Publications by authors named "Murielle Masson"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Cav1/EREG/YAP Axis in the Treatment Resistance of Cav1-Expressing Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jun 18;13(12). Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Laboratory of Bioimaging and Pathology, University of Strasbourg, UMR7021 CNRS, 67401 Illkirch, France.

The EGFR-targeting antibody cetuximab (CTX) combined with radiotherapy is the only targeted therapy that has been proven effective for the treatment of locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LA-HNSCC). Recurrence arises in 50% of patients with HNSCC in the years following treatment. In clinicopathological practice, it is difficult to assign patients to classes of risk because no reliable biomarkers are available to predict the outcome of HPV-unrelated HNSCC. In the present study, we investigated the role of Caveolin-1 (Cav1) in the sensitivity of HNSCC cell lines to CTX-radiotherapy that might predict HNSCC relapse. Ctrl- and Cav-1-overexpressing HNSCC cell lines were exposed to solvent, CTX, or irradiation, or exposed to CTX before irradiation. Growth, clonogenicity, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, metabolism and signaling pathways were analyzed. Cav1 expression was analyzed in 173 tumor samples and correlated to locoregional recurrence and overall survival. We showed that Cav1-overexpressing cells demonstrate better survival capacities and remain proliferative and motile when exposed to CTX-radiotherapy. Resistance is mediated by the Cav1/EREG/YAP axis. Patients whose tumors overexpressed Cav1 experienced regional recurrence a few years after adjuvant radiotherapy ± chemotherapy. Together, our observations suggest that a high expression of Cav1 might be predictive of locoregional relapse of LA-HNSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13123038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8235528PMC
June 2021

Structure of High-Risk Papillomavirus 31 E6 Oncogenic Protein and Characterization of E6/E6AP/p53 Complex Formation.

J Virol 2020 12 22;95(2). Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Institute of Medical Virology, Medical Faculty, Eberhard Karls University, Tuebingen, Germany

The degradation of p53 is a hallmark of high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) of the alpha genus and HPV-related carcinogenicity. The oncoprotein E6 forms a ternary complex with the E3 ubiquitin ligase E6-associated protein (E6AP) and tumor suppressor protein p53 targeting p53 for ubiquitination. The extent of p53 degradation by different E6 proteins varies greatly, even for the closely related HPV16 and HPV31. HPV16 E6 and HPV31 E6 display high sequence identity (∼67%). We report here, for the first time, the structure of HPV31 E6 bound to the LxxLL motif of E6AP. HPV16 E6 and HPV31 E6 are structurally very similar, in agreement with the high sequence conservation. Both E6 proteins bind E6AP and degrade p53. However, the binding affinities of 31 E6 to the LxxLL motif of E6AP and p53, respectively, are reduced 2-fold and 5.4-fold compared to 16 E6. The affinity of E6-E6AP-p53 ternary complex formation parallels the efficacy of the subsequent reaction, namely, degradation of p53. Therefore, closely related E6 proteins addressing the same cellular targets may still diverge in their binding efficiencies, possibly explaining their different phenotypic or pathological impacts. Variations of carcinogenicity of human papillomaviruses are related to variations of the E6 and E7 interactome. While different HPV species and genera are known to target distinct host proteins, the fine differences between E6 and E7 of closely related HPVs, supposed to target the same cellular protein pools, remain to be addressed. We compare the oncogenic E6 proteins of the closely related high-risk HPV31 and HPV16 with regard to their structure and their efficiency of ternary complex formation with their cellular targets p53 and E6AP, which results in p53 degradation. We solved the crystal structure of 31 E6 bound to the E6AP LxxLL motif. HPV16 E6 and 31 E6 structures are highly similar, but a few sequence variations lead to different protein contacts within the ternary complex and, as quantified here, an overall lower binding affinity of 31 E6 than 16 E6. These results align with the observed lower p53 degradation potential of 31 E6.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00730-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7944444PMC
December 2020

Modular Conjugation of a Potent Anti-HER2 Immunotoxin Using Coassociating Peptides.

Bioconjug Chem 2020 10 30;31(10):2421-2430. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Université de Strasbourg, UMR7242 Biotechnologie et Signalisation Cellulaire, Ecole Supérieure de Biotechnologie Strasbourg, F-67412 Illkirch, France.

