Publications by authors named "Mustafa Cengiz"

165 Publications

Serum Biglycan as a Diagnostic Marker for Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis and Liver Fibrosis.

Clin Lab 2021 Mar;67(3)

Background: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has risen in prevalence substantially through the years. Although course and progression of the disease are variable, fibrosis is the most important factor. We intended to explore utility of serum biglycan (BGN) in NASH and its capacity in anticipating liver fibrosis.

Methods: Serum tests of consecutive patients with biopsy-confirmed NASH and age, gender-matched healthy volunteers were utilized to evaluate serum BGN levels using ELISA kits. The correlation between BGN and histopathological highlights of NASH was examined. While patients with fibrosis scores < 2 were assembled in mild and scores of (≥ 2) were in significant fibrosis groups. Univariate/multivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the independent predictive variables of liver fibrosis. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) were applied to locate the best cutoff values of BGN for NASH and fibrosis.

Results: Seventy patients with NASH and 70 controls were recruited in the study. BGN levels were lower in NASH patients contrasted with controls 137.70 ± 33.12 pg/mL vs. 259.61 ± 187.34 pg/mL, respectively, and p < 0.001. In correlation, serum BGN was related to liver fibrosis and inflammation. The comparison between mild and significant fibrosis groups regarding BGN was as follows 155.92 ± 49.97 pg/mL vs. 390.07 ± 214.746 pg/mL, respectively, (p < 0.001). In multivariate analyses, BGN was an independent predictive factor of significant fibrosis (OR, 1.030; 95% CI: 1.011 - 1.048; p < 0.001). ROC analysis revealed that BGN was statistically significant in determination of significant fibrosis (AUROC, 0.955; 95% CI, 0.877 - 0.990; p < 0.001). Best cutoff value was 189.58 pg/mL with the best sensitivity (93.55%) and specificity (87.18%).

Conclusions: Serum BGN may be a new non-invasive indicative marker for the presence of NASH, significant fibrosis, and a treatment goal in the disease process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7754/Clin.Lab.2020.200709DOI Listing
March 2021

Molecular docking analyses of Escin as regards cyclophosphamide-induced cardiotoxicity: In vivo and in Silico studies.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2021 Jan 28;411:115386. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Science, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey.

This study aims to investigate whether Escin (ES) can protect against Cyclophosphamide (CPM)-induced cardiac damage. The experimental rats were categorized as Control, CPM (200 mg/kg), ES (10 mg/kg), and CPM + ES Groups, each having 6 members. Their heart tissues were stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin and the structural changes were investigated under the light microscope. The biochemical markers of ischemia modified albumin (IMA), creatine kinase (CK-MB), antioxidant activity indicators Catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were measured using blood samples. Besides, the effects of CPM, ES, and CPM + ES upon CAT and SOD activities were shown via molecular docking studies. In the Single-Dose CPM group, CK-MB and IMA levels significantly increased while SOD and CAT levels significantly decreased. However, the heart tissues were damaged. CK-MB and IMA levels significantly decreased in CP+ ES Group. On the other hand, SOD, and CAT levels significantly increased and reduced the damage remarkably. Our findings showed that ES treatment successfully reduced the toxic effects upon the rats. The conclusion is that ES treatment can help protect the heart tissue against CPM-induced toxicity. Both in-vivo results and molecular modeling studies showed that the negative effects of CPM upon SOD activity were bigger than that of CAT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2020.115386DOI Listing
January 2021

Investigation into the protective effects of seed against cyclophosphamide-induced testicular injury in Sprague Dawley rats.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2020 Dec 6:1-8. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Havran State Hospital, Balıkesir, Turkey.

For centuries, Turkey has been a significant location here around 80 species of with differing names widely occur, which is also known as in treating some bacterial diseases as well as stomach and intestine inflammation. Recent studies have reported this herb family to contain numbers of bioactive compound contents. The study aims to investigate the protective effects of (HT) upon oxidative stress and apoptosis in a rat model in which testes injury was induced by CP. The testicular injury was caused using CP (150 mg/kg). The rats were treated with a single dose (100 mg/kg) of methanol extract of HT to investigate various biochemical markers in the serum and plasma of blood samples apart from assessing the prognosis of CP-induced testicular damage. Added to that, histological analyses were performed to identify possible structural changes and apoptotic indicators, like Bax, Caspase-3, and Bcl-2. In CP Group, there was a rise in the levels of total oxidant status (TOS), malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidative stress index (OSI), Caspase-3, and Bax while superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), Bcl-2, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) all decreased. Also, our histological analysis showed damaged testes. On the other hand, neither biochemical nor histological analysis showed testicular damage in HT Alone Group. In CP + HT Group, a significant number of the negatives changes due to CP were observed to have improved remarkably following an HT treatment. This study results suggest that HT could help improve CP-induced testicular injury thanks to its anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2020.1856130DOI Listing
December 2020

Parotid gland stem cells: Mini yet mighty.

Head Neck 2021 Apr 27;43(4):1122-1127. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Our aim was to evaluate the correlation between the radiation doses to parotid gland (PG) stem cells and xerostomia.

