Publications by authors named "Munis M Ahmed"

10 Publications

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Dronedarone-Mediated Acute Hepatic and Renal Toxicity.

Cureus 2020 Aug 7;12(8):e9611. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Internal Medicine, St. Mary Mercy Hospital, Livonia, USA.

Dronedarone, a drug similar in chemical properties to amiodarone, was designed to have similar pharmacodynamic properties as amiodarone with fewer side effects. Although there have been cases of chronic liver enzyme elevation with dronedarone, only a few cases have been reported in literature where it has led to rapid onset of liver failure. We present the case of an 86-year-old male who developed acute liver failure concomitantly with acute kidney failure after he was started on dronedarone therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.9611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7478565PMC
August 2020

Multiple, Large Colonic Xanthomas Presenting as Intestinal Obstruction.

Cureus 2020 Jul 1;12(7):e8953. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Internal Medicine, St. Mary Mercy Hospital, Livonia, USA.

Gastrointestinal (GI) xanthomas are rare entities found incidentally on endoscopy. There have been only a few cases where they presented with symptoms of bowel obstruction. We present a case of an 89-year-old woman with a history of short-gut syndrome due to partial colectomy who had multiple admissions with recurrent nausea/vomiting, abdominal distension, and bloating. She was found to have multiple, large, mass-like xanthomas in the rectosigmoid colon. The unusual location, mass-like lesions, and large size led to luminal narrowing causing the patient to have obstructive symptoms, which is a very unusual presentation of colonic xanthomas as most are discovered incidentally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8953DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7398708PMC
July 2020

A Delayed Splenic Tragedy Beyond the Scope of a Colonoscope: A Rare Find.

Cureus 2020 Apr 23;12(4):e7805. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Internal Medicine, St. Mary Mercy Hospital, Livonia, USA.

Colonoscopy is considered a low-risk procedure worldwide. Complications include hemorrhage, bowel perforation, and splenic rupture on rare occasions. The incidence of splenic rupture estimates between 0.00005 and 0.017%. Due to its nonspecific presentation, many cases may be misdiagnosed. We present a 76-year-old female on apixaban for atrial fibrillation who presented to us with sudden-onset, left-sided atraumatic chest pain radiating to the left shoulder, 10/10 in intensity, associated with nausea. The patient underwent an uncomplicated colonoscopy 16 days earlier with the excision of a 1.3 cm polyp. On presentation, her blood pressure was 96/58 mmHg, hemoglobin of 7.2, an international normalized ratio (INR) of 1.6. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed findings suspicious for splenic rupture. In the emergency department, two packed red blood cells (PRBCs) were transfused, and the patient was shifted to the operating room for emergent exploratory laparotomy where a splenectomy was performed for splenic rupture. The patient was discharged six days later without any postoperative complications. We speculate the use of apixaban and our patient's unusual site of pain following splenic rupture to be somehow correlated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7805DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7249756PMC
April 2020

A Case of Intussusception in a Patient with Marijuana Use: Coincidence or Possible Correlation?

Cureus 2020 Mar 31;12(3):e7493. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Internal Medicine, St. Mary Mercy Hospital, Livonia, USA.

'Intussusception' means invaginating or telescoping and is caused by any condition that disrupts the normal physiological mechanism of intestinal peristalsis. Intussusception is rare in adults with an incidence of two to three cases per population of 1,000,000 annually. The most common cause of intussusception in adults is a neoplasm. In this case report, we are describing the case of a 22-year-old female with a past medical history of chronic constipation and a 60-pound unintentional weight loss who presented with the sudden onset of progressively worsening, severe abdominal pain associated with nausea, episodes of non-bloody, non-bilious emesis, and dark-colored loose stools. The patient's social history was significant for extensive marijuana use for more than one year. Upon presentation, vitals were significant for mild bradycardia and examination was remarkable for diffuse abdominal pain. Initial laboratory testing was positive only for lactic acidosis. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed small bowel intussusception in the left hemiabdomen, along with periportal edema, and a small amount of pericholecystic fluid. The patient underwent both upper endoscopy and colonoscopy but no lead points for the intussusception could be identified. The patient responded to conservative management, including bowel rest, which resulted in the resolution of the intussusception on a follow-up small bowel series. Intraluminal irritants as the possible etiology of intussusception should be considered in the absence of a pathological lead point. Marijuana has been shown to act on various bowel segments and disrupts gastrointestinal motility through inhibition of cholinergic mechanisms. We believe the chronic use of marijuana could be the possible etiology of intussusception observed in our patient. Therefore, this case brings attention to the adverse effects of marijuana in light of increasing legalization and the increasing therapeutic use of marijuana and its derivatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7193230PMC
March 2020

Is Stem Cell Therapy an Answer to Heart Failure: A Literature Search.

Cureus 2019 Oct 22;11(10):e5959. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Internal Medicine, St Mary Mercy Livonia Hospital, Livonia, USA.

The heart is one of the most industrious organs in the human body. It starts beating in the first few weeks of embryonic life and keeps pumping blood till death. This organ can host a range of diseases as well. Some can hamper the vasculature, while others can affect its electrical activity, the heart valves, etc. All these conditions can lead to end-stage failure where it can no longer meet the requirements of the body's milieu. This imbalance between supply and demand leads to an array of symptoms. Medical management can reduce these clinical effects and possibly prolong the life expectancy in such patients. However, prescription medications can also have their own adverse effects. This necessitates that each line of treatment should be assessed on a risk vs benefit basis. The conventional approach has been to try and slow down the progression of heart failure (HF). However, the inception of stem cells in the management of HF has the potential for reversal of this pathology. Keeping this in view, many studies and trials are under process. To turn the clock back on the HF, before complications set in or get out of control, is the main focus of the time. This article attempts to evaluate various studies about stem cell therapy (SCT) and highlight the important aspects of this novel modality in changing patients' lives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.5959DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6874291PMC
October 2019

The Impact of Inflammatory Bowel Disease on Pregnancy and the Fetus: A Literature Review.

