Publications by authors named "Murittige Gopalakrishna Madhura"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Minimally invasive procedures for the recognition and diagnosis of oral precancer and cancer.

Dis Mon 2020 Dec 30;66(12):101033. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

College of Dental Medicine, Roseman University of Health Sciences, South Jordan, Utah 84095, United States. Electronic address:

Oral cancer represents a blend of genetic and epigenetic instability. Many a times, oral cancer occurs in the background of oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs), which could be easily detected and diagnosed. Various diagnostic aids have been explored for early detection of oral cancer. Some of the minimally invasive (chair-side diagnostic) procedures such as vital staining and light-based systems are used widely in the clinical practice as well as in the hospital setting owing to their simple and easy operability. In addition, these chair-side diagnostic procedures offer relatively good sensitivity and specificity despite some of their limitations. These diagnostic tools could complement good clinical history and thorough examination of patients for early detection of oral precancer and cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.disamonth.2020.101033DOI Listing
December 2020

Advanced diagnostic aids for oral cancer.

Dis Mon 2020 Dec 25;66(12):101034. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

College of Dental Medicine, Roseman University of Health Sciences, South Jordan, Utah 84095, United States. Electronic address:

Oral cancer, a universal malady, has become a stumbling block over the years due to its significant morbidity and mortality rates. The greater morbidity associated with this deadly disease is attributed to delay in its diagnosis / its presentation in advanced stage. Being multifactorial, Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the outcome of genetic and epigenetic instability. However, in many instances, oral cancer is preceded by precursor lesions named as oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMDs), the early detection of which makes it beneficial for patients with the possible increase in the productive longevity. Many diagnostic tools / aids have been explored with the aim of early detection of oral precancer and cancer. The basic chair-side procedures or relatively advanced aids come with a set of limitations along with subjectivity as one of the setbacks. The advent and exploitation of molecular techniques in the field of health diagnostics, is demanding the molecular typing of the OPMDs and also of oral cancer. The saga of various diagnostic aids for OSCC has witnessed the so-called latest trends such as lab-on-chip, microfluidics, nano diagnostics, liquid biopsy, omics technology and synthetic biology in early detection of oral precancer and cancer. Oral cancer being multifactorial in origin with the chief participation of altered genetics and epigenetics would demand high-end diagnostics for designing personalized therapy. Hence, the present paper highlights the role of various advanced diagnostic aids including 'omics' technology and synthetic biology in oral precancer and cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.disamonth.2020.101034DOI Listing
December 2020

Intra-observer and inter-observer variability in two grading systems for oral epithelial dysplasia: A multi-centre study in India.

J Oral Pathol Med 2020 Oct 9;49(9):948-955. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Faculty of Dentistry, Oral & Craniofacial Sciences, King's College London, WHO Collaborating Centre for Oral Cancer, London, UK.

Background: The presence and grading of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) are considered the gold standard for predicting the malignant risk of oral potentially malignant disorders. However, inter-observer and intra-observer agreement in the context of reporting on OED grading has been reputedly considered unreliable.

Methods: We undertook a multi-centre study of six Indian oral pathologists to assess variations in reporting OED using the World Health Organization (WHO; 2005) system and also the recently introduced binary system. The observer variability was assessed with the use of kappa statistics.

Results: The weighted kappa intra-observer agreement scores improved (κ  = 0.5012) on grouping by two grades as no and mild dysplasia versus moderate and severe dysplasia compared to binary grading system (κ = 0.1563) and WHO grading system (κ  = 0.4297). Poor to fair inter-observer agreement scores were seen between the principal investigator (PI) and the other five observers using the WHO grading system (κ = 0.051-0.231; κ  = 0.145 to 0.361; 35% to 46%) and binary grading system (κ = 0.049 to 0.326; 50 to 65%).

Conclusions: There is considerable room for improvement in the assessment of OED using either system to help in standardised reporting. The professional pathology organisations in India should take steps to provide external quality assessment in reporting OED among oral and general pathologists who are engaged in routine reporting of head and neck specimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jop.13056DOI Listing
October 2020
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