Publications by authors named "Núria Sala"

81 Publications

Follow-Up Study Confirms the Presence of Gastric Cancer DNA Methylation Hallmarks in High-Risk Precursor Lesions.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jun 2;13(11). Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Cancer Epigenetics Group, Cancer Epigenetics and Biology Program (PEBC), Bellvitge Institute for Biomedical Research (IDIBELL), 08908 Barcelona, Spain.

To adopt prevention strategies in gastric cancer, it is imperative to develop robust biomarkers with acceptable costs and feasibility in clinical practice to stratified populations according to risk scores. With this aim, we applied an unbiased genome-wide CpG methylation approach to a discovery cohort composed of gastric cancer ( = 24), and non-malignant precursor lesions ( = 64). Then, candidate-methylation approaches were performed in a validation cohort of precursor lesions obtained from an observational longitudinal study ( = 264), with a 12-year follow-up to identify repression or progression cases. stratification and histology were considered to determine their influence on the methylation dynamics. As a result, we ascertained that intestinal metaplasia partially recapitulates patterns of aberrant methylation of intestinal type of gastric cancer, independently of the status. Two epigenetically regulated genes in cancer, and , consistently showed increased methylation in intestinal metaplasia with respect to earlier precursor lesions. In summary, our result supports the need to investigate the practical utilities of the quantification of DNA methylation in candidate genes as a marker for disease progression. In addition, the -dependent methylation in intestinal metaplasia suggests that pharmacological treatments aimed at eradication in the late stages of precursor lesions do not prevent epigenome reprogramming toward a cancer signature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13112760DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8199626PMC
June 2021

Association of Pre-diagnostic Antibody Responses to Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis Toxin Proteins with Colorectal Cancer in a European Cohort.

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1-14

Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology, Umeå University, Ireland.

Experimental evidence has implicated genotoxic () and enterotoxigenic (ETBF) in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, evidence from epidemiological studies is sparse. We therefore assessed the association of serological markers of and ETBF exposure with odds of developing CRC in the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC) study.Serum samples of incident CRC cases and matched controls (n = 442 pairs) were analyzed for immunoglobulin (Ig) A and G antibody responses to seven proteins and two isoforms of the ETBF toxin via multiplex serology. Multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of sero-positivity to and ETBF with CRC.The IgA-positivity of any of the tested antigens was associated with higher odds of developing CRC (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.05-1.91). Dual-positivity for both IgA and IgG to and ETBF was associated with >1.7-fold higher odds of developing CRC, with a significant association only for IgG (OR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.94). This association was more pronounced when restricted to the proximal colon cancers (OR: 2.62; 95% CI: 1.09, 6.29) compared to those of the distal colon (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.51, 3.00) (= 0.095). Sero-positivity to and ETBF was associated with CRC development, suggesting that co-infection of these bacterial species may contribute to colorectal carcinogenesis. These findings warrant further exploration in larger prospective studies and within different population groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490976.2021.1903825DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078709PMC
April 2021

Development and validation of a lifestyle-based model for colorectal cancer risk prediction: the LiFeCRC score.

BMC Med 2021 Jan 4;19(1). Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Public Health Directorate, Asturias, Spain.

Background: Nutrition and lifestyle have been long established as risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC). Modifiable lifestyle behaviours bear potential to minimize long-term CRC risk; however, translation of lifestyle information into individualized CRC risk assessment has not been implemented. Lifestyle-based risk models may aid the identification of high-risk individuals, guide referral to screening and motivate behaviour change. We therefore developed and validated a lifestyle-based CRC risk prediction algorithm in an asymptomatic European population.

Methods: The model was based on data from 255,482 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study aged 19 to 70 years who were free of cancer at study baseline (1992-2000) and were followed up to 31 September 2010. The model was validated in a sample comprising 74,403 participants selected among five EPIC centres. Over a median follow-up time of 15 years, there were 3645 and 981 colorectal cancer cases in the derivation and validation samples, respectively. Variable selection algorithms in Cox proportional hazard regression and random survival forest (RSF) were used to identify the best predictors among plausible predictor variables. Measures of discrimination and calibration were calculated in derivation and validation samples. To facilitate model communication, a nomogram and a web-based application were developed.

Results: The final selection model included age, waist circumference, height, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, vegetables, dairy products, processed meat, and sugar and confectionary. The risk score demonstrated good discrimination overall and in sex-specific models. Harrell's C-index was 0.710 in the derivation cohort and 0.714 in the validation cohort. The model was well calibrated and showed strong agreement between predicted and observed risk. Random survival forest analysis suggested high model robustness. Beyond age, lifestyle data led to improved model performance overall (continuous net reclassification improvement = 0.307 (95% CI 0.264-0.352)), and especially for young individuals below 45 years (continuous net reclassification improvement = 0.364 (95% CI 0.084-0.575)).

Conclusions: LiFeCRC score based on age and lifestyle data accurately identifies individuals at risk for incident colorectal cancer in European populations and could contribute to improved prevention through motivating lifestyle change at an individual level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01826-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7780676PMC
January 2021

Plasma Vitamin C and Type 2 Diabetes: Genome-Wide Association Study and Mendelian Randomization Analysis in European Populations.

Diabetes Care 2021 01 17;44(1):98-106. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program and Translational Research Laboratory; Catalan Institute of Oncology - ICO, Group of Research on Nutrition and Cancer, Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), L'Hospitalet of Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: Higher plasma vitamin C levels are associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk, but whether this association is causal is uncertain. To investigate this, we studied the association of genetically predicted plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes.

Research Design And Methods: We conducted genome-wide association studies of plasma vitamin C among 52,018 individuals of European ancestry to discover novel genetic variants. We performed Mendelian randomization analyses to estimate the association of genetically predicted differences in plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes in up to 80,983 case participants and 842,909 noncase participants. We compared this estimate with the observational association between plasma vitamin C and incident type 2 diabetes, including 8,133 case participants and 11,073 noncase participants.