Cureus 2019 Sep 13;11(9):e5648. Epub 2019 Sep 13.

Internal Medicine, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, PAK.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a constellation of devastating chronic inflammatory changes in the bowel, either involving the large or small bowel or part of both. As it is widely diagnosed in the fertile age group, this disorder can present itself, very commonly, during pregnancy and thus a better understanding of the disease can be an important factor to influence the maternal and fetal well-being. Medications are what is considered the first line in the management of this disease to control the symptoms or keep the disease in remission. In addition to this, the drugs used to keep the disease in remission can also cause significant adverse effects on the patient and the new nurturing life preparing itself for the outside world. What the fetus gets from the mother will stay for life with the child. We conducted an electronic literature review search which highlights the significance and impact of sustained remission of IBD and the cautious use of various drugs during pregnancy for that purpose. In addition to the influences already mentioned, It is evident that nutritional deficiencies can also prevail with the advancing disease, something to manage as a side note as well. These deficiencies can have a definite effect on the fetus and may cause developmental malformations. In order to avoid this process, a systemic and joint approach should be curtailed. This can reduce the adverse outcomes associated with this ailment during pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.5648DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6822910PMC
September 2019

Thromboprophylaxis in Intensive Care Unit Patients: A Literature Review.

Cureus 2018 Sep 21;10(9):e3341. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Internal Medicine, King Edward Medical University/Mayo Hospital, Lahore, PAK.

Thromboembolism is a major complication in hospitalized patients. Intensive care unit (ICU) patients have a greater risk of thrombotic events due to additional risk factors such as immobilization, mechanical ventilation, and central catheters. The diagnosis and management of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) in critically ill patients are challenging and these conditions are associated with high mortality. Medical thromboprophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) as well as unfractionated heparin (UFH) has been shown to reduce the incidence of thromboembolic events in such patients. For patients with high risk of bleeding, mechanical thromboprophylaxis can be used. Literature database was conducted on Medline for articles published up to 2018 using particular search terms such as thromboprophylaxis and venous thromboembolism in ICU patients. The following review summarizes the existing data regarding thromboprophylaxis in ICU patients with special consideration to the use of mechanical prophylaxis and pharmacologic prophylaxis using heparin products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.3341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6248708PMC
September 2018

Chronic Kidney Disease and Calciphylaxis: A Literature Review.

Cureus 2018 Sep 19;10(9):e3334. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Internal Medicine, King Edward Medical University, Mayo Hospital, Lahore, PAK.

Calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA), also known as calciphylaxis, is a rare complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Its incidence is increasing due to a better understanding and diagnosis by physicians. Calciphylaxis is a fatal complication of many metabolic disorders. If not managed properly, it can lead to death within a year. This review is an effort to highlight the importance of research on prompt diagnosis and treatment guidelines for calciphylaxis, as it poses a challenge due to its diverse clinical presentation and high mortality rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.3334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6248774PMC
September 2018

Pain Management in Metastatic Bone Disease: A Literature Review.

Cureus 2018 Sep 11;10(9):e3286. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Internal Medicine, King Edward Medical University, Mayo Hospital, Lahore, PAK.

Cancer means an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in the body. It is a leading cause of death today. Not only the disease itself but its complications are also adding to the increase in mortality rate. One of the major complications is the pain due to metastasis of cancer. Pain is a complex symptom which has physical, psychological, and emotional impacts that influence the daily activities as well as social life. Pain acts as an alarm sign, telling the body that something is wrong. Pain can manifest in a multitude fashion. Management of bone pain due to metastasis involves different modes with some specific treatments according to the type of primary cancer. Over the years various treatment modalities have been tried and tested to improve the pain management including the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioids, bisphosphonates, tricyclic antidepressants, corticosteroids, growth factors and signaling molecules, ET-1 receptor antagonists, radiotherapy as well as surgical management. The topic of discussion will cover each one of these in detail.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.3286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6235631PMC
September 2018

Dual or Mono Antiplatelet Therapy for the Prevention of Ischemic Stroke: A Literature Review.

Cureus 2018 Jun 20;10(6):e2847. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

General Surgery, Bronx Lebanon Hospital, New York, USA.

Ischemic stroke is defined as a sudden loss of blood to the brain which results in deprivation of oxygen and other nutrients. It can be either a transient episode called as "transient ischemic attack" (TIA), or it could last longer than 24 hours giving rise to "infarction of tissues" in the central nervous system. Anti-platelet agents are widely used for the secondary prophylaxis of ischemic stroke, and amongst them, aspirin remains the drug of choice. In this literature review, we summarized the existing data regarding the ischemic type of strokes with particular attention to the use of antiplatelet agents for this purpose. The following review highlights the significance of the use of dual antiplatelet (aspirin and clopidogrel) regimen for the stroke prevention. The role of dual antiplatelet (aspirin and clopidogrel) in patients with a recent TIA (within 30 days) or severe stenosis (70%-99%) of a major intracranial artery, for 90 days, might be a beneficial approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.2847DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6103388PMC
June 2018
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