Publications by authors named "Mustafa Abdullah Yilmaz"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Chemical Composition and Pharmacological Evaluation and of Toddalia asiatica (Rutaceae) Extracts and Essential Oil by in Vitro and in Silico Approaches.

Chem Biodivers 2021 Mar 19. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Mauritius, Moka, Réduit, 80837, Mauritius.

Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. is extensively used in traditional medicinal systems by various cultures. Despite its frequent use in traditional medicine, there is still a paucity of scientific information on T. asiatica growing on the tropical island of Mauritius. Therefore, the present study was designed to appraise the pharmacological and phytochemical profile of extracts (methanol, ethyl acetate and water) and essential oil obtained from aerial parts of T. asiatica. Biological investigation involved the evaluation of in vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory potentials. The chemical profile of the EO was determined using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis, while for the extracts, the total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid content were quantified as well as their individual phenolic compounds by LC/MS/MS. Quinic acid, fumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, quercitrin and isoquercitrin were the main compounds in the extracts. Highest total phenolic (82.5±0.94 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g)) and flavonoid (43.8±0.31 mg rutin equivalent (RE/g)) content were observed for the methanol extract. The GC/MS analysis has shown the presence of 26 compounds with linalool (30.9 %), linalyl acetate (20.9 %) and β-phellandrene (7.9 %) being most abundant components in the EO. The extracts and EO showed notable antioxidant properties, with the methanol extract proved to be superior source of antioxidant compounds. Noteworthy anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and anti-butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) effects were recorded for the tested samples, while only the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts were active against tyrosinase. With respect to antidiabetic effects, the extracts and EO were potent inhibitors of α-glucosidase, while modest activity was recorded against α-amylase. Docking results showed that linalyl acetate has the highest affinity to interact with the active site of BChE with docking score of -6.25 kcal/mol. The findings amassed herein act as a stimulus for further investigations of this plant as a potential source of bioactive compounds which can be exploited as phyto-therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202000999DOI Listing
March 2021

A comprehensive evaluation of the chemical profiles and biological properties of six geophytes from Turkey: Sources of bioactive compounds for novel nutraceuticals.

Food Res Int 2021 Feb 25;140:110068. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Section of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Perugia, via San Costanzo 1, 06126 Perugia, Italy. Electronic address:

Geophytes are gaining interest as sources of natural ingredients in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical area. In this sense, six bulbous plant species from Turkey are investigated, namely Hyacinthella campanulata K.Perss. & Wendelbo, Muscari neglectum Guss. ex Ten., Tulipa humilis herb., Iris stenophylla Hausskn. ex Baker, Galanthus elwesii Hook. f. and Crocus danfordiae Maw. with the aim to highlight their chemical compositions and biological properties. Polyphenolic profiles of the different plant parts (flower, bulb and leaf) of the six genotypes were evaluated using colorimetric methods as well LC-MS/MS. The antioxidant properties and enzymes inhibitory potential (α-amylase, α-glucosidase, tyrosinase and cholinesterases) of the extracts were determined. Overall, highest total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were observed in the leaf extracts of the studied species, except for M. neglectum (flower extract) and T. humilis (flower extract). LC-MS/MS analysis revealed the abundance of some phenolic compounds including quinic acid, hesperidin and chlorogenic acid in selective extracts. The extracts showed significant antioxidant potentials, with leaf extract of the I. stenophylla being more potent, which is linked to its high phenolic contents. All the extracts displayed notable anti-acetylcholinesterase (1.77 - 2.53 mg GALAE/g) and tyrosinase (54.9-67.20 mg KAE/g). Selective extracts have showed activity against butyrylcholinesterase, with bulb extract of M. neglectum (2.99 mg GALAE/g), I. stenophylla (2.53 mg GALAE/g) and G. elwesii (2.52 mg GALAE/g) showing highest activity. Modest activity was observed against α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The experimental data gathered herein is the first report on the phytochemical and biological attributes of these bulbous plant species which project them as potential sources of biologically active compounds for phytomedicines and nutraceuticals development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.110068DOI Listing
February 2021

A Detailed Chemical and Biological Investigation of Twelve Allium Species from Eastern Anatolia with Chemometric Studies.

