Publications by authors named "Mzee Ngunga"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

International Prospective Registry of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Patients With COVID-19.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 05;77(20):2466-2476

Cardiovascular Department, Manzoni Hospital, Lecco, Italy.

Background: Published data suggest worse outcomes in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients and concurrent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Mechanisms remain unclear.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to report the demographics, angiographic findings, and in-hospital outcomes of COVID-19 ACS patients and compare these with pre-COVID-19 cohorts.

Methods: From March 1, 2020 to July 31, 2020, data from 55 international centers were entered into a prospective, COVID-ACS Registry. Patients were COVID-19 positive (or had a high index of clinical suspicion) and underwent invasive coronary angiography for suspected ACS. Outcomes were in-hospital major cardiovascular events (all-cause mortality, re-myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, unplanned revascularization, or stent thrombosis). Results were compared with national pre-COVID-19 databases (MINAP [Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project] 2019 and BCIS [British Cardiovascular Intervention Society] 2018 to 2019).

Results: In 144 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 121 non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) patients, symptom-to-admission times were significantly prolonged (COVID-STEMI vs. BCIS: median 339.0 min vs. 173.0 min; p < 0.001; COVID NSTE-ACS vs. MINAP: 417.0 min vs. 295.0 min; p = 0.012). Mortality in COVID-ACS patients was significantly higher than BCIS/MINAP control subjects in both subgroups (COVID-STEMI: 22.9% vs. 5.7%; p < 0.001; COVID NSTE-ACS: 6.6% vs. 1.2%; p < 0.001), which remained following multivariate propensity analysis adjusting for comorbidities (STEMI subgroup odds ratio: 3.33 [95% confidence interval: 2.04 to 5.42]). Cardiogenic shock occurred in 20.1% of COVID-STEMI patients versus 8.7% of BCIS patients (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: In this multicenter international registry, COVID-19-positive ACS patients presented later and had increased in-hospital mortality compared with a pre-COVID-19 ACS population. Excessive rates of and mortality from cardiogenic shock were major contributors to the worse outcomes in COVID-19 positive STEMI patients.
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May 2021

Long-Term Outcomes and Factors Associated with Mortality in Patients with Moderate to Severe Pulmonary Hypertension in Kenya.

Glob Heart 2020 02 6;15(1). Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi, KE.

Background: Pulmonary hypertension is poorly studied in Africa. The long-term survival rates and prognostic factors associated with mortality in patients with moderate to severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) in Africa are not well described.

Objectives: To determine the causes of moderate to severe PH in patients seen in contemporary hospital settings, determine the patients' one-year survival and the factors associated with mortality following standard care.

Methods: A retrospective review of patients diagnosed with moderate to severe PH at Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUHN) from August 2014 to July 2017 was carried out. Clinical and outcome data were collected from medical records and the hospital mortality database. Telephone interviews were conducted for patients who died outside the hospital. Survival analysis was done using Kaplan-Meier, and log-rank tests were used to assess differences between subgroups. Cox regression modelling with multivariable adjustment was used to identify factors associated with all-cause mortality.

Results: A total of 659 patients with moderate to severe PH were enrolled. Median follow-up time was 626 days. The survival rates of the patients at 1 and 2 years were 73.8% and 65.9%, respectively. The following variables were significantly associated with mortality: diabetes mellitus [adjusted HR 1.52, 95% CI (1.14-2.01)], WHO functional class III/IV [adjusted HR 3.49, 95% CI (2.46-4.95)], atrial fibrillation [adjusted HR 1.53, 95% CI (1.08-2.17)], severe PH [adjusted HR 1.72, 95% CI (1.30-2.27)], right ventricular dysfunction [adjusted HR 2.42, 95% CI (1.76-3.32)] and left ventricular dysfunction [adjusted HR 1.91, 95% CI (1.36-2.69)]. Obesity [adjusted HR 0.68, 95% CI (0.50-0.93)] was associated with improved survival.

Conclusion: Pulmonary hypertension is associated with poor long-term outcomes in African patients. Identification of prognostic factors associated with high-risk patients will assist in patient management and potentially improved outcomes.
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February 2020

Cardiovascular risk factors among people living with HIV in rural Kenya: a clinic-based study.

Cardiovasc J Afr 2019 Jan/Feb 23;30(1):52-56. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

School of Medicine, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and their association with antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV-infected adults in a rural sub-county hospital in Kenya.

Methods: This was a descriptive survey of patient charts characterising cardiovascular risk among adult patients (> 18 years) at Ukwala sub-county hospital between June 2013 and January 2015. Post-stratification survey weights were applied to obtain prevalence levels. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for each variable related to cardiovascular risk factors were calculated using logistic regression models.

Results: Overall, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 0.4%, 0.3% of patients had had a previous cardiovascular event (heart attack or stroke), 40.4% had pre-hypertension, while 10.4% had stage 1 and 2.9% stage 2 hypertension. Up to 14% of patients had elevated non-fasting total cholesterol levels. Factors associated with hypertension were male gender (AOR 1.59, = 0.0001), being over 40 years of age (AOR 1.78, = 0.0001) and having an increased waist circumference (OR 2.56, = 0.0014). Raised total cholesterol was more likely in those on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) (AOR 2.2, p = 0.0042), azidothymidine (AZT) (AOR 2.5, = 0.0004) and stavudine (D4T) -containing regimens (AOR 3.13, = 0.0002).

Conclusions: An elevated prevalence of undiagnosed cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and raised total cholesterol levels was found among people living with HIV. There was an association between raised total cholesterol and nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) -based ART regimens. Our findings provide further rationale for integrating routine cardiovascular risk-factor screening into HIV-care services.
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June 2019

Outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome in a referral hospital in sub-Saharan Africa.

Cardiovasc J Afr 2019 Jan/Feb 23;30(1):29-33. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Medicine, the Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya; Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Background: Coronary artery disease and its acute presentation are being increasingly recognised and treated in sub-Saharan Africa. It is just over a decade since the introduction of interventional cardiology for coronary artery disease in Kenya. Local and regional data, and indeed data from sub-Saharan Africa on long-term outcomes of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are lacking.

Methods: A retrospective review of all ACS admissions to the Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi (AKUHN) between January 2012 and December 2013 was carried out to obtain data on patient characteristics, treatment and in-patient outcomes. Patient interviews and a review of clinic records were conducted to determine long-term mortality rates and major adverse cardiovascular events.

Results: A total of 230 patients were included in the analysis; 101 had a diagnosis of ST-segment myocardial infarction (STEMI), 93 suffered a non-ST-segment myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and 36 had unstable angina (UA). The mean age was 60.5 years with 81.7% being male. Delayed presentation (more than six hours after symptom onset) was common, accounting for 66.1% of patients. Coronary angiography was performed in 85.2% of the patients. In-hospital mortality rate was 7.8% [14.9% for STEMI and 2.3% for non-ST-segment ACS (NSTE-ACS, consisting of NSTEMI and UA)], and the mortality rates at 30 days and one year were 7.8 and 13.9%, respectively. Heart failure occurred in 40.4% of STEMI and 16.3% of NSTE-ACS patients. Re-admission rate due to recurrent myocardial infarction, stroke or bleeding at one year was 6.6%.

Conclusions: In our series, the in-hospital, 30-day and one-year mortality rates following ACS remain high, particularly for STEMI patients. Delayed presentation to hospital following symptom onset is a major concern.
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June 2019