Results: We identified 11 genomic regions associated with plasma vitamin C ( < 5 × 10), with the strongest signal at , and 10 novel genetic loci including , , , , , , , , , and . Plasma vitamin C was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per SD 0.88; 95% CI 0.82, 0.94), but there was no association between genetically predicted plasma vitamin C (excluding variant due to its apparent pleiotropic effect) and type 2 diabetes (1.03; 95% CI 0.96, 1.10).

Conclusions: These findings indicate discordance between biochemically measured and genetically predicted plasma vitamin C levels in the association with type 2 diabetes among European populations. The null Mendelian randomization findings provide no strong evidence to suggest the use of vitamin C supplementation for type 2 diabetes prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-1328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783939PMC
January 2021

PSA Kinetics as Prognostic Markers of Overall Survival in Patients with Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Treated with Abiraterone Acetate.

Cancer Manag Res 2020 16;12:10251-10260. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Catalan Institute of Oncology, Medical Oncology Department, University Hospital Germans Trias I Pujol, Badalona, Spain.

Background: Abiraterone acetate (AA) is widely used in the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, a significant percentage of patients will still progress, highlighting the need to identify patients more likely to benefit from AA. Parameters linked to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) kinetics are promising prognostic markers. We have examined clinical and PSA-related factors potentially associated with overall survival (OS) in patients treated with AA.

Methods: Between 2011 and 2014, 104 patients with mCRPC treated with AA after progression to docetaxel at centers of the Catalan Institute of Oncology were included in this retrospective study. Patients were assessed monthly. Baseline characteristics and variables related to PSA kinetics were included in univariate and multivariate analyses of OS.

Results: Median OS was 16.4 months (range 12.4-20.6) for all patients. The univariate analysis identified the following baseline characteristics as significantly associated with OS: ECOG PS, location of metastases, time between starting androgen deprivation therapy and starting AA, time between stopping docetaxel treatment and starting AA, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), alkaline phosphatase levels, and PSA levels. Factors related to PSA kinetics associated with longer OS were PSA response >50%, early PSA response (>30% decline at four weeks), PSA decline >50% at week 12, PSA nadir <2.4ng/mL, time to PSA nadir >140 days, the combination of PSA nadir and time to PSA nadir, and low end-of-treatment PSA levels. The multivariate analysis identified ECOG PS (HR 37.46; p<0.001), NLR (HR 3.7; p<0.001), early PSA response (HR 1.22; p=0.002), and time to PSA nadir (HR 0.39; p=0.002) as independent prognostic markers.

Conclusion: Our results indicate an association between PSA kinetics, especially early PSA response, and outcome to AA after progression to docetaxel. Taken together with other factors, lack of an early PSA response could identify patients who are unlikely to benefit from AA and who could be closely monitored with a view to offering alternative therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S270392DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7584507PMC
October 2020

Mediating effect of soluble B-cell activation immune markers on the association between anthropometric and lifestyle factors and lymphoma development.

Sci Rep 2020 08 14;10(1):13814. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Division of Environmental Epidemiology, Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80178, 3508 TD, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Sustained B-cell activation is an important mechanism contributing to B-cell lymphoma (BCL). We aimed to validate four previously reported B-cell activation markers predictive of BCL risk (sCD23, sCD27, sCD30, and CXCL13) and to examine their possible mediating effects on the association between anthropometric and lifestyle factors and major BCL subtypes. Pre-diagnostic serum levels were measured for 517 BCL cases and 525 controls in a nested case-control study. The odds ratios of BCL were 6.2 in the highest versus lowest quartile for sCD23, 2.6 for sCD30, 4.2 for sCD27, and 2.6 for CXCL13. Higher levels of all markers were associated with increased risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Following mutual adjustment for the other immune markers, sCD23 remained associated with all subtypes and CXCL13 with FL and DLBCL. The associations of sCD23 with CLL and DLBCL and CXCL13 with DLBCL persisted among cases sampled > 9 years before diagnosis. sCD23 showed a good predictive ability (area under the curve = 0.80) for CLL, in particular among older, male participants. sCD23 and CXCL13 showed a mediating effect between body mass index (positive) and DLBCL risk, while CXCL13 contributed to the association between physical activity (inverse) and DLBCL. Our data suggest a role of B-cell activation in BCL development and a mediating role of the immune system for lifestyle factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70790-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7429856PMC
August 2020

Metabolic perturbations prior to hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis: Findings from a prospective observational cohort study.

Int J Cancer 2021 02 28;148(3):609-625. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Public Health Directorate, Asturias, Spain.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development entails changes in liver metabolism. Current knowledge on metabolic perturbations in HCC is derived mostly from case-control designs, with sparse information from prospective cohorts. Our objective was to apply comprehensive metabolite profiling to detect metabolites whose serum concentrations are associated with HCC development, using biological samples from within the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (>520 000 participants), where we identified 129 HCC cases matched 1:1 to controls. We conducted high-resolution untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics on serum samples collected at recruitment prior to cancer diagnosis. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was applied controlling for dietary habits, alcohol consumption, smoking, body size, hepatitis infection and liver dysfunction. Corrections for multiple comparisons were applied. Of 9206 molecular features detected, 220 discriminated HCC cases from controls. Detailed feature annotation revealed 92 metabolites associated with HCC risk, of which 14 were unambiguously identified using pure reference standards. Positive HCC-risk associations were observed for N1-acetylspermidine, isatin, p-hydroxyphenyllactic acid, tyrosine, sphingosine, l,l-cyclo(leucylprolyl), glycochenodeoxycholic acid, glycocholic acid and 7-methylguanine. Inverse risk associations were observed for retinol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, glycerophosphocholine, γ-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman and creatine. Discernible differences for these metabolites were observed between cases and controls up to 10 years prior to diagnosis. Our observations highlight the diversity of metabolic perturbations involved in HCC development and replicate previous observations (metabolism of bile acids, amino acids and phospholipids) made in Asian and Scandinavian populations. These findings emphasize the role of metabolic pathways associated with steroid metabolism and immunity and specific dietary and environmental exposures in HCC development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33236DOI Listing
February 2021

Vitamin D-Related Genes, Blood Vitamin D Levels and Colorectal Cancer Risk in Western European Populations.