Immunotoxins are emerging candidates for cancer therapeutics. These biomolecules consist of a cell-targeting protein combined to a polypeptide toxin. Associations of both entities can be achieved either chemically by covalent bonds or genetically creating fusion proteins. However, chemical agents can affect the activity and/or stability of the conjugate proteins, and additional purification steps are often required to isolate the final conjugate from unwanted byproducts. As for fusion proteins, they often suffer from low solubility and yield. In this report, we describe a straightforward conjugation process to generate an immunotoxin using coassociating peptides (named K3 and E3), originating from the tetramerization domain of p53. To that end, a nanobody targeting the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (nano-HER2) and a protein toxin fragment from exotoxin A (TOX) were genetically fused to the E3 and K3 peptides. Entities were produced separately in in soluble forms and at high yields. The nano-HER2 fused to the E3 or K3 helixes (nano-HER2-E3 and nano-HER2-K3) and the coassembled immunotoxins (nano-HER2-K3E3-TOX and nano-HER2-E3K3-TOX) presented binding specificity on HER2-overexpressing cells with relative binding constants in the low nanomolar to picomolar range. Both toxin modules (E3-TOX and K3-TOX) and the combined immunotoxins exhibited similar cytotoxicity levels compared to the toxin alone (TOX). Finally, nano-HER2-K3E3-TOX and nano-HER2-E3K3-TOX evaluated on various breast cancer cells were highly potent and specific to killing HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells with IC values in the picomolar range. Altogether, we demonstrate that this noncovalent conjugation method using two coassembling peptides can be easily implemented for the modular engineering of immunotoxins targeting different types of cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.0c00482DOI Listing
October 2020

Human papillomavirus type 16 antagonizes IRF6 regulation of IL-1β.

PLoS Pathog 2018 08 8;14(8):e1007158. Epub 2018 Aug 8.

Centre International de recherche en Infectiologie, CIRI, Inserm, U1111, Lyon, France.

Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) and other oncoviruses have been shown to block innate immune responses and to persist in the host. However, to avoid viral persistence, the immune response attempts to clear the infection. IL-1β is a powerful cytokine produced when viral motifs are sensed by innate receptors that are members of the inflammasome family. Whether oncoviruses such as HPV16 can activate the inflammasome pathway remains unknown. Here, we show that infection of human keratinocytes with HPV16 induced the secretion of IL-1β. Yet, upon expression of the viral early genes, IL-1β transcription was blocked. We went on to show that expression of the viral oncoprotein E6 in human keratinocytes inhibited IRF6 transcription which we revealed regulated IL-1β promoter activity. Preventing E6 expression using siRNA, or using E6 mutants that prevented degradation of p53, showed that p53 regulated IRF6 transcription. HPV16 abrogation of p53 binding to the IRF6 promoter was shown by ChIP in tissues from patients with cervical cancer. Thus E6 inhibition of IRF6 is an escape strategy used by HPV16 to block the production IL-1β. Our findings reveal a struggle between oncoviral persistence and host immunity; which is centered on IL-1β regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6124776PMC
August 2018

Comparative Profiling of Ubiquitin Proteasome System Interplay with Influenza A Virus PB2 Polymerase Protein Recapitulating Virus Evolution in Humans.

mSphere 2017 Nov-Dec;2(6). Epub 2017 Nov 22.

Molecular Genetics of RNA Viruses, CNRS UMR 3569, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

The optimized exploitation of cell resources is one cornerstone of a successful infection. Differential mapping of host-pathogen protein-protein interactions (PPIs) on the basis of comparative interactomics of multiple strains is an effective strategy to highlight correlations between host proteome hijacking and biological or pathogenic traits. Here, we developed an interactomic pipeline to deliver high-confidence comparative maps of PPIs between a given pathogen and the human ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). This subarray of the human proteome represents a range of essential cellular functions and promiscuous targets for many viruses. The screening pipeline was applied to the influenza A virus (IAV) PB2 polymerase proteins of five strains representing different levels of virulence in humans. An extensive PB2-UPS interplay has been detected that recapitulates the evolution of IAVs in humans. Functional validation with several IAV strains, including the seasonal H1N1 and H3N2 viruses, confirmed the biological relevance of most identified UPS factors and revealed strain-independent and strain-specific effects of UPS factor invalidation on IAV infection. This strategy is applicable to proteins from any other virus or pathogen, providing a valuable resource with which to explore the UPS-pathogen interplay and its relationship with pathogenicity. Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are responsible for mild-to-severe seasonal respiratory illness of public health concern worldwide, and the risk of avian strain outbreaks in humans is a constant threat. Elucidating the requisites of IAV adaptation to humans is thus of prime importance. In this study, we explored how PB2 replication proteins of IAV strains with different levels of virulence in humans hijack a major protein modification pathway of the human host cell, the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS). We found that the PB2 protein engages in an extended interplay with the UPS that evolved along with the virus's adaptation to humans. This suggests that UPS hijacking underlies the efficient infection of humans and can be used as an indicator for evaluation of the potential of avian IAVs to infect humans. Several UPS factors were found to be necessary for infection with circulating IAV strains, pointing to potential targets for therapeutic approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00330-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5700371PMC
November 2017

