Publications by authors named "Myung Ju Lee"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

CXCL1 confers a survival advantage in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-infected human endothelial cells through STAT3 phosphorylation.

J Med Virol 2022 Jul 22. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon, Republic of Korea.

Many cytokines produced by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-infected cells have been shown to participate in the pathogenesis of KSHV. Determination of the exact role of cytokines in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) pathogenesis is limited, however, by the difficulty to manipulate the target genes in human endothelial cells. In this study, we sought to elucidate the role of cytokines in KSHV-infected human immortalized endothelial cell line (HuARLT cells) by knockout (KO) of the corresponding target genes using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. The cytokine production profile of KSHV-infected HuARLT cells was analyzed using a protein array, and several cytokines were found to be highly upregulated following KSHV infection. This study focused on CXCL1, which was investigated by knocked out in HuARLT cells. KSHV-infected CXCL1 KO cells underwent increased cell death compared to KSHV-infected wild-type (WT) cells and mock-infected CXCL1 KO cells. Lytic replication was not observed in KSHV-infected WT nor CXCL1 KO cells. Phosphorylation of STAT3 was significantly suppressed in KSHV-infected CXCL1 KO cells. Additionally, inhibitors of STAT3 and CXCL1 induced cell death in KSHV-infected endothelial cells. Our results show that CXCL1 production is required for the survival of KSHV-infected endothelial cells, and the CXCL1 to STAT3 phosphorylation signaling pathway may be a therapeutic target for KS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.28020DOI Listing
July 2022

Dimethyl Sulfoxide Enhances Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Production During Lytic Replication.

Front Microbiol 2021 16;12:778525. Epub 2021 Dec 16.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon, South Korea.

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is an etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and multicentric Castleman disease. In studies of KSHV, efficient virus production and isolation are essential. Reactivation of KSHV can be initiated by treating latently infected cells with chemicals, such as 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate and sodium butyrate. These chemicals have been used as tools to induce lytic replication and viral production in KSHV-producing cell lines. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an organosulfur compound that is frequently used as an aprotic solvent similar to water. In experiments exploring signaling pathways in KSHV-infected cells, DMSO treatment alone as a vehicle affected the lytic gene expression of KSHV. However, to the best of our knowledge, the effects of DMSO on KSHV-producing cells have not yet been reported. Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether DMSO could be used as a reagent to enhance viral production during lytic replication in KSHV-producing cells and assessed the underlying mechanisms. The effects of DMSO on KSHV production were analyzed in iSLK BAC16 cells, which have been widely used for recombinant KSHV production. We found that the production of KSHV virions was significantly increased by treatment with DMSO during the induction of lytic replication. Mechanistically, lytic genes of KSHV were enhanced by DMSO treatment, which was correlated with virion production. Additionally, DMSO induced the phosphorylation of JNK during lytic replication, and inhibition of JNK abolished the effects of DMSO on lytic replication and virion production. Our findings showed that additional treatment with DMSO during the induction of lytic replication significantly improved the yield of KSHV production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.778525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8716793PMC
December 2021

Composition of Vaginal Microbiota in Pregnant Women With Aerobic Vaginitis.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 9;11:677648. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon, South Korea.

Vaginal dysbiosis, such as bacterial vaginosis (BV) and aerobic vaginitis (AV), is an important cause of premature birth in pregnant women. However, there is very little research on vaginal microbial distribution in AV compared to that in BV. This study aimed to analyze the composition of the vaginal microbiota of pregnant women with AV using microbial community analysis and identify the causative organism using each criterion of the AV scoring system. Also, we compared the quantification of aerobic bacteria using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and their relative abundances (RA) using metagenomics. This prospective case-control study included 228 pregnant Korean women from our previous study. A wet mount test was conducted on 159 women to diagnose AV using the AV scoring system. Vaginal samples were analyzed using metagenomics, Gram staining for Nugent score determination, conventional culture, and qPCR for spp. spp., and . The relative abundances (RAs) of eleven species showed significant differences among the three groups (Normal flora (NF), mild AV, and moderate AV). Three species including were significantly lower in the AV groups than in the NF group, while eight species were higher in the AV groups, particularly moderate AV. The decrease in the RA of was common in three criteria of the AV scoring system (, WBC, and background flora grades), while it did not show a significant difference among the three grade groups of the toxic leukocyte criterion. Also, the RAs of anaerobes, such as and , were higher in the AV groups, particularly moderate AV, while the RAs of aerobes were very low (RA < 0.01). Therefore, qPCR was performed for aerobes ( spp. spp., and ); however, their quantification did not show a higher level in the AV groups when compared to that in the NF group. Therefore, AV might be affected by the RA of spp. and the main anaerobes, such as spp. Activation of leukocytes under specific conditions might convert them to toxic leukocytes, despite high levels of . Thus, the pathogenesis of AV can be evaluated under such conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.677648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8458944PMC
October 2021

Rab27b regulates extracellular vesicle production in cells infected with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus to promote cell survival and persistent infection.

