly pure populations of neural stem cells (NSC), glia and neurons. One way to address this problem is to identify cell-surface signatures that enable the isolation of these cell types from heterogeneous cell populations by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS).

Methodology/principal Findings: We performed an unbiased FACS- and image-based immunophenotyping analysis using 190 antibodies to cell surface markers on naïve human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and cell derivatives from neural differentiation cultures. From this analysis we identified prospective cell surface signatures for the isolation of NSC, glia and neurons. We isolated a population of NSC that was CD184(+)/CD271(-)/CD44(-)/CD24(+) from neural induction cultures of hESC and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC). Sorted NSC could be propagated for many passages and could differentiate to mixed cultures of neurons and glia in vitro and in vivo. A population of neurons that was CD184(-)/CD44(-)/CD15(LOW)/CD24(+) and a population of glia that was CD184(+)/CD44(+) were subsequently purified from cultures of differentiating NSC. Purified neurons were viable, expressed mature and subtype-specific neuronal markers, and could fire action potentials. Purified glia were mitotic and could mature to GFAP-expressing astrocytes in vitro and in vivo.

Conclusions/significance: These findings illustrate the utility of immunophenotyping screens for the identification of cell surface signatures of neural cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells. These signatures can be used for isolating highly pure populations of viable NSC, glia and neurons by FACS. The methods described here will enable downstream studies that require consistent and defined neural cell populations.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0017540PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3047583PMC
March 2011

Cooperative epigenetic modulation by cancer amplicon genes.

Cancer Cell 2010 Dec;18(6):590-605

Metabolism Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Chromosome band 9p24 is frequently amplified in primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). To identify oncogenes in this amplicon, we screened an RNA interference library targeting amplicon genes and thereby identified JAK2 and the histone demethylase JMJD2C as essential genes in these lymphomas. Inhibition of JAK2 and JMJD2C cooperated in killing these lymphomas by decreasing tyrosine 41 phosphorylation and increasing lysine 9 trimethylation of histone H3, promoting heterochromatin formation. MYC, a major target of JAK2-mediated histone phosphorylation, was silenced after JAK2 and JMJD2C inhibition, with a corresponding increase in repressive chromatin. Hence, JAK2 and JMJD2C cooperatively remodel the PMBL and HL epigenome, offering a mechanistic rationale for the development of JAK2 and JMJD2C inhibitors in these diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccr.2010.11.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3049192PMC
December 2010

The ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 improves recovery of human embryonic stem cells after fluorescence-activated cell sorting with multiple cell surface markers.

PLoS One 2010 Aug 13;5(8):e12148. Epub 2010 Aug 13.

BD Biosciences, La Jolla, California, USA.

Background: Due to the inherent sensitivity of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to manipulations, the recovery and survival of hESCs after fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) can be low. Additionally, a well characterized and robust methodology for performing FACS on hESCs using multiple-cell surface markers has not been described. The p160-Rho-associated coiled kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, Y-27632, previously has been identified as enhancing survival of hESCs upon single-cell dissociation, as well as enhancing recovery from cryopreservation. Here we examined the application of Y-27632 to hESCs after FACS to improve survival in both feeder-dependent and feeder-independent growth conditions.

Methodology/principal Findings: HESCs were sorted using markers for SSEA-3, TRA-1-81, and SSEA-1. Cells were plated after sorting for 24 hours in either the presence or the absence of Y-27632. In both feeder-dependent and feeder-independent conditions, cell survival was greater when Y-27632 was applied to the hESCs after sort. Specifically, treatment of cells with Y-27632 improved post-sort recovery up to four fold. To determine the long-term effects of sorting with and without the application of Y-27632, hESCs were further analyzed. Specifically, hESCs sorted with and without the addition of Y-27632 retained normal morphology, expressed hESC-specific markers as measured by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry, and maintained a stable karyotype. In addition, the hESCs could differentiate into three germ layers in vitro and in vivo in both feeder-dependent and feeder-independent growth conditions.

Conclusions/significance: The application of Y-27632 to hESCs after cell sorting improves cell recovery with no observed effect on pluripotency, and enables the consistent recovery of hESCs by FACS using multiple surface markers. This improved methodology for cell sorting of hESCs will aid many applications such as removal of hESCs from secondary cell types, identification and isolation of stem cell subpopulations, and generation of single cell clones. Finally, these results demonstrate an additional application of ROCK inhibition to hESC research.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0012148PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2921395PMC
August 2010

IRF4: Immunity. Malignancy! Therapy?