Mapping the interactome of HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins with the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

FEBS J 2017 10 29;284(19):3171-3201. Epub 2017 Aug 29.

Ecole Supérieure de Biotechnologie Strasbourg, UMR-7242, CNRS, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France.

Protein ubiquitination and its reverse reaction, deubiquitination, regulate protein stability, protein binding activity, and their subcellular localization. These reactions are catalyzed by the enzymes E1, E2, and E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligases and deubiquitinases (DUBs). The Ub-proteasome system (UPS) is targeted by viruses for the sake of their replication and to escape host immune response. To identify novel partners of human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) E6 and E7 proteins, we assembled and screened a library of 590 cDNAs related to the UPS by using the Gaussia princeps luciferase protein complementation assay. HPV16 E6 was found to bind to the homology to E6AP C terminus-type Ub ligase (E6AP), three really interesting new gene (RING)-type Ub ligases (MGRN1, LNX3, LNX4), and the DUB Ub-specific protease 15 (USP15). Except for E6AP, the binding of UPS factors did not require the LxxLL-binding pocket of HPV16 E6. LNX3 bound preferentially to all high-risk mucosal HPV E6 tested, whereas LNX4 bound specifically to HPV16 E6. HPV16 E7 was found to bind to several broad-complex tramtrack and bric-a-brac domain-containing proteins (such as TNFAIP1/KCTD13) that are potential substrate adaptors of Cullin 3-RING Ub ligases, to RING-type Ub ligases implicated in innate immunity (RNF135, TRIM32, TRAF2, TRAF5), to the substrate adaptor DCAF15 of Cullin 4-RING Ub ligase and to some DUBs (USP29, USP33). The binding to UPS factors did not require the LxCxE motif but rather the C-terminal region of HPV16 E7 protein. The identified UPS factors interacted with most of E7 proteins across different HPV types. This study establishes a strategy for the rapid identification of interactions between host or pathogen proteins and the human ubiquitination system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/febs.14193DOI Listing
October 2017

Structure of the E6/E6AP/p53 complex required for HPV-mediated degradation of p53.

Nature 2016 Jan 20;529(7587):541-5. Epub 2016 Jan 20.

Equipe labellisée Ligue, Biotechnologie et signalisation cellulaire UMR 7242, Ecole Superieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, Boulevard Sébastien Brant, BP 10413, F-67412 Illkirch, France.

The p53 pro-apoptotic tumour suppressor is mutated or functionally altered in most cancers. In epithelial tumours induced by 'high-risk' mucosal human papilloma viruses, including human cervical carcinoma and a growing number of head-and-neck cancers, p53 is degraded by the viral oncoprotein E6 (ref. 2). In this process, E6 binds to a short leucine (L)-rich LxxLL consensus sequence within the cellular ubiquitin ligase E6AP. Subsequently, the E6/E6AP heterodimer recruits and degrades p53 (ref. 4). Neither E6 nor E6AP are separately able to recruit p53 (refs 3, 5), and the precise mode of assembly of E6, E6AP and p53 is unknown. Here we solve the crystal structure of a ternary complex comprising full-length human papilloma virus type 16 (HPV-16) E6, the LxxLL motif of E6AP and the core domain of p53. The LxxLL motif of E6AP renders the conformation of E6 competent for interaction with p53 by structuring a p53-binding cleft on E6. Mutagenesis of critical positions at the E6-p53 interface disrupts p53 degradation. The E6-binding site of p53 is distal from previously described DNA- and protein-binding surfaces of the core domain. This suggests that, in principle, E6 may avoid competition with cellular factors by targeting both free and bound p53 molecules. The E6/E6AP/p53 complex represents a prototype of viral hijacking of both the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation pathway and the p53 tumour suppressor pathway. The present structure provides a framework for the design of inhibitory therapeutic strategies against oncogenesis mediated by human papilloma virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature16481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4853763PMC
January 2016

Artificial microRNAs against the viral E6 protein provoke apoptosis in HPV positive cancer cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2015 Oct 1;465(4):658-64. Epub 2015 Aug 1.