J Microbiol 2021 May 20;59(5):522-529. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon, 34824, Republic of Korea.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a crucial role in cell-to-cell communication. EVs and viruses share several properties related to their structure and the biogenesis machinery in cells. EVs from virus-infected cells play a key role in virus spread and suppression using various loading molecules, such as viral proteins, host proteins, and microRNAs. However, it remains unclear how and why viruses regulate EV production inside host cells. The purpose of this study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying EV production and their roles in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-infected cells. Here, we found that KSHV induced EV production in human endothelial cells via Rab-27b upregulation. The suppression of Rab27b expression in KSHV-infected cells enhanced cell death by increasing autophagic flux and autolysosome formation. Our results indicate that Rab27b regulates EV biogenesis to promote cell survival and persistent viral infection during KSHV infection, thereby providing novel insights into the crucial role of Rab-27b in the KSHV life cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12275-021-1108-6DOI Listing
May 2021

Lipopolysaccharide-Preconditioned Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells Induce M1 Polarization of Macrophages through Extracellular Vesicles.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Dec 3;19(12). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Eulji University School of Medicine, Daejeon 34824, Korea.

Periodontitis is a common disease characterized by chronic inflammation and tissue destruction of gums. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), derived from the periodontium, have stem cell properties similar to those of mesenchymal stem cells. PDLSCs possess not only the potential to differentiate into other tissues, but also immunomodulatory abilities. Macrophages play a critical role in periodontal disease, but little is known regarding the role of PDLSCs in macrophage modulation during inflammation. In this study, we investigated the effect of PDLSCs on the macrophage cell line. While the conditioned media from PDLSCs under normal culture conditions did not affect macrophage polarization, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-preconditioned PDLSCs induced significant changes in M1 polarization. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) isolated from the conditioned media of LPS-preconditioned PDLSCs induced strong M1 polarization of macrophages. Additionally, the M1 polarization was abolished by DNase I treatment of EVs. Therefore, the LPS-stimulated PDLSCs induce M1 polarization of macrophages through EVs, suggesting that the EVs from PDLSCs might be a potential therapeutic target for inflammation in the periodontium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6321485PMC
December 2018

Asian Rhinoplasty with Rib Cartilage.

Semin Plast Surg 2015 Nov;29(4):262-8

VIP International Plastic Surgery Center, Seoul, Korea.

An Asian rhinoplasty is one of the most popular procedures in plastic surgery. The anatomical characteristics of the Asian nose are quite different from those of other races, including low dorsum height, short columella, a thick soft tissue covering on the tip with flaccid lower lateral cartilage, and a sunken midface with relative protrusion of the mouth due to maxilla or premaxillary retrusion. For augmentation and lengthening of the nose, a silicone implant has been commonly used in Asian countries. However, many patients suffer from silicone-related complications, which induce soft tissue contraction and deform the already fragile nasal structure. Additionally, revision surgery is also increasing in frequency due to greater patient sophistication and higher expectation that the end rhinoplasty result to be more harmonious with the patient's overall facial structure. In these circumstances, a rhinoplasty using autologous rib cartilage, giving strong support and enough amount of the cartilage to correct deformed structure and midface skeletal retrusion. If properly performed with enough experience, a rib cartilage rhinoplasty will provide excellent and long-lasting results with low risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0035-1564815DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4656167PMC
November 2015

Endoscopic transnasal approach for the treatment of medial orbital blow-out fracture: a technique for controlling the fractured wall with a balloon catheter and Merocel.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2002 Aug;110(2):417-26; discussion 427-8

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Chosun University College of Medicine, Seohyun Dream Plastic Surgery Clinic, Gwangju, Republic of Korea.

The authors repaired a medial blow-out fracture by using an endoscopic transnasal technique with a balloon catheter and Merocel packing in 17 subjects. The follow-up periods were from 6 weeks to 2 years, and averaged 6 months. The length of the operation was 50 minutes on average. The enophthalmos was corrected in seven of the eight patients. Supporting material for the fractured medial orbital wall was kept in place for 1 to 3 weeks. The mean volume of balloon inflation was 2 cc. The result was satisfactory. No complications resulted from the transnasal endoscopic technique. This endoscopic transnasal approach allows for a better aesthetic result because it eliminates external scarring and permits a direct approach to the medial orbital wall and has a superior visualization. A balloon catheter was used to support the fractured medial orbital fracture, which was adapted, ballooned, and then visualized using a radiopaque dye (Visipaque) in 11 cases. A postoperative computed tomographic scan revealed that this is a very useful method for controlling the status of the reduced orbital wall and eliminates the possibility of complications resulting from infection. A resected uncinate process was used as a bone graft material to repair the large defect in five cases. This method provides several advantages including a mucoperiosteal attached bone graft, working in the same operative field, and cost-effective surgical time. A transnasal endoscopic technique for medial orbital fracture is also very useful for releasing entrapment of the medial rectus muscle, because it directly pushes against the fractured wall and gives good exposure of the medial orbital wall.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00006534-200208000-00006DOI Listing
August 2002
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