Clin Cancer Res 2009 May 21;15(9):2954-61. Epub 2009 Apr 21.

Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA.

IRF4, a member of the Interferon Regulatory Factor (IRF) family of transcription factors, is expressed in cells of the immune system, where it transduces signals from various receptors to activate or repress gene expression. IRF4 expression is a key regulator of several steps in lymphoid-, myeloid-, and dendritic-cell differentiation, including the differentiation of mature B cells into antibody-secreting plasma cells. IRF4 expression is also associated with many lymphoid malignancies, with recent evidence pointing to an essential role in multiple myeloma, a malignancy of plasma cells. Interference with IRF4 expression is lethal to multiple myeloma cells, irrespective of their genetic etiology, making IRF4 an "Achilles' heel" that may be exploited therapeutically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-1845DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2790720PMC
May 2009

Nuclear exclusion of p33ING1b tumor suppressor protein: explored in HCC cells using a new highly specific antibody.

Hybridoma (Larchmt) 2009 Feb;28(1):1-6

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Science, Bilkent University, 06533 Ankara, Turkey.

Mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAb) were generated against p33ING1b tumor suppressor protein. 15B9 MAb was highly specific in recognizing a single protein band of approximately 33 kDa endogenous p33ING1b protein from HCC cell lines and normal liver tissue by Western blot analysis and by immunoprecipitation. Although p33ING1b mutations are rarely observed in cancer, differential subcellular distribution and nuclear exclusion of p33ING1b were reported in different cancer types. Therefore we analyzed the expression and subcellular localization of p33ING1b in HCC cell lines using 15B9 MAb. So far, p33ING1b mutations or differential subcellular localization are not reported in HCC. In this study, by indirect immunofluorescence using MAb 15B9, we demonstrate that nuclear localization of p33ING1b was highly correlated with well-differentiated HCC cell lines whereas poorly differentiated HCC cells have nuclear exclusion of the protein. Moreover no association was observed between differential subcellular localization of p33ING1b and p53 mutation status of HCC cell lines. Hence our newly produced MAb 15B9 can be used for studying cellular activities of p33ING1b under normal and cancerous conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/hyb.2008.0058DOI Listing
February 2009

Molecular subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma arise by distinct genetic pathways.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008 Sep 2;105(36):13520-5. Epub 2008 Sep 2.

Metabolism Branch, Biometric Research Branch, Center for Information Technology, and Laboratory of Pathology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

Gene-expression profiling has been used to define 3 molecular subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), termed germinal center B-cell-like (GCB) DLBCL, activated B-cell-like (ABC) DLBCL, and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBL). To investigate whether these DLBCL subtypes arise by distinct pathogenetic mechanisms, we analyzed 203 DLBCL biopsy samples by high-resolution, genome-wide copy number analysis coupled with gene-expression profiling. Of 272 recurrent chromosomal aberrations that were associated with gene-expression alterations, 30 were used differentially by the DLBCL subtypes (P < 0.006). An amplicon on chromosome 19 was detected in 26% of ABC DLBCLs but in only 3% of GCB DLBCLs and PMBLs. A highly up-regulated gene in this amplicon was SPIB, which encodes an ETS family transcription factor. Knockdown of SPIB by RNA interference was toxic to ABC DLBCL cell lines but not to GCB DLBCL, PMBL, or myeloma cell lines, strongly implicating SPIB as an oncogene involved in the pathogenesis of ABC DLBCL. Deletion of the INK4a/ARF tumor suppressor locus and trisomy 3 also occurred almost exclusively in ABC DLBCLs and was associated with inferior outcome within this subtype. FOXP1 emerged as a potential oncogene in ABC DLBCL that was up-regulated by trisomy 3 and by more focal high-level amplifications. In GCB DLBCL, amplification of the oncogenic mir-17-92 microRNA cluster and deletion of the tumor suppressor PTEN were recurrent, but these events did not occur in ABC DLBCL. Together, these data provide genetic evidence that the DLBCL subtypes are distinct diseases that use different oncogenic pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0804295105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2533222PMC
September 2008

IRF4 addiction in multiple myeloma.