Methods: Patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer (HNC) were retrospectively evaluated, and xerostomia inventory (XI) was applied to these patients. PG stem cells were delineated on the treatment planning CT, and the mean doses to the PG stem cells calculated.

Results: The total test score and mean doses to bilateral PGs were significantly correlated (r = .34, P = .001), and the mean doses to bilateral PG stem cell niches were significantly correlated with the total test score (r = .32, P = .002).

Conclusions: In this study, we found that the mean dose to PG stem cells can predict dry mouth as much as the mean dose to the PG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hed.26556DOI Listing
April 2021

Alternations in nuclear factor kappa beta activity (NF-kB) in the rat brain due to long-term use of atomoxetine for treating ADHD: In vivo and in silico studies.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 01 2;534:927-932. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Iğdır University, 76000, Iğdır, Turkey.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common psychiatric disorder reported particularly in children. Long-term use of antipsychotic drugs used in the treatment of ADHD has been shown to exert toxic effects on the brain. However, not enough research has been carried out on the neurotoxic effects of these drugs on the brain tissue. Atomoxetine (ATX) is the most widely used antipsychotic drug that has gained approval for ADHD treatment. The present study aims to determine the damage induced by long-term use of three different doses of ATX in the brain tissue of experimental rats. 24 rats were divided into Control group (0.5 mL saline), Group 2 (0.5 mg/mL ATX), Group 3 (1.0 mg/mL ATX), and Group 4 (2.0 mg/mL ATX), each group having 6 members. Their brain tissues were taken for stereological, histological, and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-kB) protein expression analysis. ATX was determined to have caused a few alterations in the brain tissue, such as disruption in the endothelial epithelium of capillaries, a couple of large astrocyte nuclei, and mitotic astrocytes. Moreover, a significant difference was observed in Group 4 compared to Control Group in terms of astrocyte counts in the brain sections. As for Groups 3 and 4, there were differences in terms of oligodendrocyte counts in the incisions cultivated from the brain tissues of the animals. On the other hand, NF-kB positive astrocytes of Groups 3 and 4 differed significantly from those of Control and Group 2. The results of molecular dockings of the present study are in line with the in-vivo results. Therefore, it was concluded that the higher the dose of ATX was, the more damage the brain tissue sustained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.10.072DOI Listing
January 2021

Factors affecting post-treatment radiation-induced lung disease in patients receiving stereotactic body radiotherapy to lung.

Radiat Environ Biophys 2021 Mar 24;60(1):87-92. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, 06100, Ankara, Turkey.

The aim of the study is to investigate factors that may cause radiation-induced lung disease (RILD) in patients undergoing stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung tumors. Medical records of patients treated between May 2018 and June 2019 with SBRT were retrospectively evaluated. All patients should have a diagnosis of either primary non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or less than three metastases to lung from another primary. The median treatment dose was 50 Gy in 4-5 fractions. Tumor response and RILD were evaluated in thoracic computer tomography (CT) using RECIST criteria. 82 patients with 97 lung lesions were treated. The median age was 68 years (IQR = 62-76). With a median follow-up of 7.2 months (3-18 months), three patients had grade 3 radiation pneumonitis (RP). RILD was observed in 52% of cases. Patients who had RILD had a higher risk of symptomatic RP (p = 0.007). In multivariate analyses older age, previous lung radiotherapy history, and median planning treatment volume (PTV) D95 value of ≥ 48 Gy were associated with RILD. Local recurrence (LR) was observed in 5.1% of cases. There was no difference in overall survival and LR with the presence of RILD. Older age, previous lung radiotherapy history, and median PTV D95 value of ≥ 48 Gy seems to be associated with post-SBRT RILD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00411-020-00878-3DOI Listing
March 2021

A systematic review and practical considerations of stereotactic body radiotherapy in the treatment of head and neck cancer.

Br J Radiol 2021 Jan 24;94(1117):20200332. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Department of Clinical Oncology, Northern Centre for Cancer Care, The Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.

Objectives: Stereotactic radiotherapy (SBRT) is gaining popularity although its use in head and neck cancer (HNC) is not well defined. The primary objective was to review the published evidence regarding the use of stereotactic radiotherapy in HNC.

Methods: A literature search was performed by using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for eligible studies from 2000 to 2019 and 26 relevant studies were identified.

Results: Literature demonstrates a heterogeneous use of this technique with regards to patient population, primary or salvage treatment, dose fractionation regimens, outcomes and follow-up protocols. Carotid blow out syndrome is a risk as with other forms of reirradiation but alternative treatment regimens may reduce this risk.

Conclusion: At present there is a lack of evidence regarding SBRT as a primary treatment option for HNC and definitive answers regarding efficacy and tolerability cannot be provided but there is growing evidence that SBRT reirradiation regimens are safe and effective. In lieu of evidence from large Phase III trials, we define appropriate organ at risk constraints and prescription doses, with accurate plan summation approaches. Prospective randomised trials are warranted to validate improved treatment outcomes and acceptable treatment morbidity.

