Publications by authors named "Murugan Satta Muthu"

8 Publications

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Effect of Sustained Interventions from Infancy to Toddlerhood in Children with Cleft Lip and Palate for Preventing Early Childhood Caries.

Caries Res 2021 Jul 22:1-9. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Pediatric and Preventive Dentistry, Pushpagiri College of Dental Sciences, Thiruvalla, India.

The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of sustained interventions in children with cleft lip and palate (CLP) for preventing early childhood caries (ECC). This prospective, nonrandomized interventional cohort study was conducted in infants aged 0-12 months with congenital CLP. Interventions were given to parents/primary caregivers in the form of combined oral health-care measures (sterile wet gauze piece, finger brush, toothbrush, and toothpaste) by a motivational interviewing approach. Education of primary caregivers on oral hygiene was provided by audiovisual aids and demonstration. Reinforcement of the prescribed regimen was done through daily short message services in caregivers' preferred language and bimonthly telephone calls. Participants were followed up for 9-32 months from the time of recruitment, with a mean period of 18.3 ± 5.1 months. Rates of dental caries were represented as prevalence rates, incidence density, and transitional probability. The distribution of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) scores on different tooth surfaces affected in the intervention group was compared descriptively with that of the age- and sex-matched historical control groups. On analysis of surface-wise distribution of the ICDAS scores in the intervention group (n = 1,919), 1.2% (n = 24) had noncavitated lesions (ICDAS codes 1 and 2), 0.88% (n = 17) had cavitated lesions (ICDAS codes 3-6), and 0.26% (n = 5) had both cavitated and noncavitated lesions (ICDAS codes 1-6). The incidence density of caries-affected children observed at the first and last follow-ups was 1.2 persons/100 person-months and 1.3 persons/100 person-months of observation, respectively. The incidence density of new caries-affected tooth surfaces at the first and last follow-ups was 0.163 surfaces/100 surface-months and 0.062 surfaces/100 surface-months, respectively. Maxillary first molars had the maximum transition from sound to the cavitated lesion (11.5%), followed by maxillary incisors from sound to noncavitated (7.5%) at the last follow-up. Based on the newly developed assessment criteria in our study, sustained interventions proved to be significantly effective in preventing ECC in children with CLP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000517210DOI Listing
July 2021

Development and validation of a scale to assess Feeding at Sleep Time (FeAST) among infants and toddlers.

Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2020 12 16;48(6):471-479. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Samarth, Chennai, India.

Background: Feeding practices adopted by parents play a critical role in the development of children's taste preferences, eating habits, nutrition and eventual weight status. Many scales have been developed to assess feeding practices among children of various age groups. This paper aimed to construct and validate a robust scale for the comprehensive assessment of sleep-time feeding practices for children aged 0-3 years and to establish the risk of developing Early Childhood Caries (ECC).

Methods: There were multiple phases to the development of the scale: (a) formation of a conceptual framework, (b) systematic development of an item pool, (c) refinement of the item pool by focus group discussion, cognitive interviewing and pretesting, (d) validity testing and (e) reliability testing. The conceptual framework was built based on four broad constructs: breastfeeding, bottle-feeding, other feeding modes and 'tooth and diet' constructs. Reviews of existing scales in related areas were instrumental in scale development and helped to generate an initial pool of 45 items, which was finally refined to 28 items.

Results: Cognitive interviews by the 'think-aloud protocol' helped to reduce ambiguity and maximize clarity of the questions. Pretesting the scale aided increased comprehension and specificity. Face and content validity were corroborated by 'subject matter experts' who endorsed the suitability and appropriateness of items. Reliability was assessed by test-retest, and a near-perfect agreement was obtained in 96% of the items.

Conclusions: This is the first validated scale currently available for recording sleep-time feeding practices of children less than three years of age. This 28-item scale can be applied as a potential clinical scale to record sleep-time feeding history and the risk of developing ECC as well as a research scale to investigate the association of sleep-time feeding practices with ECC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdoe.12558DOI Listing
December 2020

Diagnostic ability of a smart phone app (injured tooth) in diagnosing traumatic injuries to the teeth - a multicentre analysis.

Int J Paediatr Dent 2018 Nov 11;28(6):561-569. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Oxford Dental College and Hospital, Bengaluru, India.

Background: Dental trauma is not uncommon. The initial management provided at the time of injury is critical in predicting prognosis. However, initial management depends on correct diagnosis. Recently an App named 'Injured Tooth' was made available to diagnose traumatic injuries to the teeth and supporting structures.

Aim: To test the diagnostic ability of the Injured Tooth App compared with the conventional method of diagnosing traumatic injuries to the teeth.

Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted at three different centres with 176 patients aged 0-15 years, having 201 injured teeth. Diagnosis of the injured teeth in these children at every centre was done independently by one experienced faculty using the traditional method and by a student using the Injured Tooth App.

Results: Injured Tooth App gave a correct diagnosis for 197 teeth included in the study. Statistical analysis showed that there was good agreement (Kappa = 0.973) between the diagnosis given by the App and the experienced faculty.

Conclusions: The study found that the diagnosis given by the Injured Tooth App was in good agreement with the diagnosis given by an experienced faculty. Hence, the App can be successfully used by dental students to arrive at diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ipd.12411DOI Listing
November 2018

In Vitro Assessment of Enamel Permeability in Primary Teeth with and without Early Childhood Caries Using Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope.

J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;40(3):215-20

Objective: To compare the permeability of the enamel of primary teeth from individuals free of Early Childhood Caries (ECC) with that from individuals affected with ECC by assessment of dye penetration using Laser Scanning Confocal Microscope (LSCM).

