Publications by authors named "N Al-Mulhm"

5 Publications

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A study on risk assessment of effect of hematoxylin dye on cytotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in freshwater fish: Food and water security prospective research.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Apr 20;28(4):2267-2271. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Zoology, College of Science. King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The cytotoxicity in freshwater fishes due to different industrial dyes in industrial effluents is a major worldwide issue. Hematoxylin dye has a wide range of uses in textile industries and laboratories. This study was aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of hematoxylin's sublethal effect in vitro in . The fish was exposed to different grading concentrations of dye in the aquarium. Fish were sacrificed and dissected to remove the kidney after exposure to hematoxylin dye for specific time intervals. Nephrotoxicity and cytotoxicity induced by this dye were detected through histopathology by using the paraffin wax method. Immediate mortality of fish was noticed against the exposure to 0.08 g/L (LC) concentration of dye, but at 0.008 mg/L and 0.018 mg/L, it showed tremendous tissue damage in the kidneys, significant reduction in fish growth. This dye induced many alterations in the kidney such as tubular degeneration, vacuolation, shrinkage of a glomerulus, reduced lumen, congestion in the kidney, glomerulonephritis, absence of Bowmen space, necrosis of the hematopoietic interstitial tissues, clogging of tubules, necrosis in the glomerulus and increased space between glomerulus and bowmen's capsule. Although this dye has a wide range of biological and industrial applications, a minute amount of hematoxylin released in effluents is quite toxic to aquatic fauna.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.01.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071821PMC
April 2021

Green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles for antimicrobial and vegetative growth applications: A novel approach for advancing efficient high quality health care to human wellbeing.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Mar 19;28(3):1808-1815. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Adhiyaman Arts and Science College for Women, Uthangarai, Tamil Nadu 635207, India.

The present work aims to synthesize zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles via green approaches using leaf extract of . UV-vis and FT-IR tests confirmed the existence of biomolecules, active materials, and metal oxides. The X-ray diffraction structural study exposes the ZnO nanoparticles formation with hexagonal phase structures. SEM and TEM analysis reveal surface morphologies of ZnO nanoparticles and most of them are spherical with a size range of 10 nm. ZnO nanoparticles were revealed strong antimicrobial activity against both bacterial and fungal strains. The germination of seeds and vegetative growth of has been greatly improved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.12.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7938149PMC
March 2021

An assessment of level of heavy metals pollution in the water, sediment and aquatic organisms: A perspective of tackling environmental threats for food security.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Feb 2;28(2):1218-1225. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Zoology and Wildlife Biology A.V.C. College (Autonomous), Mannampandal, Mayiladuthurai - 609305, Tamil Nadu, India.

Pollution is severely threatening the wetland habitats. Heavy metals are one among of the major pollutants in wetland habitats. The cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn), were assessed in the water, sediment, benthic species (polychaetes, mollusc and crustaceans), prawn and fishes. The assessment of heavy metals was done by using double-beam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The Hg, Cr and Co were greater in sediment, Ni and Cd were higher in polychaetes and molluscs respectively. However, the Cu and Pb greater in crabs and the Zinc was greater in fishes. The concentration of metals showed significant differences among the various sources examined (P < 0.05) except Cr (P > 0.05). The inter-correlational analysis among the metals assessed from the various sources showed that the Cr and Pb not correlated among the eight metals examined. However, the Cu and Co were correlated with Hg (r = 0.307) and (r = 0.788) respectively. The nickel was correlated with Hg (r = 0.367), Cu (r = 0.362) and Co (r = 0.432). The Zinc was correlated with the Cd (r = 0.331) and Hg (r = 0.737). However, correlation of metals among the different sources shown that the metals of polychaetes correlated with sediment r = 0.637, the metals of crabs correlated with the sediment and polychaetes r = 0.630 and r = 842 respectively, the metals of molluscs was also correlated with sediment (r = 0.636), polychaetes (r = 0.889) and crabs (r = 0.894). In addition to that the metals of prawns was correlated with the polychaetes (r = 839), crabs (r = 0.628) and molluscs (r = 0.634). The metals of fishes correlated with polychaetes (r = 0.529), crabs (r = 0.710), molluscs (r = 0.493) and prawns (r = 0.593). Indeed the multiple regression model explained that the metals of sediments influence the accumulation of metals in biotic species such as polychaetes, molluscs, crustaceans, prawns and fishes with 84% (F = 21.079; p < 0.001).The order of the heavy metals in the water, sediment and biotic species was Hg > Pb > Ni > Cr > Zn > Co > Cu > Cd. The study found that the level of heavy metals at various sources in the sanctuary is showing considerable warning and the sanctuary is required intensive assessment on various aspects of pollution since the Point Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary is supporting several species of migratory and endangered shorebirds seasonally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.11.072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7878681PMC
February 2021

network-based analysis of drugs used against COVID-19: Human well-being study.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Mar 21;28(3):2029-2039. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Introduction: Researchers worldwide with great endeavor searching and repurpose drugs might be potentially useful in fighting newly emerged coronavirus. These drugs show inhibition but also show side effects and complications too. On December 27, 2020, 80,926,235 cases have been reported worldwide. Specifically, in Pakistan, 471,335 has been reported with inconsiderable deaths.

Problem Statement: Identification of COVID-19 drugs pathway through drug-gene and gene-gene interaction to find out the most important genes involved in the pathway to deal with the actual cause of side effects beyond the beneficent effects of the drugs.

Methodology: The medicines used to treat COVID-19 are retrieved from the Drug Bank. The drug-gene interaction was performed using the Drug Gene Interaction Database to check the relation between the genes and the drugs. The networks of genes are developed by Gene MANIA, while Cytoscape is used to check the active functional association of the targeted gene. The developed systems cross-validated using the EnrichNet tool and identify drug genes' concerned pathways using Reactome and STRING.

Results: Five drugs Azithromycin, Bevacizumab, CQ, HCQ, and Lopinavir, are retrieved. The drug-gene interaction shows several genes that are targeted by the drug. Gene MANIA interaction network shows the functional association of the genes like co-expression, physical interaction, predicted, genetic interaction, co-localization, and shared protein domains.

Conclusion: Our study suggests the pathways for each drug in which targeted genes and medicines play a crucial role, which will help experts o overcome and deal with the side effects of these drugs, as we find out the gene analysis for the COVID-19 drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.01.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7825994PMC
March 2021

Evaluating antibody response pattern in asymptomatic virus infected pregnant females: Human well-being study.

J King Saud Univ Sci 2021 Jan 2;33(1):101255. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Obstetrics, Wuhan Maternal and Children Health Hospital, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic infecting millions of people globally has given rise to serious public health threats. The need for early detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in asymptomatic pregnant women is compelling to detect vertical transmission timely. Here, 11 SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic pregnant cases from Wuhan China were investigated. All the patients were initially tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR, so a chest CT scan was performed. Also, serum antibody (IgM and IgG) titers were estimated. CT scan of patients revealed typical abnormalities related to SARS-CoV-2, indicating ground-glass opacity and infection lesions suggesting viral pneumonia. Elevated IgM and IgG antibodies levels () were also noticed in infected patients. Hence, CT imaging and serum antibody response are valuable in the early detection of SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic pregnant patients. These might serve as prognostic markers for healthcare professionals, in RT-PCR negative patients, to assess the effect of given treatment by chest CT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2020.101255DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7709611PMC
January 2021
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