Advances In Knowledge: This article provides a comprehensive review of evidence of use of stereotactic radiotherapy in HNC site (either as a primary treatment or as reirradiation). We also provide an evidence-based approach to the implementation and practical consideration of stereotactic radiotherapy in HNC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1259/bjr.20200332DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7774675PMC
January 2021

Escin attenuates oxidative damage, apoptosis and lipid peroxidation in a model of cyclophosphamide-induced liver damage.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2020 Aug 24:1-8. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Science, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey.

To investigate the effects of escin (ES) on acute damage induced by alkylating agent, experimental rats were injected with cyclophosphamide (CPM) to cause liver damage. The animals were divided into four groups: Control Group, CPM (200 mg/kg), ES (10 mg/kg), CPM, and ES Groups. Immunohistopathological, hepatic histopathological, and biochemical changes were analyzed. The activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondyaldehyde (MDA), glutathion (GSH), total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) in serum were all determined. Serum and immunohistopathology analysis revealed that MDA, ALT, AST, LDH, TOC and OSI, caspase-3 and Bax levels had increased while GSH, TAC, Bcl- 2 and OSI levels decreased in CPM Group when compared to Control Group. These findings appear to account for the severe damage detected. In the CPM + ES treated group, positive improvements were found in biochemical parameters as well as in cell-death and tissue-related damage parameters.The results show that ES considerably protects the rat liver against CPM-induced hepatotoxicity thanks to because of its anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2020.1810262DOI Listing
August 2020

Stereotactic body radiotherapy in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer: Does beam-on time matter?

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2020 Sep;50(10):1182-1187

Radiation Oncology, Department of Radiation Oncology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Purpose: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is an effective treatment option for patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In this study, we evaluated the treatment results using two different SBRT techniques and the effect of beam-on time (BOT) on treatment outcomes.

Methods: Between July 2007 and January 2018, 142 patients underwent SBRT for primary NSCLC. We have delivered SBRT using either respiratory tracking system (RTS) or internal-target-volume (ITV)-based motion management techniques. The effect of age, tumor size, pretreatment tumor SUVmax value, presence of tissue diagnosis, histopathological subtype, operability status, tumor location, motion management technique, BED10 value, BOT on overall survival (OS), loco-regional control (LRC), event-free survival (EFS) and primary tumor control (PTC) were evaluated.

Results: Median age of the patients was 70 years (range, 39-91 years). Most of the patients were inoperable (90%) at the time of SBRT. Median BED10 value was 112.5 Gy. With a median follow-up of 25 months, PTC was achieved in 91.5% of the patients. Two-year estimated OS, LRC, PTC and EFS rates were 68, 63, 63 and 53%, respectively. For the entire group, OS was associated with BOT (P = 0.027), and EFS was associated with BOT (P = 0.027) and tumor size (P = 0.015). For RTS group, OS was associated with age (P = 0.016), EFS with BOT (P = 0.05) and tumor size (P = 0.024), LRC with BOT (P = 0.008) and PTC with BOT (P = 0.028). The treatment was well tolerated in general.

Conclusion: SBRT is an effective and safe treatment with high OS, LRC, EFS and PTC rates in patients with primary NSCLC. Protracted BOT might deteriorate SBRT outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyaa093DOI Listing
September 2020

Cyclophosphamide induced oxidative stress, lipid per oxidation, apoptosis and histopathological changes in rats: Protective role of boron.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2020 Dec 30;62:126574. Epub 2020 May 30.

Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Biology, TR-26480 Eskisehir, Turkey.

Background: Cyclophosphamide (CP) is an alkylating chemotherapeutic drug used in the treatment of many types of cancer. However, as with other chemotherapeutic drugs, the use of CP is limited by the damage to healthy tissues such as testes, bladder and liver as well as cancerous tissue. Boron (B) is a trace element with many biological properties such as antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-lipid per oxidation.

Methods: This current study aims to determine protective effects of B on CP induced testicular toxicity. The rats were divided into 4 groups (control, CP, B and B plus CP groups). The testes of experimental animals were taken for histological, apoptotic markers and biochemical analysis.

Results: The damage to some seminifer tubules, loss of typical appearance, thinning of seminifer epithelium and relative enlargement of the tubule lumen were watched in testis of the group that administrated CP. Moreover, Bcl-2, TAC and GSH levels decreased while TOC, OSI, MDA, Bax and Caspase-3 levels increased. On the other hand, pretreatment limited to B in the B plus CP group, testicular tissue improved. In addition, Bcl-2, GSH, TAC levels increased, Bax, MDA, TOC, OSI and caspase-3 levels decreased.

Conclusion: B significantly reduced testicular lipid per-oxidation and strengthened antioxidant defenses. Our results showed that pre-treatment B can protect rat testis against CP-induced testicular damage owing to its anti-lipid per oxidation, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2020.126574DOI Listing
December 2020

Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for bone metastasis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor: Case report and review of the literature.

Rep Pract Oncol Radiother 2020 May-Jun;25(3):331-335. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. These tumors are rare and only make bone metastases at a rate of 5%.