Chem Biodivers 2021 Jan 8;18(1):e2000560. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Dicle University, 21280, Diyarbakir, Turkey.

Allium species are widely consumed as food all over the world. The phenolic profile of ethanol extracts of aerial parts and roots of 12 Allium species, collected from five different Eastern Anatolia regions, were studied using LC-MS/MS. In vitro antioxidant, anticholinesterase, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities were also tested. The multivariate analyses were performed using principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses. Seventeen of 27 standard compounds were detected in all Allium species. The major components were mainly identified as quinic acid, malic acid, vanillin, and p-coumaric acid. The aerial parts possessed better antioxidant activity than roots. Aerial parts of A. atroviolaceum, A. chrysantherum, A. kharputense, and A. shirnakiense exhibited high cytotoxic activity against DLD-1 colon cancer cell lines (IC 12.5 μg/mL). A. shatakiense and A. vineale demonstrated good antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and E. coli (MIC 75 μg/mL). According to chemometric analysis, differences were detected between aerial parts and the roots. The aerial parts of A. atroviolaceum, A. chrysantherum, A. kharputense, and A. shirnakiense could be potent in the pharmaceutical industry while A. shatakiense and A. vineale in the food industry after further investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202000560DOI Listing
January 2021

Selective in vitro and in silico enzymes inhibitory activities of phenolic acids and flavonoids of food plants: Relations with oxidative stress.

Food Chem 2020 Oct 19;327:127045. Epub 2020 May 19.

Department of General and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Istanbul University, 34116 Istanbul, Turkey.

In this study, the inhibitory potentials of food originated 34 phenolic acids, and flavonoid compounds were screened against acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, urease, and tyrosinase enzymes. All compounds included in this study exhibited high antioxidant activity with an ignorable cytotoxic activity. In general, they also showed poor anti-urease and anti-tyrosinase activities. Compounds in aglycone form (quercetin, myricetin, chrysin, and luteolin) showed strong anticholinesterase activities. No relation was observed between the tested bioactivities except from the case that aglycone compounds exhibited a strong positive relationship between antioxidant activities and anticholinesterase activity. Interestingly, there was a relation between the molecular weights of aglycone compounds and their anticholinesterase activities. The study showed that flavonoids with molecular mass of 250-320 g/mol have high potential of anticholinesterase activities and are valuable for future experiments on animals and humans. Potential inhibitory effects of these molecules on target proteins were investigated using docking and molecular dynamics calculations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.127045DOI Listing
October 2020

A Detailed Biological and Chemical Investigation of Sixteen Achillea Species' Essential Oils via Chemometric Approach.

Chem Biodivers 2020 Mar 20;17(3):e1900484. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Dicle University, 21280, Diyarbakir, Turkey.

Representatives of the Achillea genus are widely used as foods or nutraceuticals. Considering the increasing demand for herbal dietary supplements with health promoting effects, the objective of this research was to evaluate the chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oils obtained from sixteen Achillea species (A. biebersteinii, A. wilhelmsii subsp. wilhelmsii, A. aleppica subsp. zederbaueri, A. vermicularis, A. monocephala, A. nobilis, A. goniocephala, A. sintenisii, A. coarctata, A. kotschyi subsp. kotschyi, A. millefolium subsp. millefolium, A. lycaonica, A. spinulifolia, A. teretifolia, A. setacea, and A. schischkinii). Anticholinesterase, antiurease, antityrosinase enzymes inhibition, antioxidant, antimicrobial, toxic and cytotoxic activities of obtained essential oils were investigated. DPPH activities were found to be very low in all studied samples, while ABTS and CUPRAC antioxidant activities were found to be moderate. In addition, all samples were found to have moderate anticholinesterase and antimicrobial effects. It has been determined that the studied species have low cytotoxicity and high toxicity. Besides, chemical composition of the essential oils were determined by GC/MS and the results were chemometrically analyzed. The chemometric analyses of Achillea species collected from nine different regions were accomplished by principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) techniques. According to the PCA analysis, A. nobilis subsp. neilreichii was found to be different from all studied species in terms of essential oil composition. The major components found in these species were piperitone, camphor, α-terpinene, eucalyptol, artemisia ketone, endo-borneol, β-eudesmol and verbenol. The fact that camphor was toxic and found in majority of the studied species stands out as a remarkable result.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.201900484DOI Listing
March 2020

Comprehensive analysis of an uninvestigated wild edible medicinal garlic species from Turkey: Allium macrochaetum Boiss. & Hausskn.