Nutrients 2019 08 20;11(8). Epub 2019 Aug 20.

CIBER Epidemiology and Public Healh (CIBERESP), Madrid 28029, Spain.

Higher circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) have been found to be associated with lower risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) in prospective studies. Whether this association is modified by genetic variation in genes related to vitamin D metabolism and action has not been well studied in humans. We investigated 1307 functional and tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; individually, and by gene/pathway) in 86 vitamin D-related genes in 1420 incident CRC cases matched to controls from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. We also evaluated the association between these SNPs and circulating 25(OH)D in a subset of controls. We confirmed previously reported CRC risk associations between SNPs in the , , and genes. We also identified additional associations with 25(OH)D, as well as CRC risk, and several potentially novel SNPs in genes related to vitamin D transport and action (, and ). However, none of these SNPs were statistically significant after Benjamini-Hochberg (BH) multiple testing correction. When assessed by a priori defined functional pathways, tumor growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling was associated with CRC risk ( ≤ 0.001), with most statistically significant genes being = 0.008) and = 0.008), and 18 SNPs in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) binding sites ( = 0.036). The 25(OH)D-gene pathway analysis suggested that genetic variants in the genes related to VDR complex formation and transcriptional activity are associated with CRC depending on 25(OH)D levels (interaction = 0.041). Additional studies in large populations and consortia, especially with measured circulating 25(OH)D, are needed to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11081954DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6722852PMC
August 2019

rs12416605:C>T in MIR938 associates with gastric cancer through affecting the regulation of the CXCL12 chemokine gene.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2019 08 4;7(8):e832. Epub 2019 Jul 4.

Department of Experimental and Health Sciences, IBE, Institute of Evolutionary Biology (Universitat Pompeu Fabra-CSIC), Barcelona, Spain.

Background: MicroRNAs are small regulatory RNAs with important roles in carcinogenesis. Genetic variants in these regulatory molecules may contribute to disease. We aim to identify allelic variants in microRNAs as susceptibility factors to gastric cancer using association studies and functional approaches.

Methods: Twenty-one single nucleotide variants potentially functional, because of their location in either the seed, mature or precursor region of 22 microRNAs, were selected for association studies. Genetic association with gastric cancer in 365 cases and 1,284 matched controls (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort) was analysed using logistic regression. MicroRNA overexpression, transcriptome analysis, and target gene validation experiments were performed for functional studies.

Results: rs3746444:T>C, in the seed of MIR499A and mature MIR499B, associated with the cardia adenocarcinoma location; rs12416605:C>T, in the seed of MIR938, associated with the diffuse subtype; and rs2114358:T>C, in the precursor MIR1206, associated with the noncardia phenotype. In all cases, the association was inverse, indicating a protective affect against gastric cancer of the three minor allelic variants. MIR499 rs3746444:T>C and MIR1206 rs2114358:T>C are reported to affect the expression of these miRNAs, but the effect of MIR938 rs12416605:C>T is unknown yet. Functional approaches showed that the expression of MIR938 is affected by rs12416605:C>T and revealed that MIR938 could regulate a subset of cancer-related genes in an allele-specific fashion. Furthermore, we demonstrated that CXCL12, a chemokine participating in gastric cancer metastasis, is specifically regulated by only one of the rs12416605:C>T alleles.

Conclusion: rs12416605 appears to be involved in gastric cancer by affecting the regulatory function of MIR938 on genes related to this cancer type, particularly on CXCL12 posttranscriptional regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6687864PMC
August 2019

Genetic variant predictors of gene expression provide new insight into risk of colorectal cancer.

Hum Genet 2019 Apr 28;138(4):307-326. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Genome-wide association studies have reported 56 independently associated colorectal cancer (CRC) risk variants, most of which are non-coding and believed to exert their effects by modulating gene expression. The computational method PrediXcan uses cis-regulatory variant predictors to impute expression and perform gene-level association tests in GWAS without directly measured transcriptomes. In this study, we used reference datasets from colon (n = 169) and whole blood (n = 922) transcriptomes to test CRC association with genetically determined expression levels in a genome-wide analysis of 12,186 cases and 14,718 controls. Three novel associations were discovered from colon transverse models at FDR ≤ 0.2 and further evaluated in an independent replication including 32,825 cases and 39,933 controls. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, we found statistically significant associations using colon transcriptome models with TRIM4 (discovery P = 2.2 × 10, replication P = 0.01), and PYGL (discovery P = 2.3 × 10, replication P = 6.7 × 10). Interestingly, both genes encode proteins that influence redox homeostasis and are related to cellular metabolic reprogramming in tumors, implicating a novel CRC pathway linked to cell growth and proliferation. Defining CRC risk regions as one megabase up- and downstream of one of the 56 independent risk variants, we defined 44 non-overlapping CRC-risk regions. Among these risk regions, we identified genes associated with CRC (P < 0.05) in 34/44 CRC-risk regions. Importantly, CRC association was found for two genes in the previously reported 2q25 locus, CXCR1 and CXCR2, which are potential cancer therapeutic targets. These findings provide strong candidate genes to prioritize for subsequent laboratory follow-up of GWAS loci. This study is the first to implement PrediXcan in a large colorectal cancer study and findings highlight the utility of integrating transcriptome data in GWAS for discovery of, and biological insight into, risk loci.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-019-01989-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6483948PMC
April 2019

Genetic variation analysis in a follow-up study of gastric cancer precursor lesions confirms the association of MUC2 variants with the evolution of the lesions and identifies a significant association with NFKB1 and CD14.

Int J Cancer 2018 12 4;143(11):2777-2786. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

See annex for members of the Study Group.