Case Summary: A 31-year-old male with a GIST presented with solitary bone metastasis at the right iliac bone. We performed stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) and achieved excellent local control. Herein, our case is presented, and a short review of the literature is carried out.

Conclusion: SABR should be considered as a treatment option in GIST with bone metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rpor.2020.02.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7114605PMC
February 2020

Endoscopic Ampullectomy of Benign Ampullary Lesions: Outcomes From a Single Center Study.

Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2020 Jun;30(3):270-275

Department of Gastroenterology, Dr. A. Y. Ankara Oncology Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: Endoscopic ampullectomy (EA) offers an insignificantly intrusive strategy for viably treating mucosal and occasionally submucosal lesions of the ampulla of Vater and encompassing periampullary area with high achievement and is more secure. The aim of this study was to present safety, efficacy, and outcomes of EA in the treatment of benign lesions of ampulla Vater performed by single experienced endoscopists in a high volume center.

Methods: This retrospective study was conducted in patients referred to our hospital (Turkey High Speciality Training and Research Hospital, Turkey) for endoscopic evaluation of ampullary benign lesions over an 8-year period (between October 2011 and September 2019). Success rate was defined as complete resection of lesions.

Results: Twenty-nine patients with a median age of 64 years were included. Twenty-five patients had lesions confined to the ampulla vateri (86.2%). Accordingly, 2 lesions had intraductal extension adenoma (IDA) (6.9%) and 2 were lateral spreading adenoma (6.9%). The median size of the lesion was 17.5 mm (10 to 36 mm). Nineteen lesions (65.5%) were resected en bloc and 10 lesions (34.5%) were resected in piecemeal manner. Complete resection was achieved in 21 of 23 patients with benign ampullary lesions. The procedure success rate was 91.3%. Complications occurred in 6 patients (20.6%) of these 3 had (10.3%) bleeding, 2 (6.8%) had pancreatitis, and 1 had (3.4%) perforation. Four patients (13.7%) had a recurrence.

Conclusions: Deep resection of the benign ampullary lesions increases the complete resection rate, cannulation rate of the pancreatic duct, and stenting rate of the pancreatic duct. EA is a safe and successful procedure in patients with benign lesions of ampulla vater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLE.0000000000000775DOI Listing
June 2020

Ewing sarcoma in an infant and review of the literature.

Turk J Pediatr 2019 ;61(5):760-764

Departments of Radiation Oncology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Bedük Esen ÇS, Gültekin M, Aydın GB, Akyüz C, Karlı Oğuz K, Orhan D, Cengiz M, Gürkaynak M, Yıldız F. Ewing sarcoma in an infant and review of the literature. Turk J Pediatr 2019; 61: 760-764. Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a rare tumor in infants and prognosis is controversial. There are no standard recommendations for treatment in such very young patients. Generally, radiotherapy (RT) is not a part of treatment in infants due to the risk of severe late side effects. In this case report, we report a 7-month-old boy with diagnosis of left mastoid bone ES with lung metastases at diagnosis, showing a rapidly fatal outcome despite aggressive systemic chemotherapy and RT without surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.24953/turkjped.2019.05.016DOI Listing
August 2020

and : Metal concentration, phenolic content, and biological activity.

Mycologia 2020 Jan-Feb;112(1):1-8. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Centre of Region Haná for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Department of Phytochemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, Šlechtitelů 27, 78371 Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Medicinal mushrooms have long tradition in Asia, and recently they began to be consumed in Europe as well. Among hundreds of species, only a few of them are intensively investigated, i.e., and , whereas the chemistry and bioactivities of the other species, especially of European origin, still remain unknown. This study comprises detailed chemical analysis of two species growing wild in Turkey, and . Metal composition of both species shows high concentrations of biogenic metals. Phenolic composition of the isolated extracts of and shows that these species are rich in simple phenolic acids, such as 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid, but also in flavonoids. These compounds are found to be carriers of the antioxidant activity but also enzyme inhibition activity of the analyzed extracts. Overall results indicate that these two species have strong potential to be used for medicinal purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2019.1689748DOI Listing
September 2020

Protective properties of kefir on burn wounds of mice that were infected with S. aureus, P. auroginasa and E. coli.

Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2019 Sep 30;65(7):60-65. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Department of Biology, Science Faculty, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir, Turkey.

Burns and burn wounds are very sensitive to infections and cause a large amount of death worldwide. Although burn wound is sterile at the beginning, because of the risk factors such as prolonged hospital stay, immune suppression and burn affecting large surface area, colonisation with Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli occur. For the burn therapy, one of the most important ways is to control bacterial infections. A probiotic fermented milk product kefir has antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, anticancer and various health promoting features. This study aims to examine possible protective properties of kefir which was used on the burn wounds that were infected with S. aureus, P. auroginasa and E. coli.  Swiss albino / Balb-c mice were seperated into four groups: (1) used as control group, (2) second-degree burn model+ burn wounds were infected with P.aeruginosa + S.aureus + E.coli, (3) second-burn wounds were treated with sterile pads dressed with kefir and (4) second-degree burn+burn wounds were infected with P. aeruginosa + S.aureus +E.coli before being treated with sterile pads dressed with kefir. The serum biochemical results verified the histopathological results and our findings showed that kefir is an effective product with cell-protecting properties.
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September 2019

The Protective Effects of Silymarin on Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Damage: Measurement of miR-122, miR-192, and miR-194 Levels.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2020 Jun 6;191(2):528-539. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Faculty of Arts and Science, Department of Biology, Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Eskişehir, Turkey.