J Food Biochem 2019 07 23;43(7):e12928. Epub 2019 May 23.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Dicle University, Diyarbakır, Turkey.

The study was aimed to investigate the phenolic compounds of Allium macrochaetum by LC-MS/MS, as well as the antioxidant, antialzheimer, and antimicrobial activities of the extracts, and determination of the essential oil and fatty acid compositions by GC-MS. The results indicate that malic acid and t-caffeic acid are the major compounds in the bulbs. The main components of fatty acids were found to be linolenic (40.72%), oleic (19.79%), and palmitic (18.45%) acids. The allyl disulfide (66.97%) was found as major compound in the essential oil. The ethanol extract of the bulbs exhibited stronger ABTS cation (IC : 55.90 ± 1.08 µg/ml) and DPPH free (IC : 204.43 ± 2.17 µg/ml) radical scavenging activities than the other extracts. The extract also showed moderate cupric reducing activity with 1.52 absorbance at 100 µg/ml concentration. Only the ethanol extract of the bulbs showed weak inhibition (23.34 ± 0.11%) against butrylcholinesterase enzyme at 200 µg/ml. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Allium macrochaetum is a wild and edible garlic species which grown in Turkey, Iran, Iraqi, and Syria. A. macrochaetum has been used by local people in Turkish folk medicine as an antibiotic, and for the treatment of alopecia. The health benefits and nutritional values of A. macrochaetum were clarified in the first time. Phenolic compounds of A. macrochaetum were detected by LC-MS/MS. The essential oil and fatty acid compositions of A. macrochaetum were identified by GC-MS. Antioxidant, antialzheimer, and antimicrobial activities potential of A. macrochaetum were determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.12928DOI Listing
July 2019

A comprehensive LC-MS/MS method validation for the quantitative investigation of 37 fingerprint phytochemicals in Achillea species: A detailed examination of A. coarctata and A. monocephala.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2018 May 10;154:413-424. Epub 2018 Mar 10.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Dicle University, Diyarbakir 21280, Turkey.

The current study aims to optimize and validate a comprehensive LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of 37 phytochemicals (15 phenolic acids, 17 flavonoids, 3 non-phenolic organic acids, 1 phenolic aldehyde and 1 benzopyrene) in Achillea species. Though Achillea species were chosen as real life samples, the current method is applicable to a wide range of plant species. The developed method was fully validated in terms of linearity, accuracy (recovery), inter-day and intra-day precision (repeatability), limits of detection and quantification (LOD/LOQ) and relative standard uncertainty (U% at 95% confidence level (k = 2)). Reversed-phase ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography was optimized to achive optimum separation for 37 phytochemical compounds and to overcome the suppression effects. MS detection was performed using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and negative or positive ionization modes were optimized for each analyte. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was used to quantify the analytes, related molecular ions and transition ions were optimized. Phytochemical screening of ethanol and methanol-chloroform extracts of root and aerial parts of A. coarctata and A. monocephala were performed by using the developed and validated LC-MS/MS method. Root and aerial parts of both species have considerable amounts of certain phenolic-nonphenolic acids (quinic, malic, fumaric, chlorogenic and vanillic acids) and flavonoids (rutin, hesperidin, isoquercitrin, apigetrin, luteolin, apigenin). Additionally, total phenolic and flavonoid amounts, antioxidant (DPPH free radical scavenging assay, ABTS radical cation decolorization assay, β-carotene lipid peroxidation test system and CUPRAC cupper reduction capacity methods), anticholinesterase, tyrosinase, urease inhibition and cytotoxic activities (on HeLa (Human Cervical Carcinoma Cell Line) of A. coarctata and A. monocephala were also investigated. It has been determined that the studied Achillea species, that are rich in total phenolic-flavonoid and chlorogenic acid contents, have high antioxidant and cytotoxic potential at the same time. According to the results of LC-MS/MS, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity studies, after detailed chemical investigation and toxicity studies on these species, A. coarctata and A. monocephala may be promoted as promising sources of natural agents and used for the development of nutraceuticals or functional food ingredients in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2018.02.059DOI Listing
May 2018

The evaluation of antioxidant and anticancer effects of Lepidium Sativum Subsp Spinescens L. methanol extract on cancer cells.

Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2018 Feb 28;64(3):72-80. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Medicine, Bezmialem Vakif University, Istanbul, Turkey.

In recent years, there is an increased research interest for plants which are natural sources of antioxidants. Lepidium sativum Subsp spinescens L., commonly found in South West Asia, is a plant known as a healthy nutritional source containing bio-molecules that carry anti-hypertensive, hypoglycemic, anti-asthmatic, antispasmodic, hepato-protective, chemoprotective, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. In this study, we aimed to investigate the antioxidant content and activity of Lepidium sativum Subsp spinescens L. methanol extract on cancer cells. Methanol extract of dried Lepidium sativum Subsp spinescens L. was prepared. Total amount of phenolic compounds was determined by Slinkard and Singleton method using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Total flavonoid amount was determined according to Zhishen method. Antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by CUPRAC and ABTS radical scavenging activity assays. Cytotoxic effects of the plant extract on colon and endometrium cancer cells, and human peripheral lymphocyte cells were investigated in vitro by MTT and neutral red assays. Furthermore, the plant extract was investigated for necrotic effects by LDH assay; apoptotic activity by DNA ladder fragmentation, ELISA and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining; and genotoxic effect by comet assay methods. Methanol extract of Lepidium sativum Subsp spinescens L. was found to have a high content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The extract showed significant antioxidant activity and also cytotoxic activity on colon and endometrium cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Apoptotic activity and genotoxic effects were significantly increased, especially with 200 μg/ml concentrations at 48 hours incubation. In conclusion, it was determined that the extract evaluated in this study could be a natural source of antioxidants. Further molecular studies explaining chemo-preventive and chemotherapeutic effects on cancer cells are required to support anticancer efficacy of the plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14715/cmb/2018.64.3.12DOI Listing
February 2018

Ecology and genomics of an important crop wild relative as a prelude to agricultural innovation.

Nat Commun 2018 02 13;9(1):649. Epub 2018 Feb 13.

Department of Plant Pathology, University of California Davis, Davis, CA, 95616, USA.

Domesticated species are impacted in unintended ways during domestication and breeding. Changes in the nature and intensity of selection impart genetic drift, reduce diversity, and increase the frequency of deleterious alleles. Such outcomes constrain our ability to expand the cultivation of crops into environments that differ from those under which domestication occurred. We address this need in chickpea, an important pulse legume, by harnessing the diversity of wild crop relatives. We document an extreme domestication-related genetic bottleneck and decipher the genetic history of wild populations. We provide evidence of ancestral adaptations for seed coat color crypsis, estimate the impact of environment on genetic structure and trait values, and demonstrate variation between wild and cultivated accessions for agronomic properties. A resource of genotyped, association mapping progeny functionally links the wild and cultivated gene pools and is an essential resource chickpea for improvement, while our methods inform collection of other wild crop progenitor species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-02867-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5811434PMC
February 2018

In vitro and in silico perspectives on biological and phytochemical profile of three halophyte species-A source of innovative phytopharmaceuticals from nature.

Phytomedicine 2018 Jan 31;38:35-44. Epub 2017 Oct 31.

Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Réduit, Mauritius.

Background: Halophytes are considered as valuable sources of traditional drugs in different countries.

Purpose: The present study aimed to evaluate biological and chemical fingerprints of three halophytes (Arthrocnemum macrostachyum (Moric.) C, Koch, Halimione portulacoides (L.) Aellen and Salicornia europaea L.).

Materials And Methods: The antioxidant and enzymatic inhibitory potential (acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and tyrosinase) were assessed. The total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and the chemical profiles were appraised using the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Molecular docking was conducted to provide additional insights of molecular interactions of the enzymes/phytochemicals.