Nature 2008 Jul 22;454(7201):226-31. Epub 2008 Jun 22.

Metabolism Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.

The transcription factor IRF4 (interferon regulatory factor 4) is required during an immune response for lymphocyte activation and the generation of immunoglobulin-secreting plasma cells. Multiple myeloma, a malignancy of plasma cells, has a complex molecular aetiology with several subgroups defined by gene expression profiling and recurrent chromosomal translocations. Moreover, the malignant clone can sustain multiple oncogenic lesions, accumulating genetic damage as the disease progresses. Current therapies for myeloma can extend survival but are not curative. Hence, new therapeutic strategies are needed that target molecular pathways shared by all subtypes of myeloma. Here we show, using a loss-of-function, RNA-interference-based genetic screen, that IRF4 inhibition is toxic to myeloma cell lines, regardless of transforming oncogenic mechanism. Gene expression profiling and genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis uncovered an extensive network of IRF4 target genes and identified MYC as a direct target of IRF4 in activated B cells and myeloma. Unexpectedly, IRF4 was itself a direct target of MYC transactivation, generating an autoregulatory circuit in myeloma cells. Although IRF4 is not genetically altered in most myelomas, they are nonetheless addicted to an aberrant IRF4 regulatory network that fuses the gene expression programmes of normal plasma cells and activated B cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature07064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2542904PMC
July 2008

A chemical approach to stem cell biology.

Curr Opin Chem Biol 2007 Jun 10;11(3):252-8. Epub 2007 May 10.

Department of Chemistry and the Skaggs Institute for Chemical Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA.

Small molecule libraries have been used successfully to probe several biological systems. Recent work has translated these successes across to the field of stem cell biology. Stem cells hold promise for both modeling of early development as well as having therapeutic potential. Enhanced understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control stem cell fates as well as an improved ability to manipulate cell populations are required. Known mechanistic chemical compounds have been used with stem cells to accomplish these two goals. More recently, through the utilization of high fitness libraries in phenotype-based screens, several small molecules that control self-renewal and differentiation in stem cells have been identified. These small molecules provide useful chemical tools for both basic research and practical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2007.04.024DOI Listing
June 2007

Histone post-translational modifications regulate transcription and silent chromatin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Ernst Schering Res Found Workshop 2006 (57):127-53

Gene Expression & Regulation Program, The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Regulation of chromatin structure is important for the control of DNA-templated processes such as gene expression and silencing, and its dysregulation is implicated in diverse developmental and cell proliferative defects such as tumorigenesis. Covalent post-translational modifications of histones are one of the prominent means to regulate the chromatin structure. Here, we summarize findings from our lab and others regarding the interactions between different covalent modifications of histones in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. First, we describe the effect of histone H3 phosphorylation at residue serine 10 in transcriptional gene activation, and its histone H3 acetylation dependent and independent modes of action and downstream effects on TATA-binding protein (TBP) recruitment. Further, we review how ubiquitylation of histone H2B and its deubiquitylation by ubiquitin proteases Ubp8 and Ubp10 regulate histone H3 methylations, and consequently affect co-activator-dependent gene transcription and silent chromatin, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/3-540-37633-x_8DOI Listing
April 2006

Histone H2B ubiquitylation and deubiquitylation in genomic regulation.

Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 2004 ;69:289-99

Gene Expression and Regulation Program, The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/sqb.2004.69.289DOI Listing
October 2005

Maintenance of low histone ubiquitylation by Ubp10 correlates with telomere-proximal Sir2 association and gene silencing.

Mol Cell 2005 Feb;17(4):585-94

Gene Expression and Regulation Program, The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, PA 19024, USA.

Low levels of histone covalent modifications are associated with gene silencing at telomeres and other regions in the yeast S. cerevisiae. Although the histone deacetylase Sir2 maintains low acetylation, mechanisms responsible for low H2B ubiquitylation and low H3 methylation are unknown. Here, we show that the ubiquitin protease Ubp10 targets H2B for deubiquitylation, helping to localize Sir2 to the telomere. Ubp10 exhibits reciprocal Sir2-dependent preferential localization proximal to telomeres, where Ubp10 serves to maintain low H2B Lys123 ubiquitylation in this region and, through previously characterized crosstalk, maintains low H3 Lys4 and Lys79 methylation in a slightly broader region. Ubp10 is also localized to the rDNA locus, a second silenced domain, where it similarly maintains low histone methylation. We compare Ubp10 to Ubp8, the SAGA-associated H2B deubiquitylase involved in gene activation, and show that telomeric and gene-silencing functions are specific to Ubp10. Our results suggest that these H2B-deubiquitylating enzymes have distinct genomic functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2005.01.007DOI Listing
February 2005

H2B ubiquitin protease Ubp8 and Sgf11 constitute a discrete functional module within the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SAGA complex.