This study aims to investigate the protective effects of silymarin (Sm) in thioacetamide (TAA)-related liver damage. What makes this study special is that it attempts to determine the expression of changes in the liver at the level of gene expression. Routine liver damage markers were compared with changes in the levels of microRNA (miRNA) known as new biomarkers. With this in mind, we divided the rats into four groups including control, TAA, Sm + TAA (50 + 50 mg/kg), and Sm + TAA (100 + 50 mg/kg). Blood and tissue samples belonging to the rats were collected in consideration of morphological, immunohistochemistry, miRNAs levels, and biochemical evaluations. Our study results showed that miR-122, miR-192, and miR-194 levels had decreased in the experimental groups given TAA, whereas miR-122, miR-192, and miR-194 levels had increased in the doses of Sm + TAA-given group. Therefore, Sm treatment undertaken before exposure to the toxin successfully altered its effects upon the study animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-019-03177-wDOI Listing
June 2020

Protective Effects of Boron on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Bladder Damage and Oxidative Stress in Rats.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2020 Sep 16;197(1):184-191. Epub 2019 Nov 16.

Vocational School of Health Services, Kırıkkale University, Kırıkkale, Turkey.

This study aims to investigate protective effects of boron against cyclophosphamide-induced bladder toxicity that produces oxidative stress and leads to apoptosis of the cells. In total, 24 rats were divided into 4 equal groups. The control group received saline. The 2nd experimental group received 200 mg kg of cyclophosphamide i.p. on the 4th day while the 3rd group was given only boron (200 mg kg, i.p.) for 6 days. In the 4th group, boron was given for 6 days and cyclophosphamide (200 mg kg, i.p.) was administrated on the 4th day. Twenty-four hours after the last boron or cyclophosphamide administration, rats were sacrificed under anesthesia. Bladder tissues of rats were taken for histological and immunohistochemical (apoptotic markers such as caspase-3, bcl-2, and bax) and blood was taken for the biochemical (serum total thiol, serum natural thiol, serum thiol-disulfide) analysis. Transient epithelial thinning, edema, marked inflammatory reaction, and bleeding were observed in bladders of the group that received cyclophosphamide. Also, the activity of bax and caspase-3-positive cells increased while the number of bcl-2-positive cells decreased. In the same group, serum natural thiol and total thiol levels decreased while serum disulfide levels increased, which indicates oxidative stress. On the other hand, in the boron+cyclophosphamide group pretreatment with boron protected, the bladder tissue and the number of bcl-2-positive cells increased, and bax and caspase-3-positive cells decreased, showing antiapoptotic effects of boron against cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity. In parallel with the findings of this group, native thiol and total thiol levels increased and serum disulfide levels decreased pointing out to a decreased oxidative stress. Our results indicate that boron pretreatment significantly protects rat bladder against cyclophosphamide-induced bladder damage due to its antiapoptotic and antioxidant properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-01969-zDOI Listing
September 2020

Effects of isokinetic muscle strengthening on balance, proprioception, and physical function in bilateral knee osteoarthritis patients with moderate fall risk.

Turk J Phys Med Rehabil 2018 Dec 9;64(4):353-361. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Health Sciences, Ümraniye Training and Research Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey.

Objectives: This study aims to assess the effects of isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring strengthening exercises on balance, proprioception, and physical function in patients with moderate-to-severe knee osteoarthritis and moderate fall risk.

Patients And Methods: Between November 2011 and December 2012, a total of 39 participants (30 females, 9 males; mean age 61.7±8.6 years; range, 18 to 79 years) with Grade 2 or 3 knee osteoarthritis according to the Kellgren-Lawrence radiographic grading system and moderate risk of fall with active knee pain were included in this study. All participants received isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring strengthening exercises for six weeks. Pre-treatment quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength (peak torque and total work value) and quadriceps to hamstring muscle strength ratio at angular velocities of 60°/sec and 180°/sec, range of motion (ROM), average proprioceptive errors at 15-45° and 30-60°, the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) scores, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) subscale scores, the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores, and physical function tests results were compared with the post-treatment results. The correlations of pre- and post-treatment BBS and average proprioceptive error at 15-45° and 30-60° changes to other pre- and post-treatment clinical measurements changes were calculated.

Results: Post-treatment quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength at angular velocities of 60°/sec and 180°/sec and quadriceps to hamstring muscle strength ratios at angular velocity of 60°/sec, ROM, average proprioceptive errors at 15-45° and 30-60°, BBS scores, WOMAC subscale scores, VAS scores, and physical function tests significantly improved compared to the pre-treatment results (p<0.001). Statistically significant correlations were found between the pre- and post-treatment BBS score changes and pre- and post-treatment VAS (p=0.015), WOMAC-Pain (p=0.017), WOMAC-Physical Function (p=0.005) scores and Timed Up and Go Test (p=0.036) scores.