Results: Ethyl acetate extract was the most efficient extract, with A. macrostachyum being the most potent towards DPPH and ABTS radicals and phosphomolybdenum assay. Ethyl acetate extract of A. macrostachyum was also the best reducing agent (CUPRAC and FRAP assays). Methanol and ethyl acetate extract of A. macrostachyum, H. portulacoides, and S. europaea showed significant enzyme inhibition potential. Ethyl acetate extract of A. macrostachyum showed the highest total phenolic (29.54 ± 0.78 mgGAEs/g extract) while the ethyl acetate extract of S. europaea was more abundant in flavonoids (18.26 ± 0.11 mgREs/g extract). Phytochemical profiling allowed the identification of several components in the methanolic extracts (16 in A. macrostachyum, 14 in H. portulacoides, and 11 in S. europaea), with quinic acid, p-coumaric acid, and rhamnetin being most abundant. Docking studies revealed that the above compounds showed scores for the enzymes tested.

Conclusion: The three halophytes studies could be considered as potential sources of biologically-active compounds for novel phytopharmaceuticals development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2017.10.017DOI Listing
January 2018

Identification of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and anti-cancer effects of the extract obtained from the shoots of Ornithogalum narbonense L.

Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2018 01 31;64(1):75-83. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Dicle University, Diyarbakır, Turkey.

This study aimed to examine the anti-cancer and antioxidant properties and identify the phenolic content of methanolic extract obtained from the shoots of the Ornithogalum narbonense L. (OR) species, which is used for folk-medicine and food in the Sanliurfa region of Turkey. The antioxidant activity of the extract was investigated using total phenolics, flavonoids, ABTS and CUPRAC methods. Phenolic component analysis of the plant extract was performed by LC-MS/MS. The anti-cancer property of OR extract was investigated on human colon (DLD-1), endometrium (ECC-1) cancer cells and embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells. Cytotoxic effects were defined with MTT, apoptotic activity with DNA fragmentation ELISA and AO/EB fluorescent staining, the genotoxic effect with the comet assay and the intracellular oxidative status with TAS and TOS methods. As a result of the study, it was determined that OR extract showed an antioxidant effect, and as a result of the content analysis made with LC-MS/MS, phenolic components were determined, the most abundant being cosmosiin, followed by cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid and quinic acid. OR extract showed cytotoxic activity on DLD-1 and ECC-1 cancer cells, while the cytotoxic effect on HEK-293 cells was determined to be low. It was determined that through OR extract, by increasing the intracellular amount of free radicals on cancer cells, led to DNA damage, which consequently led to apoptosis of the cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14715/cmb/2018.64.1.14DOI Listing
January 2018

Combining in vitro, in vivo and in silico approaches to evaluate nutraceutical potentials and chemical fingerprints of Moltkia aurea and Moltkia coerulea.

Food Chem Toxicol 2017 Sep 5;107(Pt B):540-553. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Réduit, Mauritius.

Methanolic extracts of Moltkia aurea Boiss. (MA) and Moltkia coerulea (Willd.) Lehm. (MC) were investigated for their antioxidant capacity and enzymatic inhibitory potential against acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and tyrosinase in vitro. MA and MC were also explored for their antimicrobial effect, as well as for their possible genotoxic/antigenotoxic potential on Drosophila melanogaster in vivo. The total bioactive components (phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid contents (TFC)) were determined and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) metabolite profiling of MA and MC appraised. The plausible docking poses of bioactive compounds to key enzymes were further studied using molecular modelling approach. MA proved to be a better antioxidant with higher TPC and TFC compared to MC. Protocatechuic acid, rutin, hesperidin and malic acid were the most abundant in these extracts. Both MA and MC exhibited antigenotoxic potential with a %R in DNA damage of 60.90 and 53.14% respectively. The docking studies revealed that rutin, hesperidin, and rosmarinic acid have the best scores for all the enzymes tested. MA and MC were found to be rich in phytochemicals with potent antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antigenotoxic activities that can be further studied for the management of neurodegenerative complications, diabetes, and hyperpigmentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2017.04.004DOI Listing
September 2017

UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS and GC-MS Analyses on Phenolic, Fatty Acid and Essential Oil of with Antioxidant, Anticholinesterase, Antimicrobial and DNA Damage Protection Effects.

Iran J Pharm Res 2016 ;15(3):393-405

Department of Infectious diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Dicle University, 21280, Diyarbakır, Turkey.