Gastric carcinogenesis proceeds through a series of gastric cancer precursor lesions (GCPLs) leading to gastric cancer (GC) development. Although Helicobacter pylori infection initiates this process, genetic factors also play a role. We previously reported that genetic variability in MUC2 is associated with the evolution of GCPLs. In order to replicate previous results in an independent sample series and to explore whether genetic variability in other candidate genes plays a role in the evolution of GCPL, genomic DNA from 559 patients with GCPLs, recruited from 9 Spanish hospitals and followed for a mean of 12 years, was genotyped for 141 SNPs in 29 genes. After follow-up, 45.5% of the lesions remained stable, 37% regressed and 17.5% progressed to a more severe lesion. Genetic association with the evolution of the lesions (progression or regression) was analyzed by multinomial and binomial logistic regression. After correction for multiple comparisons, the results obtained confirmed the inverse association between MUC2 variants and the regression of the lesions. A significant association was also observed between NFKB1 and CD14 variants and the evolution of the lesions; interestingly, this association was with both progression and regression in the same direction, which could reflect the dual role of inflammation in cancer. Stratified analyses according to H. pylori virulence factors indicated some significant and differential effects but none of them passed the FDR test. These results confirm that genetic variability in MUC2, NFKB1 and CD14 may have a role in the evolution of the GCPLs along time and in gastric carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.31839DOI Listing
December 2018

Prediction of acute myeloid leukaemia risk in healthy individuals.

Nature 2018 07 9;559(7714):400-404. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

The incidence of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) increases with age and mortality exceeds 90% when diagnosed after age 65. Most cases arise without any detectable early symptoms and patients usually present with the acute complications of bone marrow failure. The onset of such de novo AML cases is typically preceded by the accumulation of somatic mutations in preleukaemic haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) that undergo clonal expansion. However, recurrent AML mutations also accumulate in HSPCs during ageing of healthy individuals who do not develop AML, a phenomenon referred to as age-related clonal haematopoiesis (ARCH). Here we use deep sequencing to analyse genes that are recurrently mutated in AML to distinguish between individuals who have a high risk of developing AML and those with benign ARCH. We analysed peripheral blood cells from 95 individuals that were obtained on average 6.3 years before AML diagnosis (pre-AML group), together with 414 unselected age- and gender-matched individuals (control group). Pre-AML cases were distinct from controls and had more mutations per sample, higher variant allele frequencies, indicating greater clonal expansion, and showed enrichment of mutations in specific genes. Genetic parameters were used to derive a model that accurately predicted AML-free survival; this model was validated in an independent cohort of 29 pre-AML cases and 262 controls. Because AML is rare, we also developed an AML predictive model using a large electronic health record database that identified individuals at greater risk. Collectively our findings provide proof-of-concept that it is possible to discriminate ARCH from pre-AML many years before malignant transformation. This could in future enable earlier detection and monitoring, and may help to inform intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0317-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6485381PMC
July 2018

Olaparib combined with abiraterone in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2018 07 4;19(7):975-986. Epub 2018 Jun 4.

Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada.

Background: Patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and homologous recombination repair (HRR) mutations have a better response to treatment with the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor olaparib than patients without HRR mutations. Preclinical data suggest synergy between olaparib and androgen pathway inhibitors. We aimed to assess the efficacy of olaparib plus the androgen pathway inhibitor abiraterone in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer regardless of HRR mutation status.

Methods: We carried out this double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial at 41 urological oncology sites in 11 countries across Europe and North America. Eligible male patients were aged 18 years or older with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who had previously received docetaxel and were candidates for abiraterone treatment. Patients were excluded if they had received more than two previous lines of chemotherapy, or had previous exposure to second-generation antihormonal drugs. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) using an interactive voice or web response system, without stratification, to receive oral olaparib 300 mg twice daily or placebo. All patients received oral abiraterone 1000 mg once daily and prednisone or prednisolone 5 mg twice daily. Patients and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS; based on Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 and Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Working Group 2 criteria). Efficacy analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population, which included all randomly assigned patients, and safety analyses included all patients who received at least one dose of olaparib or placebo. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01972217, and is no longer recruiting patients.

Findings: Between Nov 25, 2014, and July 14, 2015, 171 patients were assessed for eligibility. Of those, 142 patients were randomly assigned to receive olaparib and abiraterone (n=71) or placebo and abiraterone (n=71). The clinical cutoff date for the final analysis was Sept 22, 2017. Median rPFS was 13·8 months (95% CI 10·8-20·4) with olaparib and abiraterone and 8·2 months (5·5-9·7) with placebo and abiraterone (hazard ratio [HR] 0·65, 95% CI 0·44-0·97, p=0·034). The most common grade 1-2 adverse events were nausea (26 [37%] patients in the olaparib group vs 13 [18%] patients in the placebo group), constipation (18 [25%] vs eight [11%]), and back pain (17 [24%] vs 13 [18%]). 38 (54%) of 71 patients in the olaparib and abiraterone group and 20 (28%) of 71 patients in the placebo and abiraterone group had grade 3 or worse adverse events, including anaemia (in 15 [21%] of 71 patients vs none of 71), pneumonia (four [6%] vs three [4%]), and myocardial infarction (four [6%] vs none). Serious adverse events were reported by 24 (34%) of 71 patients receiving olaparib and abiraterone (seven of which were related to treatment) and 13 (18%) of 71 patients receiving placebo and abiraterone (one of which was related to treatment). One treatment-related death (pneumonitis) occurred in the olaparib and abiraterone group.

Interpretation: Olaparib in combination with abiraterone provided clinical efficacy benefit for patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer compared with abiraterone alone. More serious adverse events were observed in patients who received olaparib and abiraterone than abiraterone alone. Our data suggest that the combination of olaparib and abiraterone might provide an additional clinical benefit to a broad population of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

Funding: AstraZeneca.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(18)30365-6DOI Listing
July 2018

Genomic characterization of individuals presenting extreme phenotypes of high and low risk to develop tobacco-induced lung cancer.

Cancer Med 2018 May 15. Epub 2018 May 15.