Conclusion: Inclusion of isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring strengthening exercises into the rehabilitation programs for the patients with knee osteoarthritis may improve the quality of life and contribute to the decreased risk of fall.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5606/tftrd.2018.2422DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6648029PMC
December 2018

In Regard to Videtic et al.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2019 06;104(2):466-467

Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Ankara, Turkey.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2019.02.012DOI Listing
June 2019

Hepato-preventive and anti-apoptotic role of boric acid against liver injury induced by cyclophosphamide.

J Trace Elem Med Biol 2019 May 23;53:1-7. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Science and Letters, Department of Biology, 26480, Eskişehir, Turkey.

This study aims to examine cyclophosphamide (CP) exsposure associated toxicity on rat livers and the likely defensive effects of boric acid (BA). The rats used in this study were divided into four groups: control group, CP group, BA group, and BA + CP group. The present study was carried out using routine histological H&E stain, immunohistochemical stain caspase-3 as apoptotic marker, serum biochemical analysis for liver function markers (alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkalen phosphatase (ALP)), oxidative stress markers (total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and total antioxidant capacity marker (TAC)). In the CP group, the levels of ALT, AST, ALP, TOS, OSI and caspase-3 increased whereas TAC levels decreased compared with the control group. In the BA + CP group, the levels of ALT, AST, ALP, TOS, OSI and caspase-3 decreased whereas TAC levels increased compared with the CP group. The histopathological evaluation of light microscope images and immunohistochemical caspase-3 activity in the BA + CP group were found to be decrease compared with those in the CP group. In conclusion, BA was successful in defending the liver against apoptosis and histopathological changes that are attributable to CP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtemb.2019.01.013DOI Listing
May 2019

Cerebral Hydatid Cyst with Intraventricular Extension: A Case Report.

J Trop Pediatr 2019 10;65(5):514-519

Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sirnak State Hospital, Şırnak, Turkey.

Intracranial hydatid cyst is a rare entity, comprising about 2-3% of all hydatid cysts. Similarly, intracranial hydatid cysts account for 1-2% of all intracranial lesions. Clinical symptoms are generally nonspecific and patients usually present with symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. Cerebral hydatid cysts can be either primary or secondary to systemic hydatid disease. Primary cerebral hydatid cysts are usually solitary, unilocular with an intraparenchymal location. Intraventricular extension of hydatid cysts account for a limited percentage of all cerebral hydatid cysts with limited number of cases reported. Herein, we present the imaging and surgical findings of a primary cerebral hydatid cyst that is located in frontal lobe parenchyma with partial extension into the ventricular system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tropej/fmy080DOI Listing
October 2019

The Synergistic Effect of Immune Checkpoint Blockade and Radiotherapy in Recurrent/Metastatic Sinonasal Cancer.

Cureus 2018 Oct 29;10(10):e3519. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Radiation Oncology, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara, TUR.

Treatment options for recurrent/metastatic sinonasal cancer (RMSNC) patients are limited. We present two cases with RMSNC treated with a combination of immune checkpoint blockade and hypo-fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (HSRT).  Case 1 presented with RMSNC three months after the primary treatment. The patient progressed under first-line chemotherapy and pembrolizumab was offered. The disease progressed after the sixth cycle. We performed reirradiation with HSRT to the primary site. Case 2 presented with local recurrence eight years after the primary treatment for maxillary sinus cancer. He refused surgery and chemotherapy and was offered nivolumab treatment. After two doses, we performed reirradiation with HSRT. Case 1 showed regression at both the local and the metastatic sites after radiotherapy. The second patient's symptoms resolved completely three months after radiotherapy. The HSRT and immune checkpoint blockade combination is a promising treatment option for patients with RMSNC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.3519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6318133PMC
October 2018

Managing Synchronous Liver Metastases in Colorectal Cancer.

Indian J Surg Oncol 2018 Dec 18;9(4):461-471. Epub 2018 May 18.

2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

The most common site of blood-borne metastases from colorectal cancers (CRC) is the liver. Resection of (liver) metastases is a part of standard treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Hepatic resection is the first-line treatment of liver metastases, with 5-year survival rates between 25 and 58%. The enhanced efficacy of systemic chemotherapeutic regimens has increased tumor response rates and improved the progression-free and overall survival of patients with these malignancies. In approximately 20% of patients with initially unresectable liver metastases, the metastases may become resectable after administration of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Unresectable liver metastases can be managed with systemic therapy and/or a variety of liver-directed techniques such as radiofrequency ablation, hepatic artery infusion, or yttrium-90 radioembolization. Our examination of the literature led us to propose a new patient-oriented algorithm to guide clinicians' decisions on the best choice of upfront therapy for CRC and synchronous liver metastases. The need for multidisciplinary consensus has become especially important for metastatic CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13193-018-0765-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6265172PMC
December 2018

Validity and reliability of fatigue severity scale in stroke.