This paper is the first phytochemical and ABTS cation radical decolorisation activity, cupric reducing antioxidant capacity, anticholinesterase and DNA damage protection effect of endemic (Boiss.) O. Kuntze. Phenolic profile of were qualified and quantified by UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. Malic acid (47250.61±2504.28 µg/g) and luteolin (7651.96±527.98 µg/g) were found as most abundant compounds for metanol and acetone extracts, respectively. Fatty acid and essential oil compositions were determined by GC-MS analysis. The main components of fatty acid were found to be palmitic (27.1%) and stearic (22.1%) acids. The main compounds of the essential oil were cineole (16.9%) and α-selinene (16.4%). The acetone extract was found to be more active than BHT used as a standard in β-carotene-linoleic acid test system. In DPPH free radical scavenging activity, the acetone and methanol extracts showed higher activity than BHT at all tested concentrations. The acetone, methanol and water extracts showed strong inhibition while the acetone extract showed better activity than BHT and α-tocopherol which were used as standards in ABTS cation radical scavenging and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity assays, respectively. All extracts were found to be inactive in antialzheimer activity. The acetone extract exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity against The methanol extract of were found no significant effect on DNA cleavage protection.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5149026PMC
January 2016

RP-HPLC/MS/MS Analysis of the Phenolic Compounds, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Salvia L. Species.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2016 Oct 21;5(4). Epub 2016 Oct 21.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The identification and quantification of the phenolic contents of methanolic extracts of three L. species namely (Bordz.) Pobed, L., and Boiss. and Bal. were evaluated using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography, UV adsorption, and mass spectrometry (RP-HPLC/MS). In order to determine the antioxidant capacity of these species, cupric ions (Cu) reducing assay (CUPRAC) and ferric ions (Fe) reducing assay (FRAP) were performed to screen the reducing capacity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was employed for evaluation of the radical scavenging activity for both solvents. In further investigation, the antimicrobial activities of species were tested using the disc diffusion method against three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative microbial species, as well as three fungi species. The results showed that there is a total of 18 detectable phenols, the most abundant of which was kaempferol in and rosmarinic acids in and . The other major phenols were found to be apigenin, luteolin, -coumaric acid, and chlorogenic acid. All species tested showed moderate and lower antioxidant activity than standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and ascorbic acid. The ethanolic extracts of species revealed a wide range of antimicrobial activity. and showed the highest antimicrobial activities against , whereas was more effective on None of the extracts showed anti-fungal activity against Thus these species could be valuable due to their bioactive compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox5040038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5187536PMC
October 2016

Comparative Studies on Phenolic Composition, Antioxidant, Wound Healing and Cytotoxic Activities of Selected Achillea L. Species Growing in Turkey.

Molecules 2015 Sep 30;20(10):17976-8000. Epub 2015 Sep 30.

Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hacettepe University, Ankara 06100, Turkey.

Turkey is one of the most important centers of diversity for the genus Achillea L. in the world. Keeping in mind the immense medicinal importance of phenols, in this study, three species growing in Turkey, A. coarctata Poir. (AC), A. kotschyi Boiss. subsp. kotschyi (AK) and A. lycaonica Boiss. & Heldr. (AL) were evaluated for their phenolic compositions, total phenolic contents (TPC), antioxidant properties, wound healing potencies on NIH-3T3 fibroblasts and cytotoxic effects on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Comprehensive LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that AK was distinctively rich in chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, apigenin, hesperidin, rutin, kaempferol and luteolin (2890.6, 987.3, 797.0, 422.5, 188.1, 159.4 and 121.2 µg analyte/g extract, respectively). The findings exhibited a strong correlation between TPC and both free radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Among studied species, the highest TPC (148.00 mg GAE/g extract) and TAC (2.080 UAE), the strongest radical scavenging (EC50 = 32.63 μg/mL), the most prominent wound healing and most abundant cytotoxic activities were observed with AK. The results suggested that AK is a valuable source of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid with important antioxidant, wound healing and cytotoxic activities. These findings warrant further studies to assess the potential of AK as a bioactive source that could be exploited in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules201017976DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6332372PMC
September 2015

Fatty Acid and Essential Oil Compositions of Trifolium angustifolium var. angustifolium with Antioxidant, Anticholinesterase and Antimicrobial Activities.

