Publications by authors named "N Agarwal"

1,992 Publications

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Predictors of Lymphatic Complications Following Renal Transplant: A Prospective Study Involving Predominantly Living Donor Transplants From India.

Cureus 2021 Aug 12;13(8):e17133. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Transplant Unit, Department of Surgery, Atal Bihari Vajpayee Institute of Medical Sciences and Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, Delhi, IND.

Introduction Lymphatic complications (LC) are common (up to 33%) and troublesome after renal transplantation. Different studies have established varying medical and surgical risk factors, mostly by retrospective analysis on deceased donor renal transplants (DDRTs). The end-point is mostly lymphocele, with few reports documenting the equally important lymphorrhea. Methods In our prospective analytical study done over three years, most were living donor renal transplant (LDRT) pairs by a single team. The primary outcome measure was lymphocele and/or prolonged drainage for more than 15 days, with a six-month follow-up. The variables recorded were age, gender, hemodialysis duration, etiology, relationship, human leucocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch, induction regimen, acute rejection, warm ischemia time (WIT), and delayed graft function (DGF). Univariate analysis was by chi-square and t-tests as applicable, while logistic regression (both simultaneous and forward stepwise) was used for risk factor prediction. Results Eligible cases were 150, with 145 (97%) LDRT pairs. Donors were mostly female (122/150; 81%) with mean age (~43 years) higher than recipient age (~33 years). The common etiologies were diabetes (31%), hypertension (23%), and IgA nephropathy (11%). Most donors were mothers (37%) and wives (31%), and 28% of LDRT pairs had HLA mismatch >3. Mean duration of hemodialysis was about 18 months, and mean WIT was 52 minutes. Both DGF (B coefficient= -1.69, p<0.000) and WIT (B=-0.038, p=0.024) were significant predictors of the primary outcome, while drain removal before 15 days predicted lymphocele significantly (B=-2.4, p<0.000).  Conclusions LDRT has specific risk factors for lymphatic complications, which may be related to extent of recipient vascular dissection, arterial anastomotic time, and early drain removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.17133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8437002PMC
August 2021

TRIM28 is a transcriptional activator of the mutant TERT promoter in human bladder cancer.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Sep;118(38)

Cedars-Sinai Samuel Oschin Comprehensive Cancer Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90048;

Bladder cancer (BC) has a 70% telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT or hTERT in humans) promoter mutation prevalence, commonly at -124 base pairs, and this is associated with increased hTERT expression and poor patient prognosis. We inserted a green fluorescent protein (GFP) tag in the mutant hTERT promoter allele to create BC cells expressing an hTERT-GFP fusion protein. These cells were used in a fluorescence-activated cell sorting-based pooled CRISPR-Cas9 Kinome knockout genetic screen to identify tripartite motif containing 28 (TRIM28) and TRIM24 as regulators of hTERT expression. TRIM28 activates, while TRIM24 suppresses, hTERT transcription from the mutated promoter allele. TRIM28 is recruited to the mutant promoter where it interacts with TRIM24, which inhibits its activity. Phosphorylation of TRIM28 through the mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) releases it from TRIM24 and induces hTERT transcription. TRIM28 expression promotes in vitro and in vivo BC cell growth and stratifies BC patient outcome. mTORC1 inhibition with rapamycin analog Ridaforolimus suppresses TRIM28 phosphorylation, hTERT expression, and cell viability. This study may lead to hTERT-directed cancer therapies with reduced effects on normal progenitor cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2102423118DOI Listing
September 2021

Neurosurgery perception of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Oct 7;92:110-114. Epub 2021 Aug 7.

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Pittsburgh, PA, United States. Electronic address:

Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocols are widespread in several fields, particularly general surgery, and attempt to deliver surgical care at a lower cost while also improving patient outcomes. However, few institutions have implemented ERAS protocols in neurosurgery. As such, a survey of neurosurgeons on the current state of ERAS in neurosurgery was conducted to provide insight on scaling the practice nationally. A 15-question survey was designed to assess the implementation of andsatisfaction with ERAS protocols at individual institutions. A total of 39 responses were collected from 38 unique institutions. 58.9%(N = 23) reported implementation of neurosurgical ERAS protocols. 52.1% (N = 12) of the responses were neurosurgeons at academic institutions withneurosurgical residency programs. Most neurosurgeons used ERAS protocolsfor spine cases (N = 23), with only 17.3% (N = 4) employing ERAS protocolsfor cranial cases. 69.5% (N = 16) of survey participants reported that thedesign and implementation of ERAS was a multidisciplinary effort acrossmany departments, including neurosurgery, anesthesia, and pharmacy.Decreased costs and intensive care unit (ICU) admission were reported tobe unanticipated benefits of ERAS implementation. Unanticipated challenges to implementation of new protocols included difficulties withelectronic medical record (EMR) integration, agreement of protocoldetails amongst stakeholders, uniform implementation of protocols by allneurosurgeons, and lack of adaptability by multidisciplinary staff. Meandepartment satisfaction with ERAS protocol implementation was 4.00 +/- 0.81 (N = 22) on a 5-point Likert scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2021.07.044DOI Listing
October 2021

Quantitative Point-of-Care Colorimetric Assay Modeling Using a Handheld Colorimeter.

ACS Omega 2021 Aug 17;6(34):22439-22446. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Department of Chemical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1, Canada.

Colorimetric assays typically offer a rapid and convenient method to assess analytes that span healthcare monitoring to water quality testing. However, such tests can only provide qualitative results when employed in resource-limited settings or require bulky and expensive equipment such as lab spectrophotometers to allow quantitative measurements. In this paper, we report on the use of a handheld colorimeter to quantitatively determine the concentration of analytes in a manner that is independent of ambient lighting or initial sample color. The method combines the response of the sensor with first-principles modeling that better describes the nature of the assay compared to linear-in-parameters regression modeling that is typically performed in other studies. This method was successfully demonstrated using a number of colorimetric assays: (1) determination of solution pH using a universal indicator, (2) quantification of the DNase presence using a DNA-gold nanoparticle assay, and (3) quantification of the concentration of the antibiotic tetracycline using a cell-based assay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c03460DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8412955PMC
August 2021
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