Top Stroke Rehabil 2019 03 26;26(2):122-127. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

e Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation , Gazi University , Ankara , Turkey.

Background: Fatigue is a frequent complaint after stroke and may be associated with dependence in activities of daily living, decreased quality of life, increased institutionalization and mortality. Although fatigue severity scale (FSS) is the most frequently used scale in stroke, validation studies are scarce.

Objectives: This study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of FSS in subjects with stroke.

Methods: A total of 46 subjects with stroke who were admitted for rehabilitation and 52 control subjects who were admitted for local musculoskeletal problems were included. A comprehensive assessment including functional independence measure, Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), visual analog scale for fatigue (VAS), FSS, and vitality subscale of 36-item Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36v) was conducted. FSS, VAS and SF-36v were repeated 7 days later.

Results: FSS demonstrated excellent internal consistency in subjects with stroke (Cronbach's alpha: 0.928). There was a moderate correlation between FSS and SF-36v (r = -0.498, p < 0.001). FSS was weakly correlated with HADS anxiety (r = 0.310, p = 0.041) and HADS depression (r = 0.334, p = 0.027). Test-retest reliability of SF-36v (ICC: 0. 746, CI: 0.518-0.866), VAS (ICC: 0.829, CI: 0.671-0.911) and FSS (ICC: 0.742, CI: 0.512-0.863, p < 0.001) was good. ICC values for individual items of FSS were good except for item 6.

Conclusions: FSS is a valid and reliable scale to measure fatigue in stroke. FSS is not sensitive to differentiate fatigue in stroke from the control subjects with orthopedic problems with similar age and gender.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10749357.2018.1550957DOI Listing
March 2019

The role of ABO blood groups in glial neoplasms.

Br J Neurosurg 2019 Feb 4;33(1):43-46. Epub 2018 Nov 4.

b Radiation Oncology , Hacettepe University School of Medicine , Ankara , Turkey.

Introduction: There are numerous diseases that are claimed to have a correlation with AB0 blood groups. Analysis on distribution of blood groups in primary brain tumors and clinical value has revealed conflicting results. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between AB0 blood groups and glial neoplasms (GN) and their effects on prognosis.

Methods: A retrospective cross sectional study was performed. Patients admitted between 2000-2014 and had a diagnosis of GN were evaluated. Blood groups of patients were analyzed and compared with the National blood group data obtained from Turkish Red Crescent Society. The prognostic significance of AB0 blood groups was analyzed within glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), anaplastic astrocytoma and grade 1-2 astrocytoma.

Results: 759 patients with a diagnosis of glial neoplasia were evaluated. Distribution of AB0 blood groups in the different grades of Glial neoplasia was similar with the national blood group frequencies. There was not a statistically significant difference between grades of glial neoplasia and healthy control patients. Median overall survival (mOS) of GBM patients were 12.9 months in A (95% CI, 10.2-15.5), 13.4 months in B (95% CI, 7.3-19.5), 5.7 months in AB (95% CI, 0.8-10.6), 12.8 months in 0 blood groups (95% CI, 8.6-16.8) (p = .46). mOS of anaplastic astrocytoma patients were 24.4 months in A (95% CI, 15.2-33.6), 47.2 months in B (95% CI, 9.9-84.5), 37.8 months in AB (95% CI, 10.2-80.3), 29.2 months in 0 blood groups (95% CI, 21.2-33.4) (p = .96). mOS in grade 1-2 were 84.2, 90.6 and 144 months for A, AB and 0 blood groups respectively.

Conclusions: In our patient group, when compared with general population, there seems to be no association between frequencies of AB0 blood groups and Glial Neoplasia. In addition, the AB0 blood groups have no prognostic impact on glial neoplasms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02688697.2018.1522415DOI Listing
February 2019

Renoprotective effects of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn (Silymarin) on thioacetamide-induced renal injury: Biochemical and histopathological approach.

Authors:
Mustafa Z Cengiz

Pak J Pharm Sci 2018 Sep;31(5(Supplementary)):2137-2141

Department of Elementary Education, Faculty of Education, Siirt University, Siirt, Turkey.

Thioacetamide (TAA), recognized as an experimental toxin, mainly causes acute liver damage through the production of free radicals. TAA as well induces renal dysfunction hence; renal failure is often related with the end-stage of the hepatic damage. The aim of the current study was to examine the protective effects of Silymarin (Sil) against TAA-induced kidney damage in this current study. The twenty eight rats were separated into four groups. Group 1 was performed as control (saline 0,5 mL intraperitonally i.p.). Group 2 was given to 50 mg/kg TAA (i.p.). Group 3 was administrated with TAA just after 50 mg/kg Sil (per os (p.o.)). Group 4 was treated to TAA just after 100 mg/kg Sil. In end (fourteenth days) of study, tissue and blood samples of animals were collected for morphological and biochemical assessment. Our results show that Sil treatment apart from the TAA administration profitably changed the poisonous effects on the rats. In addition, 100 mg/kg Sil was more protective than 50 mg/kg Sil treatment indicated by histopathological, and biochemical values. In conclusion, Sil therapy before TAA could guard kidney tissues against TAA induced nephrotoxicity.
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September 2018

Human papillomavirus infection in patients with laryngeal carcinoma.