UMR7242, IREBS, Illkirch, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, France. Electronic address:

High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are associated with more than 70% of cervical cancer cases. The oncoprotein E6 is multifunctional and has numerous cellular partners. The best-known activity of E6 is the polyubiquination of the pro-apoptotic tumor suppressor p53, targeting it for degradation by the 26S proteasome. Loss of p53 triggers genomic instability and favors cancer development. Here, we generated recombinant adenovirus (Ad) vectors expressing artificial microRNAs directed against HPV16 E6 (Ad16_1) or HPV18 E6 (Ad18_2). E6-knockdown was observed in HeLa after treatment with Ad18_2 and in SiHa with Ad16_1. Western-blot experiments found an increase in p53 levels after treatment in both cell lines. Cell death was observed in both cell lines after knockdown of E6. Further analysis such as cleavage of caspases (3 and 7) as well as of PARP1 indicated that treated HeLa and SiHa cells underwent apoptosis. The growth of HeLa-derived tumors developed in nude mice was significantly reduced after intra-tumoral injection of Ad18_2. Therefore, vectorisation of artificial miRNA against E6 oncoprotein by means of recombinant adenoviruses might represent a valuable therapeutic approach for treating HPV-positive cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.07.144DOI Listing
October 2015

Quantifying domain-ligand affinities and specificities by high-throughput holdup assay.

Nat Methods 2015 Aug 8;12(8):787-93. Epub 2015 Jun 8.

quipe labellisée Ligue 2015, UMR 7242, CNRS-Université de Strasbourg, École Supérieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France.

Many protein interactions are mediated by small linear motifs interacting specifically with defined families of globular domains. Quantifying the specificity of a motif requires measuring and comparing its binding affinities to all its putative target domains. To this end, we developed the high-throughput holdup assay, a chromatographic approach that can measure up to 1,000 domain-motif equilibrium binding affinities per day. After benchmarking the approach on 210 PDZ-peptide pairs with known affinities, we determined the affinities of two viral PDZ-binding motifs derived from human papillomavirus E6 oncoproteins for 209 PDZ domains covering 79% of the human 'PDZome'. We obtained sharply sequence-dependent binding profiles that quantitatively describe the PDZome recognition specificity of each motif. This approach, applicable to many categories of domain-ligand interactions, has wide potential for quantifying the specificities of interactomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.3438DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4521981PMC
August 2015

Targeting the Two Oncogenic Functional Sites of the HPV E6 Oncoprotein with a High-Affinity Bivalent Ligand.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2015 Jun 27;54(27):7958-62. Epub 2015 May 27.

Oncoprotein Team, Équipe Labellisée Ligue 2015, UMR CNRS-UDS 7242, École Supérieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, Boulevard Sébastien Brant, BP 10413, F-67412 Illkirch (France).

The E6 oncoproteins of high-risk mucosal (hrm) human papillomaviruses (HPVs) contain a pocket that captures LxxLL motifs and a C-terminal motif that recruits PDZ domains, with both functions being crucial for HPV-induced oncogenesis. A chimeric protein was built by fusing a PDZ domain and an LxxLL motif, both known to bind E6. NMR spectroscopy, calorimetry and a mammalian protein complementation assay converged to show that the resulting PDZ-LxxLL chimera is a bivalent nanomolar ligand of E6, while its separated PDZ and LxxLL components are only micromolar binders. The chimera binds to all of the hrm-HPV E6 proteins tested but not to low-risk mucosal or cutaneous HPV E6. Adenovirus-mediated expression of the chimera specifically induces the death of HPV-positive cells, concomitant with increased levels of the tumour suppressor P53, its transcriptional target p21, and the apoptosis marker cleaved caspase 3. The bifunctional PDZ-LxxLL chimera opens new perspectives for the diagnosis and treatment of HPV-induced cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201502646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4512291PMC
June 2015

Putting into practice domain-linear motif interaction predictions for exploration of protein networks.