Iran J Pharm Res 2015 ;14(1):233-41

Research and Application of Science and Technology Center (DÜBTAM), Dicle University, 21280 Diyarbakir, Turkey.

This study represents the first report on the chemical composition and biological activity of Trifolium angustifolium var. angustifolium. The major components of the essential oil were identified as hexatriacontene (23.0%), arachidic acid (15.5%) and α-selinene (10.0%). The main constituents of the fatty acid obtained from the petroleum ether extract were identified as palmitic acid (29.8%), linoleic acid (18.6%) and oleic acid (10.5%). In particular, the water extract exhibited higher activity than α-tocopherol and BHT, which were used as standards in the ABTS cation radical scavenging assay and indicated higher inhibitory effect against acetylcholinesterase enzyme than the reference compound, galanthamine but exhibited weak activity in β-carotene bleaching, DPPH-free radical scavenging, and cupric-reducing antioxidant capacity assays. The petroleum ether extract exhibited higher activity than α-tocopherol which was used as standard in the β-carotene bleaching method at concentration 100 μg/mL. The acetone extract exhibited higher activity than α-tocopherol which was used as standard cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method at 100 μg/mL concentration. The acetone and methanol extracts were active on all microorganisms tested with a small zone diameter indicating weak activity.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4277636PMC
January 2015

Chemical profile by LC-MS/MS, GC/MS and antioxidant activities of the essential oils and crude extracts of two Euphorbia species.

Nat Prod Res 2015 3;29(6):529-34. Epub 2014 Sep 3.

a Department of Pharmacognosy , Faculty of Pharmacy, Dicle University , 21280 Diyarbakir , Turkey.

In this study, it was aimed to investigate the chemical composition and antioxidant activities of two Euphorbia species. The major component of the fatty acid compositions obtained from the petroleum ether extracts was identified as palmitic acid for Euphorbia gaillardotii and Euphorbia macroclada. The main constituents of the essential oils were identified as arachidic acid for E. gaillardotii and tetratetracontane for E. macroclada. Among the 27 studied compounds, hesperidin, rutin, hyperoside and quinic, malic, gallic and tannic acids were found to be the most abundant compounds in the two Euphorbia species. The methanol extracts of E. gaillardotii and E. macroclada showed strong antioxidant activity in all tested methods. Particularly, IC50 values of E. macroclada methanol extract that was the richest in terms of total phenolic-flavonoid contents were found to be lower than α-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene in β-carotene bleaching, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free and ABTS cation radical scavenging methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2014.954113DOI Listing
April 2015

Chemical compositions by using LC-MS/MS and GC-MS and biological activities of Sedum sediforme (Jacq.) Pau.

J Agric Food Chem 2014 May 7;62(20):4601-9. Epub 2014 May 7.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Dicle University , 21280 Diyarbakır, Turkey.

In this research, the chemical composition and biological activities of various extracts obtained from whole parts of Sedum sediforme (Jacq.) Pau were compared. The amounts of total phenolic and flavonoid components in crude extracts were determined by expression as pyrocatechol and quercetin equivalents, respectively. All of the extracts (petroleum ether, acetone, methanol, and water) obtained from S. sediforme showed strong antioxidant activity in four tested methods. Particularly, the IC50 values of the methanol extract, which was the richest in terms of total phenolic and flavonoid contents, were found to be lower than those of α-tocopherol and BHT in β-carotene bleaching (9.78 ± 0.06 μg/mL), DPPH free radical scavenging (9.07 ± 0.07 μg/mL), and ABTS cation radical scavenging (5.87 ± 0.03 μg/mL) methods. Furthermore, the methanol extract of S. sediforme showed higher inhibition activity than galanthamine against acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterase enzymes. Also, acetone and methanol extracts exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans. The main constituents of fatty acid and essential oil were identified as palmitic acid (C16:0) (28.8%) and α-selinene (20.4%), respectively, by GC-MS. In the methanol extract of S. sediforme, quercetin, rutin, naringenin, and protocatechuic, p-coumaric, caffeic, and chlorogenic acids were detected and quantified by LC-MS/MS. Results of the current study showed that the methanol extract of S. sediforme may also be used as a food supplement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf500067qDOI Listing
May 2014