BMC Cancer 2018 Oct 20;18(1):1005. Epub 2018 Oct 20.

Department of Pathology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: The aim of this study was to determine the HPV positivity rate in patients with laryngeal cancer, and to determine the effect of HPV positivity on survival. An additional aim was to determine if patients with HPV positive laryngeal cancer are more sensitive to chemotherapy and if such sensitivity differs according to chemotherapy protocol.

Methods: The study included laryngeal specimens obtained from 82 laryngeal cancer patients and 11 laryngeal specimens with normal laryngeal mucosa that were obtained from our hospital's paraffin block archives between 1995 and 2013. HPV was detected via chromogenic in situ hybridization (cISH) and confirmed via genotyping.

Results: HPV was not detected in any of the 82 laryngeal cancer patients' laryngeal specimens, nor in any of the 11 archived laryngeal specimens with normal laryngeal mucosa via cISH. Genotyping confirmed these findings; none of the HPV types studied were detected in any of the specimens. As none of the study samples were HPV positive, it was not possible to compare survival, recurrence, or chemotherapy sensitivity.

Conclusions: HPV infection is not a leading cause of laryngeal cancer; however, additional research on HPV positivity in patients with laryngeal cancer and its effect on recurrence, survival, and chemotherapy sensitivity is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-018-4890-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6195980PMC
October 2018

Boric acid protects against cyclophosphamide-induced oxidative stress and renal damage in rats.

Authors:
Mustafa Cengiz

Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2018 Sep 30;64(12):11-14. Epub 2018 Sep 30.

Department of Elementary Education, Faculty of Education, Siirt University, Siirt, Turkey.

The worldwide increase in the rate of cancer incidence also leads to a significant increase in the use of chemotherapeutic agents. Unfortunately, the optimal clinical usefulness of these agents is heavy restricted by a high incidence of several organ toxicity and as well reason oxidative stress and bring about changing in antioxidant status. Kidney toxicity is a side effect often encountered with cyclophosphamide (CPM) which is commonly used in most cancer chemotherapy. The present study aims on the assessment of the probable defensive efficacy of Boric acid (BA) against CPM-induced oxidative stress and renal damage in rats. Based upon our investigation results with oxidative stress markers and light microscopic findings, it can be concluded that BA significantly reduced CPM induced oxidative stress and renal damage. As far as we know, high dose (200 mg/kg) of BA are the first study on the prevention of kidney damage caused by CPM. It is thought that the renoprotective effects of BA may be due to an increase in the activity of the antioxidant protection system and also inhibition of lipid per oxidation.
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September 2018

Fitting NTCP models to SBRT dose and carotid blowout syndrome data.

Med Phys 2018 Oct 31;45(10):4754-4762. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine Sihhiye, Ankara, Turkey.

Purpose: To estimate the radiobiological parameters of three popular NTCP models, which describe the dose-response relations of carotid blowout syndrome (CBOS) after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). To evaluate the goodness-of-fit and the correlation of those models with CBOS.

Methods: The study included 61 patients with inoperable locally recurrent head and neck cancer treated with SBRT using CyberKnife (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA) at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey between June 2007 and March 2011. The dose-volume histograms of the internal carotid were exported from the plans of all the patients. The follow-up results regarding the end point of carotid blowout syndrome were collected retrospectively. Initially, univariable analyses (Wilcoxon rank-sum or Chi-square tests) and a multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed between the outcome data and a list of clinical and treatment factors to identify significant correlations. Additionally, the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB), Relative Seriality (RS), and Logit NTCP models were used to fit the clinical data. The fitting of the different models was assessed through the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), Akaike information criterion (AIC), and Odds Ratio methods.

Results: The clinical/treatment factors that were found to have a significant or close to significant correlations with acute CBOS were Age at the time of CK (P-value = 0.03), Maximum carotid dose (P-value = 0.06), and CK prescription dose (P-value = 0.08). Using D , physical DVH, and EQD -DVH as the dosimetric metrics in the NTCP models, the derived LKB model parameters were: (a) D  = 45.8 Gy, m = 0.24, n = n/a; (b) D  = 44.8 Gy, m = 0.28, n = 0.01; and (c) D  = 115.8 Gy, m = 0.45, n = 0.01, respectively. The AUC values for the dosimetric metrics were 0.70, 0.68, and 0.61, respectively. The differences in AIC between the different models were less than 2 and ranged within ±0.9.

Conclusion: The maximum dose to the internal carotid less than 34 Gy appears to significantly reduce the risk for CBOS. Age at the time of CK, Maximum carotid dose, and CK prescription dose were also found to correlate with CBOS. The values of the parameters of three NTCP models were determined for this endpoint. A threshold of gEUD <34.5 Gy appears to be significantly associated with lower risks of CBOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.13121DOI Listing
October 2018

In Regard to Chen et al.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 07 20;101(4):998. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2018.04.079DOI Listing
July 2018