Department of Oncology, Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may modulate individual susceptibility to carcinogens. We designed a genome-wide association study to characterize individuals presenting extreme phenotypes of high and low risk to develop tobacco-induced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and we validated our results. We hypothesized that this strategy would enrich the frequencies of the alleles that contribute to the observed traits. We genotyped 2.37 million SNPs in 95 extreme phenotype individuals, that is: heavy smokers that either developed NSCLC at an early age (extreme cases); or did not present NSCLC at an advanced age (extreme controls), selected from a discovery set (n = 3631). We validated significant SNPs in 133 additional subjects with extreme phenotypes selected from databases including >39,000 individuals. Two SNPs were validated: rs12660420 (p = 5.66 × 10 ; OR = 2.80), mapping to a noncoding transcript exon of PDE10A; and rs6835978 (p = 1.02 × 10 ; OR = 2.57), an intronic variant in ATP10D. We assessed the relevance of both proteins in early-stage NSCLC. PDE10A and ATP10DmRNA expressions correlated with survival in 821 stage I-II NSCLC patients (p = 0.01 and p < 0.0001). PDE10A protein expression correlated with survival in 149 patients with stage I-II NSCLC (p = 0.002). In conclusion, we validated two variants associated with extreme phenotypes of high and low risk of developing tobacco-induced NSCLC. Our findings may allow to identify individuals presenting high and low risk to develop tobacco-induced NSCLC and to characterize molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis and resistance to develop NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.1500DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6051154PMC
May 2018

Prognostic and Predictive Factors for Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Target Oncol 2018 06;13(3):309-331

Oncology Department, Parc Taulí Hospital Universitari, Institut d'Investigació i Innovació Parc Taulí I3PT, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Sabadell, Spain.

Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is an incurable malignancy, characterized by its resistance to traditional chemotherapy, radiation, and hormonal therapy. Treatment perspectives and prognosis of patients with mRCC have been significantly improved by advances in the understanding of its molecular pathogenesis, which have led to the development of targeted therapeutics. Different molecular factors derived from the tumor or the host detected in both tissue or serum could be predictive of therapeutic benefit. Some of them suggest a rational selection of patients to be treated with certain therapies, though none have been validated for routine use. This article provides an overview of both clinical and molecular factors associated with predictive or prognostic value in mRCC and emphasizes that both should be considered in parallel to provide the most appropriate, individualized treatment and achieve the best outcomes in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11523-018-0557-2DOI Listing
June 2018

Circulating Fetuin-A and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis.

Diabetes 2018 06 9;67(6):1200-1205. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Programme, and Translational Research Laboratory, Catalan Institute of Oncology, Barcelona, Spain.

Fetuin-A, a hepatic-origin protein, is strongly positively associated with risk of type 2 diabetes in human observational studies, but it is unknown whether this association is causal. We aimed to study the potential causal relation of circulating fetuin-A to risk of type 2 diabetes in a Mendelian randomization study with single nucleotide polymorphisms located in the fetuin-A-encoding gene. We used data from eight European countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study including 10,020 incident cases. Plasma fetuin-A concentration was measured in a subset of 965 subcohort participants and 654 case subjects. A genetic score of the single nucleotide polymorphisms was strongly associated with fetuin-A (28% explained variation). Using the genetic score as instrumental variable of fetuin-A, we observed no significant association of a 50 µg/mL higher fetuin-A concentration with diabetes risk (hazard ratio 1.02 [95% CI 0.97, 1.07]). Combining our results with those from the DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM) consortium (12,171 case subjects) also did not suggest a clear significant relation of fetuin-A with diabetes risk. In conclusion, although there is mechanistic evidence for an effect of fetuin-A on insulin sensitivity and secretion, this study does not support a strong, relevant relationship between circulating fetuin-A and diabetes risk in the general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db17-1268DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6278908PMC
June 2018

Clinical relevance of histologic subtypes in locally advanced esophageal carcinoma treated with pre-operative chemoradiotherapy: Experience of a monographic oncologic centre.

PLoS One 2017 20;12(9):e0184737. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Català Oncologia (ICO), IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Locally advanced esophageal carcinoma (LAEC) represents less than 30% of all diagnosed esophageal carcinoma worldwide. The standard of care for resectable tumours consists of preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgery. Despite the curative intent, the prognosis is still poor mainly due to relapse. A multidisciplinary approach is required in order to optimize the therapeutic strategy and follow-up. Differences in outcomes between the two main histological subtypes, adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), have been reported. Nevertheless, the heterogeneity in trials design and data available have hampered the achievement of clear conclusions. The purpose of this study is to report the outcomes from a cohort of patients with LAEC treated with a multidisciplinary approach and to remark the differences observed between the two main histologic subtypes and their clinical implications.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 100 patients diagnosed with LAEC that were treated with preoperative CRT at our institution and integrated centres. Histopathological characteristics and toxicities during treatment were recorded. Patterns of recurrence at the first relapse were analysed. Survival curves were plotted using the Kaplan Meier method and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used.

Results: Among the patients who received preoperative CRT, 83% underwent surgery. The median overall survival (mOS) was 31.7 months, 26.9 months for ADC and 45.5 for SCC (p-value = 0.33). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, ypN+ was the only factor that negatively influenced in OS (OR = 4.1, p-value = 0.022). Patterns of recurrence differed according to histologic subtype. Distant relapse was more frequent in ADC (62%), whereas locoregional relapse was higher in SCC (50%) (p-value = 0.027). Second line therapeutic strategies could be offered to 50% of those patients who relapsed.

Conclusions: Differences in outcomes and recurrence pattern could be observed between the two main histologic subtypes of LAEC. A better molecular characterization, adapted therapeutic regimens and follow up strategies should be adopted in order to improve survival of these patients.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0184737PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5607166PMC
October 2017

Plasma microRNAs as biomarkers of pancreatic cancer risk in a prospective cohort study.

Int J Cancer 2017 09 12;141(5):905-915. Epub 2017 Jun 12.

MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Noninvasive biomarkers for early pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) diagnosis and disease risk stratification are greatly needed. We conducted a nested case-control study within the Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort to evaluate prediagnostic microRNAs (miRs) as biomarkers of subsequent PDAC risk. A panel of eight miRs (miR-10a, -10b, -21-3p, -21-5p, -30c, -106b, -155 and -212) based on previous evidence from our group was evaluated in 225 microscopically confirmed PDAC cases and 225 controls matched on center, sex, fasting status and age/date/time of blood collection. MiR levels in prediagnostic plasma samples were determined by quantitative RT-PCR. Logistic regression was used to model levels and PDAC risk, adjusting for covariates and to estimate area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). Plasma miR-10b, -21-5p, -30c and -106b levels were significantly higher in cases diagnosed within 2 years of blood collection compared to matched controls (all p-values <0.04). Based on adjusted logistic regression models, levels for six miRs (miR-10a, -10b, -21-5p, -30c, -155 and -212) overall, and for four miRs (-10a, -10b, -21-5p and -30c) at shorter follow-up time between blood collection and diagnosis (≤5 yr, ≤2 yr), were statistically significantly associated with risk. A score based on the panel showed a linear dose-response trend with risk (p-value = 0.0006). For shorter follow-up (≤5 yr), AUC for the score was 0.73, and for individual miRs ranged from 0.73 (miR-212) to 0.79 (miR-21-5p).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.30790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5536971PMC
September 2017

Aromatic DNA adducts and breast cancer risk: a case-cohort study within the EPIC-Spain.

Carcinogenesis 2017 07;38(7):691-698

Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology-IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, 08908 Barcelona, Spain.

Epidemiologic evidence linking environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with breast cancer is limited. Measurement of DNA adducts formed by aromatic compounds, including PAH, has been carried in breast tissue samples and white blood cells from women with breast cancer and different kinds of controls. However, these studies provide inconsistent results and bias cannot be ruled out. During the 7-year follow-up period, 305 women were diagnosed with first primary breast cancer in the EPIC-Spain cohort, and were compared with a sample of 149 women without breast cancer at recruitment, using a case-cohort approach. Aromatic adducts to DNA from leukocytes collected at recruitment were measured by means of the 32P-post-labelling technique. The relative risk and 95% confidence interval (CI), adjusted by relevant confounders, were estimated by a modified version of Cox proportional hazards model. There was a significant increased risk for developing breast cancer when DNA adduct concentrations were doubled, with adjusted RR of 1.61 (95% CI 1.29-2.01). The increase in breast cancer risk was observed both for pre- and post-menopausal women. There was a significant interaction with tobacco smoking and body mass index, with higher effect of DNA adducts on breast cancer risk among smokers and women with normal weight. The results from our study support the hypothesis that factors leading to higher levels of aromatic DNA adducts in white blood cells may be involved in development of breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgx047DOI Listing
July 2017

Gene expression study and pathway analysis of histological subtypes of intestinal metaplasia that progress to gastric cancer.

PLoS One 2017 25;12(4):e0176043. Epub 2017 Apr 25.

Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Program, Institut Català d'Oncologia, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Intestinal metaplasia (IM) is a precursor lesion that precedes gastric cancer (GC). There are two IM histological subtypes, complete (CIM) and incomplete (IIM), the latter having higher progression rates to GC. This study was aimed at analysing gene expression and molecular processes involved in the progression from normal mucosa to IM, and also from IM subtypes to GC.

Methodology: We used expression data to compare the transcriptome of healthy gastric mucosa to that of IM not progressing to GC, and the transcriptome of IM subtypes that had progressed to GC to those that did not progress. Some deregulated genes were validated and pathway analyses were performed.

Results: Comparison of IM subtypes that had progressed to GC with those that did not progress showed smaller differences in the expression profiles than the comparison of IM that did not progress with healthy mucosa. New transcripts identified in IM not progressing to GC included TRIM, TMEM, homeobox and transporter genes and SNORD116. Comparison to normal mucosa identified non tumoral Warburg effect and melatonin degradation as previously unreported processes involved in IM. Overexpressed antigen processing is common to both IM-subtypes progressing to GC, but IIM showed more over-expressed oncogenic genes and molecular processes than CIM.

Conclusions: There are greater differences in gene expression and molecular processes involved in the progression from normal healthy mucosa to IM than from IM to gastric cancer. While antigen processing is common in both IM-subtypes progressing to GC, more oncogenic processes are observed in the progression of IIM.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0176043PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5404762PMC
September 2017

Epigenetic inactivation of the p53-induced long noncoding RNA TP53 target 1 in human cancer.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016 11 7;113(47):E7535-E7544. Epub 2016 Nov 7.

Cancer Epigenetics and Biology Program (PEBC), Bellvitge Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBELL), L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, 08908 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain;

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are important regulators of cellular homeostasis. However, their contribution to the cancer phenotype still needs to be established. Herein, we have identified a p53-induced lncRNA, TP53TG1, that undergoes cancer-specific promoter hypermethylation-associated silencing. In vitro and in vivo assays identify a tumor-suppressor activity for TP53TG1 and a role in the p53 response to DNA damage. Importantly, we show that TP53TG1 binds to the multifaceted DNA/RNA binding protein YBX1 to prevent its nuclear localization and thus the YBX1-mediated activation of oncogenes. TP53TG1 epigenetic inactivation in cancer cells releases the transcriptional repression of YBX1-targeted growth-promoting genes and creates a chemoresistant tumor. TP53TG1 hypermethylation in primary tumors is shown to be associated with poor outcome. The epigenetic loss of TP53TG1 therefore represents an altered event in an lncRNA that is linked to classical tumoral pathways, such as p53 signaling, but is also connected to regulatory networks of the cancer cell.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1608585113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5127373PMC
November 2016

SCHLAFEN 5 expression correlates with intestinal metaplasia that progresses to gastric cancer.

J Gastroenterol 2017 Jan 31;52(1):39-49. Epub 2016 Mar 31.

Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Michigan, 109 Zina Pitcher PL, BSRB 2051, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-2200, USA.

Background: Intestinal metaplasia (IM) is a gastric cancer precursor lesion (GCPL) and an extremely high risk factor for progression to gastric cancer (GC). Clinical guidelines recommend that patients with extensive IM undergo a gastroscopy every 3 years. However, protein biomarkers that indicate a transition from IM to GC are lacking. Our group recently identified an interferon-alpha (IFNα)-responsive gene, Schlafen 4 (Slfn4), in immune cells that correlates with metaplastic changes in Helicobacter-infected mice. We therefore tested the hypothesis that a human homolog of Slfn4, namely, Schlafen 5 (SLFN5), correlates with progression of GCPL to GC.