PLoS One 2011 1;6(11):e25376. Epub 2011 Nov 1.

Group Onco-Proteins, Institut de Recherche de l'Ecole de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France.

PDZ domains recognise short sequence motifs at the extreme C-termini of proteins. A model based on microarray data has been recently published for predicting the binding preferences of PDZ domains to five residue long C-terminal sequences. Here we investigated the potential of this predictor for discovering novel protein interactions that involve PDZ domains. When tested on real negative data assembled from published literature, the predictor displayed a high false positive rate (FPR). We predicted and experimentally validated interactions between four PDZ domains derived from the human proteins MAGI1 and SCRIB and 19 peptides derived from human and viral C-termini of proteins. Measured binding intensities did not correlate with prediction scores, and the high FPR of the predictor was confirmed. Results indicate that limitations of the predictor may arise from an incomplete model definition and improper training of the model. Taking into account these limitations, we identified several novel putative interactions between PDZ domains of MAGI1 and SCRIB and the C-termini of the proteins FZD4, ARHGAP6, NET1, TANC1, GLUT7, MARCH3, MAS, ABC1, DLL1, TMEM215 and CYSLTR2. These proteins are localised to the membrane or suggested to act close to it and are often involved in G protein signalling. Furthermore, we showed that, while extension of minimal interacting domains or peptides toward tandem constructs or longer peptides never suppressed their ability to interact, the measured affinities and inferred specificity patterns often changed significantly. This suggests that if protein fragments interact, the full length proteins are also likely to interact, albeit possibly with altered affinities and specificities. Therefore, predictors dealing with protein fragments are promising tools for discovering protein interaction networks but their application to predict binding preferences within networks may be limited.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0025376PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3206016PMC
March 2012

Proteasomal degradation of p53 by human papillomavirus E6 oncoprotein relies on the structural integrity of p53 core domain.

PLoS One 2011 27;6(10):e25981. Epub 2011 Oct 27.

Oncoprotéines, UMR 7242 CNRS, Ecole Supérieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, Illkirch, France.

The E6 oncoprotein produced by high-risk mucosal HPV stimulates ubiquitinylation and proteasome-dependent degradation of the tumour suppressor p53 via formation of a trimeric complex comprising E6, p53, and E6-AP. p53 is also degraded by its main cellular regulator MDM2. The main binding site of p53 to MDM2 is situated in the natively unfolded N-terminal region of p53. By contrast, the regions of p53 implicated in the degradation by viral E6 are not fully identified to date. Here we generated a series of mutations (Y103G, Y107G, T155A, T155V, T155D, L264A, L265A) targeting the central folded core domain of p53 within a region opposite to its DNA-binding site. We analysed by in vitro and in vivo assays the impact of these mutations on p53 degradation mediated by viral E6 oncoprotein. Whereas all mutants remained susceptible to MDM2-mediated degradation, several of them (Y103G, Y107G, T155D, L265A) became resistant to E6-mediated degradation, confirming previous works that pointed to the core domain as an essential region for the degradation of p53. In parallel, we systematically checked the impact of the mutations on the transactivation activity of p53 as well as on the conformation of p53, analysed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), circular dichroism (CD), and antibody probing. These measurements suggested that the conformational integrity of the core domain is an essential parameter for the degradation of p53 by E6, while it is not essential for the degradation of p53 by MDM2. Thus, the intracellular stability of a protein may or may not rely on its biophysical stability depending on the degradation pathway taken into consideration.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0025981PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3203139PMC
March 2012

Degradation of p53 by human Alphapapillomavirus E6 proteins shows a stronger correlation with phylogeny than oncogenicity.

PLoS One 2010 Sep 17;5(9). Epub 2010 Sep 17.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA.

Background: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) E6 induced p53 degradation is thought to be an essential activity by which high-risk human Alphapapillomaviruses (alpha-HPVs) contribute to cervical cancer development. However, most of our understanding is derived from the comparison of HPV16 and HPV11. These two viruses are relatively distinct viruses, making the extrapolation of these results difficult. In the present study, we expand the tested strains (types) to include members of all known HPV species groups within the Alphapapillomavirus genus.