Mol Cell Biol 2005 Feb;25(3):1162-72

The Wistar Institute, 3601 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

The SAGA complex is a multisubunit protein complex involved in transcriptional regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. SAGA combines proteins involved in interactions with DNA-bound activators and TATA-binding protein (TBP), as well as enzymes for histone acetylation (Gcn5) and histone deubiquitylation (Ubp8). We recently showed that H2B ubiquitylation and Ubp8-mediated deubiquitylation are both required for transcriptional activation. For this study, we investigated the interaction of Ubp8 with SAGA. Using mutagenesis, we identified a putative zinc (Zn) binding domain within Ubp8 as being critical for the association with SAGA. The Zn binding domain is required for H2B deubiquitylation and for growth on media requiring Ubp8's function in gene activation. Furthermore, we identified an 11-kDa subunit of SAGA, Sgf11, and showed that it is required for the Ubp8 association with SAGA and for H2B deubiquitylation. Different approaches indicated that the functions of Ubp8 and Sgf11 are related and separable from those of other components of SAGA. In particular, the profiles of Ubp8 and Sgf11 deletions were remarkably similar in microarray analyses and synthetic genetic interactions and were distinct from those of the Spt3 and Spt8 subunits of SAGA, which are involved in TBP regulation. These data indicate that Ubp8 and Sgf11 likely represent a new functional module within SAGA that is involved in gene regulation through H2B deubiquitylation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.25.3.1162-1172.2005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC544016PMC
February 2005

Analysis of MVP and VPARP promoters indicates a role for chromatin remodeling in the regulation of MVP.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2004 Apr;1678(1):33-46

The Department of Biological Chemistry and the Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, The David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1737, USA.

Multi-drug-resistant cancer cells frequently express elevated levels of ribonucleoprotein complexes termed vaults. The increased expression of vault proteins and their mRNAs has led to the suggestion that vaults may play a direct role in preventing drug toxicity. To further understand vault component up-regulation, the three proteins that comprise the vault, the major vault protein (MVP), vault poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (VPARP), and telomerase-associated protein-1 (TEP1), were examined with respect to gene amplification and drug-induced chromatin remodeling. Gene amplification was not responsible for increased vault component levels in multi-drug-resistant cancer cell lines. The TATA-less murine MVP and human VPARP promoters were identified and functionally characterized. There was no significant activation of either the MVP or VPARP promoters in drug-resistant cell lines in comparison to their parental, drug-sensitive counterparts. Treatment of various cell lines with sodium butyrate, an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC), led to an increase in vault component protein levels. Furthermore, treatment with trichostatin A (TSA), a more specific inhibitor of HDAC, caused an increase in MVP protein, mRNA, and promoter activity. These results suggest that up-regulation of MVP in multi-drug resistance (MDR) may involve chromatin remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbaexp.2004.01.005DOI Listing
April 2004

Transcriptional activation via sequential histone H2B ubiquitylation and deubiquitylation, mediated by SAGA-associated Ubp8.

Genes Dev 2003 Nov 16;17(21):2648-63. Epub 2003 Oct 16.

The Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

Gene activation and repression regulated by acetylation and deacetylation represent a paradigm for the function of histone modifications. We provide evidence that, in contrast, histone H2B monoubiquitylation and its deubiquitylation are both involved in gene activation. Substitution of the H2B ubiquitylation site at Lys 123 (K123) lowered transcription of certain genes regulated by the acetylation complex SAGA. Gene-associated H2B ubiquitylation was transient, increasing early during activation, and then decreasing coincident with significant RNA accumulation. We show that Ubp8, a component of the SAGA acetylation complex, is required for SAGA-mediated deubiquitylation of histone H2B in vitro. Loss of Ubp8 in vivo increased both gene-associated and overall cellular levels of ubiquitylated H2B. Deletion of Ubp8 lowered transcription of SAGA-regulated genes, and the severity of this defect was exacerbated by codeletion of the Gcn5 acetyltransferase within SAGA. In addition, disruption of either ubiquitylation or Ubp8-mediated deubiquitylation of H2B resulted in altered levels of gene-associated H3 Lys 4 methylation and Lys 36 methylation, which have both been linked to transcription. These results suggest that the histone H2B ubiquitylation state is dynamic during transcription, and that the sequence of histone modifications helps to control transcription.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gad.1144003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC280615PMC
November 2003

Identification of conserved vault RNA expression elements and a non-expressed mouse vault RNA gene.