Methods: Jurkat T-lymphoid and HL-60 myeloid cell lines were treated with IFNα, and SLFN5 mRNA was quantified by quantitative PCR. SLFN5 protein expression in the inflamed gastric mucosa was co-localized to specific immune cell types by immunohistochemistry using CD20, CD2, and MAC2 antibodies. SLFN5 expression was also determined by immunohistochemistry in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples from individuals with non-atrophic gastritis, atrophic gastritis, complete IM, incomplete IM, and GC, respectively.

Results: The IFNα treatment of Jurkat and HL-60 cells induced SLFN5 mRNA. SLFN5 protein was expressed mainly by T lymphocytes in inflamed gastric mucosa. The highest level of SLFN5 expression was observed in patients with IM that progressed to GC. Receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated that correlating SLFN5 expression with the histologic diagnosis of IM significantly increased the probability of identifying patients who may progress to GC.

Conclusion: In this study population, elevated SLFN5 protein expression in patients with IM correlated with progression to GC.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5045746PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00535-016-1202-4DOI Listing
January 2017

SNPs associated with activity and toxicity of cabazitaxel in patients with advanced urothelial cell carcinoma.

Pharmacogenomics 2016 Apr 29;17(5):463-71. Epub 2016 Mar 29.

Hereditary Endocrine Cancer Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Madrid, Spain.

Aim: We aimed to identify SNPs associated with cabazitaxel toxicity and response within a Phase II clinical trial using this compound in advanced transitional cell carcinoma after progression to a platinum-based regimen.

Patients & Methods: Eleven SNPs in CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2C8, ABCB1 and TUBB1 were genotyped in 45 patients.

Results: CYP3A5 rs776746 A allele was associated with protection against gastrointestinal toxicity (odds ratio: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.007-0.63, p = 0.018) and with reduced progression-free survival (hazard ratio: 5.1, 95% CI: 1.7-15.1, p = 0.0038, multivariable analysis). ABCB1 SNPs were associated with total number of grade 3-4 toxicity events (p-values of 0.009, 0.041 and 0.043, respectively).

Conclusion: Polymorphisms in CYP3A5 and ABCB1 may define a subset of patients with different cabazitaxel toxicity and efficacy and therefore could be used as markers for treatment optimization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/pgs.15.186DOI Listing
April 2016

Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies discovers multiple loci for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Nat Commun 2016 Mar 9;7:10933. Epub 2016 Mar 9.

Cancer Genomics Research Laboratory, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20877, USA.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common lymphoid malignancy with strong heritability. To further understand the genetic susceptibility for CLL and identify common loci associated with risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of four genome-wide association studies (GWAS) composed of 3,100 cases and 7,667 controls with follow-up replication in 1,958 cases and 5,530 controls. Here we report three new loci at 3p24.1 (rs9880772, EOMES, P=2.55 × 10(-11)), 6p25.2 (rs73718779, SERPINB6, P=1.97 × 10(-8)) and 3q28 (rs9815073, LPP, P=3.62 × 10(-8)), as well as a new independent SNP at the known 2q13 locus (rs9308731, BCL2L11, P=1.00 × 10(-11)) in the combined analysis. We find suggestive evidence (P<5 × 10(-7)) for two additional new loci at 4q24 (rs10028805, BANK1, P=7.19 × 10(-8)) and 3p22.2 (rs1274963, CSRNP1, P=2.12 × 10(-7)). Pathway analyses of new and known CLL loci consistently show a strong role for apoptosis, providing further evidence for the importance of this biological pathway in CLL susceptibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms10933DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4786871PMC
March 2016

Serum Endotoxins and Flagellin and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Cohort.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2016 Feb 11;25(2):291-301. Epub 2016 Jan 11.

Escuela Andaluza de Salud Pública, Instituto de Investigación Biosanitaria ibs, GRANADA, Hospitales Universitarios de Granada/Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain. CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Spain.

Background: Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are thought to be involved in colorectal cancer development. These processes may contribute to leakage of bacterial products, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and flagellin, across the gut barrier. The objective of this study, nested within a prospective cohort, was to examine associations between circulating LPS and flagellin serum antibody levels and colorectal cancer risk.

Methods: A total of 1,065 incident colorectal cancer cases (colon, n = 667; rectal, n = 398) were matched (1:1) to control subjects. Serum flagellin- and LPS-specific IgA and IgG levels were quantitated by ELISA. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for multiple relevant confouding factors.

Results: Overall, elevated anti-LPS and anti-flagellin biomarker levels were not associated with colorectal cancer risk. After testing potential interactions by various factors relevant for colorectal cancer risk and anti-LPS and anti-flagellin, sex was identified as a statistically significant interaction factor (Pinteraction < 0.05 for all the biomarkers). Analyses stratified by sex showed a statistically significant positive colorectal cancer risk association for men (fully-adjusted OR for highest vs. lowest quartile for total anti-LPS + flagellin, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.10-2.51; Ptrend, 0.049), whereas a borderline statistically significant inverse association was observed for women (fully-adjusted OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.47-1.02; Ptrend, 0.18).

Conclusion: In this prospective study on European populations, we found bacterial exposure levels to be positively associated to colorectal cancer risk among men, whereas in women, a possible inverse association may exist.

Impact: Further studies are warranted to better clarify these preliminary observations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-15-0798DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5576525PMC
February 2016

Influence of Dopaminergic System Genetic Variation and Lifestyle Factors on Excessive Alcohol Consumption.

Alcohol Alcohol 2016 May 7;51(3):258-67. Epub 2015 Oct 7.

BIOMICs Research Group, 'Lucio Lascaray' Center for Research and Advanced Studies (CIEA), University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain

Aims: To examine the role of genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of alcohol dependence in a Spanish cohort of women and men.

