Publications by authors named "N C Dove"

19 Publications

Review: Mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on children and youth - a systematic review.

Child Adolesc Ment Health 2021 Aug 28. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has posed an unprecedented threat to global mental health. Children and adolescents may be more susceptible to mental health impacts related to their vulnerable developmental stage, fear of infection, home confinement, suspension of regular school and extracurricular activities, physical distancing mandates, and larger scale threats such as global financial recessions and associated impacts. Our objective was to review existing evidence of the COVID-19 pandemic's global impact on the mental health of children and adolescents <19 years of age and to identify personal and contextual factors that may enhance risk or confer protection in relation to mental health outcomes.

Methods: We conducted a search of peer-reviewed and preprint research published in English from January 1, 2020, to February 22, 2021. We included studies collecting primary data on COVID-19-related mental health impacts on children and adolescents. We graded the strength of included articles using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine rating scheme.

Results: Our search and review yielded 116 articles presenting data on a total of 127,923 children and adolescents; 50,984 child and adolescent proxy reports (e.g., parents, healthcare practitioners); and >3,000 chart reviews. A high prevalence of COVID-19-related fear was noted among children and adolescents, as well as more depressive and anxious symptoms compared with prepandemic estimates. Older adolescents, girls, and children and adolescents living with neurodiversities and/or chronic physical conditions were more likely to experience negative mental health outcomes. Many studies reported mental health deterioration among children and adolescents due to COVID-19 pandemic control measures. Physical exercise, access to entertainment, positive familial relationships, and social support were associated with better mental health outcomes.

Conclusions: This review highlights the urgent need for practitioners and policymakers to attend to and collaborate with children and adolescents, especially those in higher risk subgroups, to mitigate short- and long-term pandemic-associated mental health effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/camh.12501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8653204PMC
August 2021

Assembly of the Microbiome Is Temporally Dynamic and Determined by Selective and Stochastic Factors.

mSphere 2021 06 9;6(3):e0131620. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.

Recent work shows that the plant microbiome, particularly the initial assembly of this microbiome, influences plant health, survival, and fitness. Here, we characterize the initial assembly of the microbiome across ten genotypes belonging to two poplar species in a common garden using 16S rRNA gene and ITS2 region amplicon sequencing of the leaf endosphere, leaf surface, root endosphere, and rhizosphere. We sampled these microbiomes three times throughout the first growing season and found that the composition of the microbiome changed dramatically over time across all plant-associated habitats and host genotypes. For archaea and bacteria, these changes were dominated by strong homogenizing selection (accounting for 29 to 62% of pairwise comparisons). However, fungal assembly was generally characterized by multiple ecological assembly processes (i.e., a mix of weak selective and dispersal processes). Interestingly, genotype, while a significant moderator of microbiome composition, generally explained less variation than sample date across plant-associated habitats. We defined a set of core genera that accounted for, on average, 36% of the microbiome. The relative abundance of this core community was consistent over time. Additionally, using source tracking modeling, we determined that new microbial taxa colonize from both aboveground and belowground sources, and combined with our ecological assembly null models, we found that both selective and dispersal processes explained the differences between exo- (i.e., leaf surface and rhizosphere) and endospheric microbiomes. Taken together, our results suggest that the initial assembly of the microbiome is time-, genotype-, and habitat-dependent and is moderated by both selective and stochastic factors. The initial assembly of the plant microbiome may establish the trajectory of forthcoming microbiome states, which could determine the overall future health of the plant. However, while much is known about the initial microbiome assembly of grasses and agricultural crops, less is known about the initial microbiome of long-lived trees, such as poplar ( spp.). Thus, a greater understanding of initial plant microbiome assembly in an ecologically and economically important plant such as is highly desirable. Here, we show that the initial microbiome community composition and assembly in the first growing season of is temporally dynamic and is determined by a combination of both selective and stochastic factors. Our findings could be used to prescribe ecologically informed microbial inoculations and better predict the composition of the microbiome into the future and to better understand its influence on plant health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.01316-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8265678PMC
June 2021

Metabolic capabilities mute positive response to direct and indirect impacts of warming throughout the soil profile.

Nat Commun 2021 04 7;12(1):2089. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Earth and Environmental Sciences Area, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA.

Increasing global temperatures are predicted to stimulate soil microbial respiration. The direct and indirect impacts of warming on soil microbes, nevertheless, remain unclear. This is particularly true for understudied subsoil microbes. Here, we show that 4.5 years of whole-profile soil warming in a temperate mixed forest results in altered microbial community composition and metabolism in surface soils, partly due to carbon limitation. However, microbial communities in the subsoil responded differently to warming than in the surface. Throughout the soil profile-but to a greater extent in the subsoil-physiologic and genomic measurements show that phylogenetically different microbes could utilize complex organic compounds, dampening the effect of altered resource availability induced by warming. We find subsoil microbes had 20% lower carbon use efficiencies and 47% lower growth rates compared to surface soils, which constrain microbial communities. Collectively, our results show that unlike in surface soils, elevated microbial respiration in subsoils may continue without microbial community change in the near-term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22408-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8027381PMC
April 2021

Estimating the Prevalence of Mental and Substance Use Disorders: A Systematic Approach to Triangulating Available Data to Inform Health Systems Planning:: Estimer la prévalence des troubles mentaux et des troubles liés à une substance: une approche systématique de la triangulation des données disponibles pour éclairer la planification du système de santé.

Can J Psychiatry 2021 Apr 8:7067437211006872. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Centre for Applied Research in Mental Health and Addictions, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Objective: To estimate the prevalence of specific mental and substance use disorders (MSUDs), by age and sex, as a first step toward informing needs-based health systems planning by decision-makers.

Methods: We developed a conceptual framework and a systematic methodology for combining available data sources to yield prevalence estimates for specific MSUDs. Data sources used included published, peer-reviewed literature from Canada and comparable countries, Canadian population survey data, and health administrative data from British Columbia. Several well-established methodologies including systematic review and meta-analyses of published prevalence estimates, modelling of age- and sex-specific distributions, and the Global Burden of Disease severity distribution model were incorporated in a novel mode of triangulation.

Results: Using this novel approach, we obtained prevalence estimates for 10 MSUDs for British Columbia, Canada, as well as prevalence distributions across age groups, by sex.

Conclusion: Obtaining reliable assessments of disorder prevalence and severity is a useful first step toward rationally estimating service need and plan health services. We propose a methodology to leverage existing information to obtain robust estimates in a timely manner and with sufficient granularity to, after adjusting for comorbidity and matching with severity-specific service bundles, inform need-based planning efforts for adult (15 years and older) mental health and substance use services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07067437211006872DOI Listing
April 2021

Metagenomic tools in microbial ecology research.

Curr Opin Biotechnol 2021 02 14;67:184-191. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA.

Ability to directly sequence DNA from the environment permanently changed microbial ecology. Here, we review the new insights to microbial life gleaned from the applications of metagenomics, as well as the extensive set of analytical tools that facilitate exploration of diversity and function of complex microbial communities. While metagenomics is shaping our understanding of microbial functions in ecosystems via gene-centric and genome-centric methods, annotating functions, metagenome assembly and binning in heterogeneous samples remains challenging. Development of new analysis and sequencing platforms generating high-throughput long-read sequences and functional screening opportunities will aid in harnessing metagenomes to increase our understanding of microbial taxonomy, function, ecology, and evolution in the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2021.01.019DOI Listing
February 2021
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