Publications by authors named "N Al-Zaid"

49 Publications

Efficacy of low carbohydrate ketogenic diet in the treatment of Type 2 Diabetes.

Med Princ Pract 2020 Oct 9. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (LCKD), originally used as a treatment for childhood epilepsy is currently gaining acceptance as a nutritional therapy for obesity and type 2 diabetes. In addition, this diet has a positive effect on body weight, blood glucose level, glycosylated hemoglobin, plasma lipid profile, neurological disorders and cancer. This review focus on the therapeutic effectiveness, negative effects and the rationale of using LCKD for the treatment Type 2 diabetes. It is shown that LCKD contributes to the reduction in the intake of insulin and oral antidiabetic drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, the data presented in this review reveal the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of LCKD in the management of type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000512142DOI Listing
October 2020

Evaluation of cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by L essential oil in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

Saudi Pharm J 2019 Nov 25;27(7):1053-1060. Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Department of Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

L. () commonly known as , is an essential oil bearing plant extensively being used in traditional system of medicine. However, the reports on the components and biological responses of essential oil (AG-EO) from Saudi Arabia are scarce. The present study was designed to explore the presence of basic constituents and apoptosis induced by AG-EO in HepG2 cells. The constituents in AG-EO was analyzed by Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Cytotoxicity of AG-EO was measured by MTT assay and cell cycle arrest and apoptosis assays were conducted by using flow cytometer. Based on GC-MS analysis, the main constituents present in AG-EO were carvone (53.130%), dillapole (25.420%), dihydrocarvone 2 (11.350%) and dihydrocarvone 1 (6.260%). A few other minor components were also identified -dihydrocarveol (0.690%), limonene (0.580%), isodihydrocarveol (0.370%), myristicin (0.210%) and -arsone (0.190%). The cytotoxicity results showed that AG-EO decrease the cell viability and inhibit the cell growth of HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory activity of AG-EO was found with IC = 59.6  5.64. The cell cycle arrest results showed that HepG2 cells exposed to AG-EO exhibited an increase in G2/M and pre-G1 cell population after 24 h exposure. Furthermore, the flow cytometry data revealed the primarily activation of cell death by apoptosis manners in HepG2 cells exposed to AG-EO. Overall, results from this study highlighted the anticancer potential of AG-EO, which could be considered as a new agent for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2019.09.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6978617PMC
November 2019

Effect of low-calorie versus low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet in type 2 diabetes.

Nutrition 2012 Oct 5;28(10):1016-21. Epub 2012 Jun 5.

Al Shaab Family Medicine Medical Center, Ministry of Health, Kuwait.

Objective: Effective diabetic management requires reasonable weight control. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown the beneficial effects of a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (LCKD) in patients with type 2 diabetes after its long term administration. Furthermore, it favorably alters the cardiac risk factors even in hyperlipidemic obese subjects. These studies have indicated that, in addition to decreasing body weight and improving glycemia, LCKD can be effective in decreasing antidiabetic medication dosage. Similar to the LCKD, the conventional low-calorie, high nutritional value diet is also used for weight loss. The purpose of this study was to understand the beneficial effects of LCKD compared with the low-calorie diet (LCD) in improving glycemia.

Methods: Three hundred and sixty-three overweight and obese participants were recruited from the Al-Shaab Clinic for a 24-wk diet intervention trial; 102 of them had type 2 diabetes. The participants were advised to choose LCD or LDKD, depending on their preference. Body weight, body mass index, changes in waist circumference, blood glucose level, changes in hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, urea and creatinine were determined before and at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 wk after the administration of the LCD or LCKD. The initial dose of some antidiabetic medications was decreased to half and some were discontinued at the beginning of the dietary program in the LCKD group. Dietary counseling and further medication adjustment were done on a biweekly basis.

Results: The LCD and LCKD had beneficial effects on all the parameters examined. Interestingly, these changes were more significant in subjects who were on the LCKD as compared with those on the LCD. Changes in the level of creatinine were not statistically significant.

Conclusion: This study shows the beneficial effects of a ketogenic diet over the conventional LCD in obese diabetic subjects. The ketogenic diet appears to improve glycemic control. Therefore, diabetic patients on a ketogenic diet should be under strict medical supervision because the LCKD can significantly lower blood glucose levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2012.01.016DOI Listing
October 2012

Low carbohydrate ketogenic diet prevents the induction of diabetes using streptozotocin in rats.

Exp Toxicol Pathol 2011 Nov 18;63(7-8):663-9. Epub 2010 Jun 18.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Health Sciences Center, Kuwait University, Kuwait.

Diabetes continues to be an overwhelmingly prevalent endocrine disorder that leads to several micro- and macrocomplications. It has been widely accepted that changes in dietary habits could induce or prevent the onset of diabetes. It is shown that low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (LCKD) is effective in the amelioration of many of the deleterious consequences of diabetes. However, its role in preventing the onset of diabetes is not understood. Therefore, this study is focused on the effect of LCKD in preventing the induction of diabetes using streptozotocin (STZ) in rats by biochemical and histological methods. Forty-two Wistar rats weighing 150-250 g were used in this study. The animals were divided into three groups: normal diet (ND), low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (LCKD), and high carbohydrate diet (HCD). Specific diets ad libitum were given to each group of animals for a period of 8 weeks. Each group was further subdivided into normal control, sham control and diabetic groups. Animals in the diabetic group were given a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg). All the animals were sacrificed 4 weeks after the injection of STZ. Daily measurements of food and water intake as well as weekly measurement of body weight were taken during the whole 12 weeks of the experiment. After injecting with STZ, the blood glucose level of all the groups increased significantly except for the group fed on LCKD (p value<0.01). Also, food intake, water intake and urine output were significantly increased in all groups except for the LCKD group (p value<0.01). There was also a significant decrease in the weight gain of the animals that were fed on a LCKD as compared to other groups (p value<0.05). Although, substantial decrease in the number of β cells was noticed in diabetic rats, there were no change in the number of β cells in the LCKD treated diabetic animals as compared to LCKD control group. The results presented in this study, therefore, suggests that LCKD prevents the development of diabetes using streptozotocin in rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etp.2010.05.008DOI Listing
November 2011

Therapeutic role of low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet in diabetes.

Nutrition 2009 Nov-Dec;25(11-12):1177-85

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Health Sciences Center, Kuwait University, Kuwait.

Introduction: Changes in dietary habits influence the glycemic level. Preliminary studies using the low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (LCKD) were found to be quite promising in controlling diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to investigate the therapeutic effects of LCKD in experimental diabetic rats following the administration of streptozotocin (STZ).

Materials And Methods: Adult rats were divided into three groups: normal diet, LCKD, and high-carbohydrate diet. Each group was subdivided into normal, sham, and diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55mg/kg). Specific diets were given to each group of animals for a period of 8 wk and then the animals were sacrificed. The rats were monitored daily for food and water intake, whereas body weight, urine output, and blood glucose levels were monitored weekly. The histology of the islets of Langerhans was studied by histochemical methods.

Results: The results showed that LCKD was effective in bringing blood glucose level close to normal (P<0.01). Food and water intake and urine output were increased in all groups except the LCKD group (P<0.01). The body weight was significantly reduced in all diabetic animals except in the LCKD group (P<0.01). Histologic studies showed significant decrease in the islet size and number of beta cells in all the diabetic groups.

Conclusion: This study indicates that LCKD has a significant beneficial effect in ameliorating the diabetic state and helping to stabilize hyperglycemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2009.04.004DOI Listing
February 2010