Methods: We analyzed the relationship between 56 genetic variants in 7 genes associated with the dopaminergic reward pathway and excessive alcohol consumption. The study sample (N = 1533, of which 746 were women) consisted of 653 heavy consumers and 880 very low consumers from the Spanish subcohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using a customized array. Lifestyle variables were also examined to assess associations between genetic and environmental factors.

Results: No statistically significant differences were found between cases and controls for the allele frequencies in five genes: TH, SLC18A2, DRD1, DRD3 and COMT. Conversely, some alleles of the 12 SNPs from the DRD2 locus and the 5 from the MAOA locus showed significant associations with excessive alcohol consumption. Namely, rs10891556 (DRD2) proved to be the only SNP positively correlated with excessive alcohol consumption in both sexes. DRD2 rs1800497 and rs877138 were significantly associated in men, whereas DRD2 rs17601612 and rs4936271 and MAOA rs5906898 were associated with excessive alcohol consumption in women. A correspondence analysis provided an overall lifestyle profile of excessive drinkers, who were predominantly men who smoked, had large intakes of meat, small intakes of fruit and vegetables, whose jobs did not require high education levels and who engaged in little physical activity.

Conclusions: It has shown the influence of dopaminergic pathway in the genetics of alcohol dependence with differences between men and women and providing a lifestyle profile of excessive drinkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/alcalc/agv114DOI Listing
May 2016

Determinants of the t(14;18) translocation and their role in t(14;18)-positive follicular lymphoma.

Cancer Causes Control 2015 Dec 30;26(12):1845-55. Epub 2015 Sep 30.

Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tromsø, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.

Purpose: The strong association between t(14;18) translocation and follicular lymphoma (FL) is well known. However, the determinants of this chromosomal aberration and their role in t(14;18) associated FL remain to be established.

Methods: t(14;18) frequency within the B cell lymphoma 2 major breakpoint region was determined for 135 incident FL cases and 251 healthy controls as part of a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer cohort. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed in DNA extracted from blood samples taken at recruitment. The relationship between prevalence and frequency of the translocation with baseline anthropometric, lifestyle, and dietary factors in cases and controls was determined. Unconditional logistic regression was used to explore whether the risk of FL associated with these factors differed in t(14;18)(+) as compared to t(14;18)(-) cases.

Results: Among incident FL cases, educational level (χ(2) p = 0.021) and height (χ(2) p = 0.025) were positively associated with t(14;18) prevalence, and cases with high frequencies [t(14;18)(HF)] were significantly taller (t test p value = 0.006). These findings were not replicated in the control population, although there were a number of significant associations with dietary variables. Further analyses revealed that height was a significant risk factor for t(14;18)(+) FL [OR 6.31 (95% CI 2.11, 18.9) in the tallest versus the shortest quartile], but not t(14;18)(-) cases.

Conclusions: These findings suggest a potential role for lifestyle factors in the prevalence and frequency of the t(14;18) translocation. The observation that the etiology of FL may differ by t(14;18) status, particularly with regard to height, supports the subdivision of FL by translocation status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-015-0677-2DOI Listing
December 2015

A Mendelian Randomization Study of Circulating Uric Acid and Type 2 Diabetes.

Diabetes 2015 Aug 27;64(8):3028-36. Epub 2015 Apr 27.

MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, U.K.

We aimed to investigate the causal effect of circulating uric acid concentrations on type 2 diabetes risk. A Mendelian randomization study was performed using a genetic score with 24 uric acid-associated loci. We used data of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct case-cohort study, comprising 24,265 individuals of European ancestry from eight European countries. During a mean (SD) follow-up of 10 (4) years, 10,576 verified incident case subjects with type 2 diabetes were ascertained. Higher uric acid was associated with a higher diabetes risk after adjustment for confounders, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.20 (95% CI 1.11, 1.30) per 59.48 µmol/L (1 mg/dL) uric acid. The genetic score raised uric acid by 17 µmol/L (95% CI 15, 18) per SD increase and explained 4% of uric acid variation. By using the genetic score to estimate the unconfounded effect, we found that a 59.48 µmol/L higher uric acid concentration did not have a causal effect on diabetes (HR 1.01 [95% CI 0.87, 1.16]). Including data from the Diabetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM) consortium, increasing our dataset to 41,508 case subjects with diabetes, the summary odds ratio estimate was 0.99 (95% CI 0.92, 1.06). In conclusion, our study does not support a causal effect of circulating uric acid on diabetes risk. Uric acid-lowering therapies may therefore not be beneficial in reducing diabetes risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db14-0742DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6284788PMC
August 2015

Lag times between lymphoproliferative disorder and clinical diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a prospective analysis using plasma soluble CD23.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2015 Mar 26;24(3):538-45. Epub 2014 Dec 26.

Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a chronic disease that often progresses slowly from a precursor stage, monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL), and that can remain undiagnosed for a long time.

Methods: Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer cohort, we measured prediagnostic plasma sCD23 for 179 individuals who eventually were diagnosed with CLL and an equal number of matched control subjects who remained free of cancer.

Results: In a very large proportion of CLL patients' plasma sCD23 was clearly elevated 7 or more years before diagnosis. Considering sCD23 as a disease predictor, the area under the ROC curve (AUROC) was 0.95 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.90-1.00] for CLL diagnosed within 0.1 to 2.7 years after blood measurement, 0.90 (95% CI, 0.86-0.95) for diagnosis within 2.8 to 7.3 years, and 0.76 (95% CI, 0.65-0.86) for CLL diagnosed between 7.4 and 12.5 years. Even at a 7.4-year and longer time interval, elevated plasma sCD23 could predict a later clinical diagnosis of CLL with 100% specificity at >45% sensitivity.

Conclusions: Our findings provide unique documentation for the very long latency times during which measurable B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder exists before the clinical manifestation of CLL.

Impact: Our findings have relevance for the interpretation of prospective epidemiologic studies on the causes of CLL in terms of reverse causation bias. The lag times indicate a time frame within which an early detection of CLL would be theoretically possible. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 24(3); 538-45. ©2014 AACR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-1107DOI Listing
March 2015
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