Principal Findings: We report the biochemical activity of E6 proteins from 27 HPV types representing all alpha-HPV species groups to degrade p53 in human cells. Expression of E6 from all HPV types epidemiologically classified as group 1 carcinogens significantly reduced p53 levels. However, several types not associated with cancer (e.g., HPV53, HPV70 and HPV71) were equally active in degrading p53. HPV types within species groups alpha 5, 6, 7, 9 and 11 share a most recent common ancestor (MRCA) and all contain E6 ORFs that degrade p53. A unique exception, HPV71 E6 ORF that degraded p53 was outside this clade and is one of the most prevalent HPV types infecting the cervix in a population-based study of 10,000 women. Alignment of E6 ORFs identified an amino acid site that was highly correlated with the biochemical ability to degrade p53. Alteration of this amino acid in HPV71 E6 abrogated its ability to degrade p53, while alteration of this site in HPV71-related HPV90 and HPV106 E6s enhanced their capacity to degrade p53.

Conclusions: These data suggest that the alpha-HPV E6 proteins' ability to degrade p53 is an evolved phenotype inherited from a most recent common ancestor of the high-risk species that does not always segregate with carcinogenicity. In addition, we identified an amino-acid residue strongly correlated with viral p53 degrading potential.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0012816PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2941455PMC
September 2010

Surface plasmon resonance analysis of the binding of high-risk mucosal HPV E6 oncoproteins to the PDZ1 domain of the tight junction protein MAGI-1.

J Mol Recognit 2011 Jul-Aug;24(4):511-23. Epub 2010 Sep 14.

Équipe Oncoprotéines, FRE 3211, Institut de Recherche de l'École de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, Boulevard Sébastien Brandt, BP 10413, 67412 Illkirch Cedex, France.

The E6 oncoproteins from high-risk mucosal human papillomavirus (HPV) induce cervical cancer via two major activities, the binding and the degradation of the p53 protein and PDZ domain-containing proteins. Human MAGI-1 is a multi-PDZ domain protein implicated into protein complex assembly at cell-cell contacts. High-risk mucosal HPV E6 proteins interact with the PDZ1 domain of MAGI-1 via a C-terminal consensus binding motif. Here, we developed a medium throughput protocol to accurately measure by surface plasmon resonance affinity constants of protein domains binding to peptidic sequences produced as recombinant fusions to the glutathione-S-transferase (GST). This approach was applied to measure the binding of MAGI-1 PDZ1 to the C-termini of viral or cellular proteins. Both high-risk mucosal HPV E6 C-terminal peptides and cellular partners of MAGI-1 PDZ1 bind to MAGI-1 PDZ1 with comparable dissociation constants in the micromolar range. MAGI-1 PDZ1 shows a preference for C-termini with a valine at position 0 and a negative charge at position -3, confirming previous studies performed with HPV18 E6. A detailed combined analysis via site-directed mutagenesis of the HPV16 C-terminal peptide and PDZ1 indicated that interactions mediated by charged residues upstream the PDZ-binding motif strongly contribute to binding selectivity of this interaction. In addition, our work highlighted the K(499) residue of MAGI-1 as a novel determinant of binding specificity. Finally, we showed that MAGI-1 PDZ1 also binds to the C-termini of LPP and Tax proteins, which were already known to bind to PDZ proteins but not to MAGI-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmr.1056DOI Listing
September 2011

E6 proteins from diverse papillomaviruses self-associate both in vitro and in vivo.

J Mol Biol 2010 Feb 13;396(1):90-104. Epub 2009 Nov 13.

Ecole Supérieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg (IREBS, FRE 3211), Boulevard Sébastien Brant, BP 10413, 67412 Illkirch Cedex, France.

Papillomavirus E6 oncoproteins bind and often provoke the degradation of many cellular proteins important for the control of cell proliferation and/or cell death. Structural studies on E6 proteins have long been hindered by the difficulties of obtaining highly concentrated samples of recombinant E6. Here, we show that recombinant E6 proteins from eight human papillomavirus strains and one bovine papillomavirus strain exist as oligomeric and multimeric species. These species were characterized using a variety of biochemical and biophysical techniques, including analytical gel filtration, activity assays, surface plasmon resonance, electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The characterization of E6 oligomers is facilitated by the fusion to the maltose binding protein, which slows the formation of higher-order multimeric species. The proportion of each oligomeric form varies depending on the viral strain considered. Oligomers appear to consist of folded units, which, in the case of high-risk mucosal human papillomavirus E6, retain binding to the ubiquitin ligase E6-associated protein and the capacity to degrade the proapoptotic protein p53. In addition to the small-size oligomers, E6 proteins spontaneously assemble into large organized multimeric structures, a process that is accompanied by a significant increase in the beta-sheet secondary structure content. Finally, co-localisation experiments using E6 equipped with different tags further demonstrate the occurrence of E6 self-association in eukaryotic cells. The ensemble of these data suggests that self-association is a general property of E6 proteins that occurs both in vitro and in vivo and might therefore be functionally relevant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2009.11.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3900769PMC
February 2010

Capturing protein-protein complexes at equilibrium: the holdup comparative chromatographic retention assay.