Gene 2003 May;309(2):65-70

Department of Biological Chemistry and the Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, 33-131 CHS mail code #173717, The David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1737, USA.

Vault RNA (vRNA) genes have been cloned from several vertebrates including rat, mouse, and humans. Their copy numbers vary, as does the length of the encoded RNA. We have determined that the mouse genome contains two vRNA genes; one is expressed the other is a pseudogene. In vitro transcription of the rat vRNA gene by RNA polymerase III has previously been shown to be dependent on a combination of both external and internal promoter sequence elements. By comparing the upstream regions of the vertebrate vRNA genes, a 25 bp conserved sequence and a TATA box can be identified. Furthermore, the unique arrangement of the internal promoter boxes (one A and two B boxes) is conserved in the expressed human vRNA genes even though a new RNA polymerase III termination sequence has evolved between the two B boxes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0378-1119(03)00507-9DOI Listing
May 2003

A simpler way of comparing the labelling densities of cellular compartments illustrated using data from VPARP and LAMP-1 immunogold labelling experiments.

Histochem Cell Biol 2003 Apr 15;119(4):333-41. Epub 2003 Apr 15.

School of Biomedical Sciences, Queen's Medical Centre, E Floor, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2UH, UK.

Quantitative immunoelectron microscopy of gold label in intracellular compartments often involves calculating labelling densities (LDs). These are related to antigen concentrations and usually refer gold particle counts to the sizes of compartments on sections (for example, golds per microm(2) of organelle profile area or per microm of membrane trace length). Here, we show how LD values can be estimated more simply (without estimating areas or lengths) and also how observed and expected LD values can be used to calculate a relative labelling index (RLI) for each compartment and then test statistically for preferential (non-random) labelling. For random labelling, RLI=1. Compartment size is estimated stereologically by superimposing random test points (which hit organelle profiles in proportion to their area) or test lines (which intersect membrane traces in proportion to their length). By this means, the observed LD of a compartment (LD(obs)) can be expressed simply as golds per test point (organelles) or per intersection (membranes). Furthermore, the LD obtained by dividing total golds (on all compartments) by total points or intersections (on all compartments) is the value to be expected (LD(exp)) when compartments label randomly. For each compartment, RLI=LD(obs)/LD(exp). Statistical analysis is undertaken by comparing observed distributions of golds with predicted random distributions (calculated from point or intersection counts). A compartment is preferentially labelled if two criteria are met: (1) its RLI>1 (i.e. LD(obs) is greater than LD(exp)) and (2) its partial chi-squared value makes a substantial contribution to total chi-squared value. This approach provides a simple and efficient way of comparing LDs in different compartments. Its utility is illustrated using data from VPARP and LAMP-1 labelling experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00418-003-0523-6DOI Listing
April 2003

Active genes are tri-methylated at K4 of histone H3.

Nature 2002 Sep 11;419(6905):407-11. Epub 2002 Sep 11.

Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Institute and Department of Pathology, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge, CB2 1QR, UK.

Lysine methylation of histones in vivo occurs in three states: mono-, di- and tri-methyl. Histone H3 has been found to be di-methylated at lysine 4 (K4) in active euchromatic regions but not in silent heterochromatic sites. Here we show that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Set1 protein can catalyse di- and tri-methylation of K4 and stimulate the activity of many genes. Using antibodies that discriminate between the di- and tri-methylated state of K4 we show that di-methylation occurs at both inactive and active euchromatic genes, whereas tri-methylation is present exclusively at active genes. It is therefore the presence of a tri-methylated K4 that defines an active state of gene expression. These findings establish the concept of methyl status as a determinant for gene activity and thus extend considerably the complexity of histone modifications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature01080DOI Listing
September 2002