Study Design: Experimental in vitro study. Exfoliated primary maxillary anterior teeth (n = 44) were collected and divided into two groups (n=22 per group): samples with ECC (Group 1) and without ECC (Group 2). The samples were immersed in Rhodamine B dye solution for 1 day, cut longitudinally into 3 sections, observed using LSCM. Dye penetration depths in the incisal, middle, cervical thirds and on labial, lingual surfaces were recorded. Data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney test (α = 5%, p < .005).

Results: The overall mean penetration depth for group 1 (100.6 μm ± 58.48 μm) was significantly higher than that of group 2 (31.55 μm ± 23.40 μm, p < .000). Mean penetration depth in the incisal, middle, and cervical thirds and on the labial and lingual surfaces of group 1 also presented significantly higher scores than in group 2 (p < .005).

Conclusion: There was significantly more dye penetration in the ECC group than in the non-ECC group. This could be related to a higher level of enamel permeability in teeth affected with ECC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17796/1053-4628-40.3.215DOI Listing
January 2017

Prevalence and pattern of early childhood caries in a rural South Indian population evaluated by ICDAS with suggestions for enhancement of ICDAS software tool.

Int J Paediatr Dent 2017 May 20;27(3):191-200. Epub 2016 Jul 20.

Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Sri Ramachandra University, Chennai, India.

Background: Early Childhood Caries (ECC) continues to be the most common public health issue in developing countries.

Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of ECC in 0- to 3-year-old children from rural areas of South India, using the ICDAS.

Design: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 1486 children aged 0-3 years in South India. Two calibrated examiners performed the oral examinations using International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) criteria. Data analysis involved the use of the new ICDAS epidemiological software tool.

Results: Prevalence of ECC in studied child population was 40.6%. Among the 604 children with ECC, only non-cavitated teeth were present in 314 children, and only cavitated teeth were present in 84 children. The remaining 206 children had both cavitated and non-cavitated teeth. Interesting lesion behavior was observed in 27 children, who had enamel lesions in mandibular canines only, in an otherwise sound dentition. On examining the teeth surfaces affected (n = 102,274), 50.3% had non-cavitated surfaces and 49.7% had cavitated surfaces.

Conclusions: The results demonstrate the high prevalence of ECC in this population and the need to consider early diagnosis and specific preventive interventions. The authors of this study have also addressed their views about the use of ICDAS software tool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ipd.12251DOI Listing
May 2017

Impact of Pharmacological Interventions in Expectant Mothers Resulting in Altered Mutans Streptococci Levels in their Children.

Pediatr Dent 2015 Sep-Oct;37(5):422-8

South Asian Cochrane Network and Centre, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India.

Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to assess whether prenatal use of fluoride, chlorhexidine mouthrinses, and xylitol could alter the mutans streptococci levels in children.

Methods: A systematic search of clinical trials was implemented for the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, PubMed, PMC, NCBI, ClinicalKey, Google Scholar, LILACS, and Science Direct. A search for ongoing trials was also undertaken in the clinicaltrial.gov database to identify eligible studies. Data regarding methodology, participants, types of interventions, and outcomes were extracted, and the risk of bias was also assessed independently by two review authors.

Results: Only two clinical trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Although one study showed significant results, the overall result of this systematic review showed no statistical significance. A risk ratio and 95 percent confidence interval of 0.1 (0.01 to 1.89) were obtained.

Conclusions: Statistically significant results were reported in both the included studies; however, systematic analysis revealed a dearth of current evidence to support the general recommendation of pharmacological interventions for expectant mothers resulting in altered mutans streptococci levels in their children.
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January 2017

Comparison of the chemical composition of normal enamel from exfoliated primary teeth and teeth affected with early childhood caries: an in vitro study.

Int J Paediatr Dent 2016 Jan 21;26(1):20-5. Epub 2015 Jan 21.

Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha University, Chennai, India.

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the chemical composition of enamel from teeth with early childhood caries (unaffected fragments) and from healthy primary teeth.

Design: Forty exfoliated primary teeth (Group I) and 40 teeth affected with ECC (Group II) were collected. Unaffected enamel from the ECC group was sampled. Elemental analysis was carried out with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), following which the same tooth samples were subjected to amino acid analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

Results: Statistically significant differences were observed in the percentage of phosphorus (P) and the Ca/P ratios between the two groups in the elemental analysis. Amino acid analysis revealed no significant difference in the amino acid profile and the quantity of amino acid or protein content between the two groups.

Conclusions: This study showed significant differences in the P content and Ca/P ratio between the enamel from teeth with ECC and in that from healthy primary teeth. These findings indicate that differences in the composition of enamel could be a risk factor for ECC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ipd.12153DOI Listing
January 2016

Surgical extrusion as a treatment option for crown-root fracture in permanent anterior teeth: a systematic review.

Dent Traumatol 2013 Dec 26;29(6):423-31. Epub 2013 Jun 26.

Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Saveetha University, Chennai, India.

Background: A crown-root fracture is defined as a fracture involving enamel, dentin, and cementum. The possibility of saving and reconstructing teeth with such fractures has increasingly become a viable alternative to extraction and prosthetic therapy. One such treatment option available is surgical extrusion.

Objective: The aim of this review is to evaluate surgical extrusion as a treatment modality for management of crown-root fractures in permanent anterior teeth.

Methods: Electronic search of scientific papers was carried out on Entrez Pubmed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases using specific keywords. The search yielded 130 papers, out of which 16 relevant papers were identified and included based on predetermined inclusion criteria and the remaining 114 were found to be irrelevant. Hand search yielded 10 articles, which were also included. These 26 articles which included only case reports and case series formed the basis of this systematic review.

Conclusion: From the existing literature, we can conclude that surgical extrusion can be used to treat crown-root fractures successfully. But the level of evidence is very low as the studies available are only case reports and case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/edt.12054DOI Listing
December 2013
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