Protein Expr Purif 2006 Nov 27;50(1):89-101. Epub 2006 Jun 27.

Equipe Oncoprotéines, UMR CNRS 7175-LC1, Ecole Supérieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, Boulevard Sébastien Brandt, BP 10413, 67412 Illkirch Cedex, France.

The popular pulldown chromatographic assay detects complexes mediated by fusion proteins retained on affinity resin. The main limitation of this method is that it does not analyze complexes at equilibrium but after several washing steps. Consequently, fast-dissociating complexes may remain undetected. Here, we present the holdup assay, based on the principle of comparative chromatographic retention which eliminates the use of washing steps. The assay evaluates fractions of free and bound species at equilibrium. We used human papillomavirus oncoprotein E6, an E6-binding peptide and an E6-binding PDZ domain, to test several protocols utilizing pure proteins or expression extracts. The holdup assay is faster and more informative than the pulldown assay. It detects fast-dissociating complexes and it is also suited for evaluating equilibrium constants. It is potentially adaptable for automated determination of affinity constants and high-throughput analysis of interactions between proteins and other proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, or small regulatory molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pep.2006.06.010DOI Listing
November 2006

Structural and functional analysis of E6 oncoprotein: insights in the molecular pathways of human papillomavirus-mediated pathogenesis.

Mol Cell 2006 Mar;21(5):665-78

Equipe Oncoprotéine, UMR CNRS 7100, Ecole Supérieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, Boulevard Sebastien Brant, BP 10413, 67412 Illkirch Cedex, France.

Oncoprotein E6 is essential for oncogenesis induced by human papillomaviruses (HPVs). The solution structure of HPV16-E6 C-terminal domain reveals a zinc binding fold. A model of full-length E6 is proposed and analyzed in the context of HPV evolution. E6 appears as a chameleon protein combining a conserved structural scaffold with highly variable surfaces participating in generic or specialized HPV functions. We investigated surface residues involved in two specialized activities of high-risk genital HPV E6: p53 tumor suppressor degradation and nucleic acid binding. Screening of E6 surface mutants identified an in vivo p53 degradation-defective mutant that fails to recruit p53 to ubiquitin ligase E6AP and restores high p53 levels in cervical carcinoma cells by competing with endogeneous E6. We also mapped the nucleic acid binding surface of E6, the positive potential of which correlates with genital oncogenicity. E6 structure-function analysis provides new clues for understanding and counteracting the complex pathways of HPV-mediated pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2006.01.024DOI Listing
March 2006

Binding of human papillomavirus 16 E6 to p53 and E6AP is impaired by monoclonal antibodies directed against the second zinc-binding domain of E6.

J Gen Virol 2005 Apr;86(Pt 4):1001-1007

UMR7100, Ecole Supérieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, Pole API, boulevard Sébastien Brant, 67412 Illkirch Cedex, France.

The E6 protein of cancer-associated human papillomavirus type 16 (16E6) binds to p53 and, in association with E6AP, promotes its degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The aim of this work was to develop monoclonal antibodies against 16E6 and to test their effect on the binding of 16E6 to p53 and E6AP, and on the degradation of p53. It was shown that an antibody directed against the N terminus of 16E6 inhibited E6AP-dependent binding to p53 and degradation of p53, whereas two different antibodies directed to the second zinc-binding domain of 16E6 reduced 16E6 E6AP-independent binding to p53 and binding to E6AP but not degradation of p53.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.80607-0DOI Listing
April 2005

Preferential nuclear localization of the human papillomavirus type 16 E6 oncoprotein in cervical carcinoma cells.

J Gen Virol 2003 Aug;84(Pt 8):2099-2104

UMR 7100, Ecole Supérieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, Boulevard Sébastien Brant, BP 10413, 67412 Illkirch cedex, France.

The E6 protein of the high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) is involved in the tumorigenesis of human cervical cells by targeting numerous cellular proteins. We characterized new anti-E6 monoclonal antibodies and used them for precise localization of the E6 oncoprotein within carcinoma cells. Overexpressed E6 protein was predominantly detected in the nucleus of transiently transfected HaCaT cells. While mostly localized at the periphery of condensed chromatin, E6 was also associated with nuclear ribonucleoproteic ultrastructures and with some ribosomal areas in the cytoplasm of SiHa and CaSki cells. The chimeric beta-galactosidase-E6 protein expressed in transfected HeLa cells was essentially localized in the nuclear compartment. Together, these data indicate that the E6 sequence of HPV-16 may encode a nuclear localization signal. The preferential nuclear distribution of this viral oncoprotein in HPV-transformed cells correlates with its activities at the transcriptional level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.18961-0DOI Listing
August 2003

Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of antigen in mammalian cells conferred by a soluble versus insoluble single-chain antibody fragment equipped with import/export signals.

Exp Cell Res 2003 Jun;286(2):276-87

Biotechnologie des Interactions Macromoléculaires, UMR 7100, Ecole Supérieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, boulevard Sébastien Brant, 67400 Illkirch, France.

The ectopic expression of antibody fragments within mammalian cells is a challenging approach for interfering with or even blocking the biological function of the intracellular target. For this purpose, single-chain Fv (scFv) fragments are generally preferred. Here, by transfecting several mammalian cell lines, we compared the intracellular behavior of two scFvs (13R4 and 1F4) that strongly differ in their requirement of disulphide bonding for the formation of active molecules in bacteria. The scFv 13R4, which is correctly folded in the bacterial cytoplasm, was solubly expressed in all cell lines tested and was distributed in their cytoplasm and nucleus, as well. In addition, by appending to the 13R4 molecules the SV40 T-antigen nuclear localisation signal (NLS) tag, cytoplasmic-coexpressed antigen was efficiently retargeted to the nucleus. Compared to the scFv 13R4, the scFv 1F4, which needs to be secreted in bacteria for activity, accumulated, even with the NLS tag, as insoluble aggregates within the cytoplasm of the transfected cells, thereby severely disturbing fundamental functions of cell physiology. Furthermore, by replacing the NLS tag with a leucine-rich nuclear export signal (NES), the scFv 13R4 was exclusively located in the cytoplasm, whereas the similarly modified scFv 1F4 still promoted cell death. Coexpression of NES-tagged 13R4 fragments with nuclear antigen promoted its efficient retargeting to the cytoplasm. This dominant effect of the NES tag was also observed after exchange of the nuclear signals between the scFv 13R4 and its antigen. Taken together, the results indicate that scFvs that are active in the cytoplasm of bacteria may behave similarly in mammalian cells and that the requirement of their conserved disulphide bridges for activity is a limiting factor for mediating the nuclear import/export of target in a mammalian cell context. The described shuttling effect of antigen conferred by a soluble scFv may represent the basis of a reliable in vivo assay of effective protein- protein interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0014-4827(03)00093-4DOI Listing
June 2003

Domain substructure of HPV E6 oncoprotein: biophysical characterization of the E6 C-terminal DNA-binding domain.

Biochemistry 2003 May;42(17):4909-17

Laboratoire d'Immunotechnologie, UMR CNRS 7100, Ecole Supérieure de Biotechnologie de Strasbourg, 67400 Illkirch, France.

E6 is a viral oncoprotein implicated in cervical cancers, produced by high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Structural data concerning this protein are scarce due to the difficulty of producing recombinant E6. Recently, we described the expression and purification of a stable, folded, and biologically active HPV16 E6 mutant called E6 6C/6S. Here, we analyzed the domain substructure of this mutated E6. Nonspecific proteolysis of full-length E6 6C/6S (158 residues) yielded N-terminal and C-terminal fragments encompassing residues 7-83 and 87-158, respectively. The C-terminal fragment of residues 87-158 was cloned, overexpressed, and purified at concentrations as high as 1 mM. The purified domain retains the selective four-way DNA junction recognition activity of the full-length E6 protein. Using UV absorption, UV fluorescence, circular dichroism, and nuclear magnetic resonance, we show that the peptide is primarily monomeric and folded with equal proportions of alpha-helix and beta-sheet secondary structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi026980cDOI Listing
May 2003
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