Publications by authors named "Mung Seong Wong"

9 Publications

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Development and validation of the Health Promoting Behaviour for Bloating (HPB-Bloat) scale.

PeerJ 2021 4;9:e11444. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Department of Medicine, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: Health management strategies may help patients with abdominal bloating (AB), but there are currently no tools that measure behaviour and awareness. This study aimed to validate and verify the dimensionality of the newly-developed Health Promoting Behaviour for Bloating (HPB-Bloat) scale.

Methods: Based on previous literature, expert input, and in-depth interviews, we generated new items for the HPB-Bloat. Its content validity was assessed by experts and pre-tested across 30 individuals with AB. Construct validity and dimensionality were first determined using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and Promax rotation analysis, and then using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).

Results: During the development stage, 35 items were generated for the HPB-Bloat, and were maintained following content validity assessment and pre-testing. One hundred and fifty-two participants (mean age of 31.27 years, 68.3% female) and 323 participants (mean age of 27.69 years, 59.4% male) completed the scale for EFA and CFA, respectively. Using EFA, we identified 20 items that we divided into five factors: diet (five items), health awareness (four items), physical activity (three items), stress management (four items), and treatment (four items). The total variance explained by the EFA model was 56.7%. The Cronbach alpha values of the five factors ranged between 0.52 and 0.81. In the CFA model, one problematic latent variable (treatment) was identified and three items were removed. In the final measurement model, four factors and 17 items fit the data well based on several fit indices (root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.044 and standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) = 0.052). The composite reliability of all factors in the final measurement model was above 0.60, indicating acceptable construct reliability.

Conclusion: The newly developed HPB-Bloat scale is valid and reliable when assessing the awareness of health-promoting behaviours across patients with AB. Further validation is needed across different languages and populations.
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June 2021

Validity and Reliability of the Malay Versions of Bloating Severity (BSQ-M) and Quality of Life (BLQoL-M) Questionnaires.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 3;18(5). Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Medical Department, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Abdominal bloating (AB) is a prevalent and bothersome symptom, but there are no specific measures for severity and quality of life (QoL) other than the Bloating Severity Questionnaire (BSQ) and Bloating Quality of Life (BLQoL). We aimed to translate the BSQ and BLQoL into the Malay language and to validate them using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) approaches. The 12-item BSQ has two components, seven-item severity in general (SevGen) and five-item severity in the past 24 h (Sev24), and BLQOL has five items. Translation to the Malay language (BSQ-M and BLQoL-M) was performed using standard forward and backward processes. EFA followed by CFA were performed in participants with AB due to functional bowel disorders, with the purpose of examining the validity and reliability of the questionnaires translated into Malay. After EFA with 152 participants, all the items of BSQ-M remained in the model. Total variance extracted was 53.26% for BSQ-M and 58.79% for BLQoL-M. The internal consistency based on Cronbach's alpha values was 0.52 for SevGen, 0.86 for Sev24, and 0.81 for BLQoL-M. After performing CFA with another 323 participants, the final measurement model for BSQ-M and BLQoL-M fit the data well in terms of several fit indices (BSQ-M: root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.050, Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.966, Tucker-Lewis Fit Index (TLI) = 0.956, and standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) = 0.051; BLQoL-M: RMSEA = 0.071, CFI = 0.985, TLI = 0.962, SRMR = 0.021). The composite reliability for BSQ-M and BLQoL-M were satisfactory (SevGen = 0.83, Sev24 = 0.89, BLQoL = 0.80). The intraclass correlation (ICC) results showed excellent stability for BSQ-M and BLQoL-M, ranging from 0.74 to 0.93. The Malay language versions of BSQ-M and BLQoL-M are valid and reliable instruments for measuring the severity and QoL of AB for the Asian population with functional bowel disorders.
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March 2021

Translation of the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS) into the Malay Language and Its Psychometric Qualities among Healthy Married Malay Women.

J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2020 Oct-Dec;12(4):444-448. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: In Malaysia, the problem of marital distress is fast becoming an important public health concern. A major shortcoming is inadequate marital evaluation. There are, however, very few localized instruments for married women in Malaysia. The objective of this study was to translate the original version of the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS) and to evaluate for its psychometric properties. Multiple aspects of validity and reliability were also assessed.

Materials And Methods: The questionnaire was first translated into the Malay language (RDAS-M). In this cross-sectional study, healthy married Malay women in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, were recruited from January to April 2018. Participants were asked to complete the RDAS-M that consists of three domains, that is, dyadic consensus, dyadic satisfaction, and dyadic cohesion with a total of 14 items. The concept, content, and construct validity using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and reliability of the RDAS-M were assessed.

Results: Of the 164 recruited participants, 150 consented to participate. The mean age of the participants was 34.1 years (standard deviation [SD], 9.5 years), ranging from 20 to 57 years. All 14 items were considered comprehensible by more than 95% of the subjects. Based on EFA, total variance extracted was 69.08%, and the original three factors were retained. The Malay version of the RDAS was valid based on factor loadings for dyadic consensus, dyadic satisfaction, and dyadic cohesion, which ranged from 0.64 to 0.80, 0.79 to 0.98, and 0.37 to 0.78, respectively. The internal consistency was good with coefficient α of 0.87 for dyadic consensus, 0.93 for dyadic satisfaction, and 0.78 for dyadic cohesion.

Conclusions: The Malay version of the RDAS is easy to understand, and is a reliable and valid instrument for married women. It is also comparable with the original version of the RDAS in terms of structure and psychometric properties.
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October 2020

Tc-sodium phytate is a valid alternative to the gold-standard Tc-sulfur colloid in the measurement of gastric emptying among healthy multi-ethnic Asian population: results of a randomized cross-over trial.

BMC Gastroenterol 2020 Aug 31;20(1):293. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Hospital USM, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, 16150, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Background: It is unclear if the Tc-sodium phytate (Tc-SP) is as reliable as the gold-standard Tc-sulfur colloid (Tc-SC) for gastric emptying scintigraphy (GES). This study is aimed to compare the emptying rates of both radiotracers in a prospective, randomized cross-over trial and to determine the normative data of a healthy multi-ethnic Asian population.

Methods: Out of the 44 healthy individuals screened, 31 (14 females; mean age: 28.4 ± 7.0 years) were enrolled and underwent GES using the standardized egg-white meal. All participants were randomly assigned to either Tc-SP or Tc-SC on the first GES session before crossed over to the other formulation after 2 weeks.

Results: Both kits achieved the radiochemical purities of > 95%. The median rate (95th upper normative limit) of gastric emptying, reported as total gastric meal retention between Tc-SP and Tc-SC, was found to be comparable at all measured time points: 0.5 h [85.0% (96.6%) vs. 82.0% (94.0%)], 1 h [70.0% (86.4%) vs. 65.0% (86.6%)], 2 h [31.0% (55.8%) vs. 25.0% (64.4%)], 3 h [7.0% (26.3%) vs. 5.0% (29.9%)], and 4 h [3.0% (10.3%) vs. 2.0% (9.9%)]; P > 0.05. In addition, both radiotracers correlated well (Kendall's Tau (τ) coefficient = 0.498, P < 0.001) and presented with a good agreement at the 4th-hour time frame based on the Bland-Altman plot analysis.

Conclusions: Tc-SP is a valid radiotracer alternative to Tc-SC for routine GES examination. The normative values for both radiotracers have also been determined for the healthy multi-ethnic Asian population.

Trial Registration: This trial was registered retrospectively in the Thai Clinical Trials Registry on May 23rd, 2020 (Identifier: TCTR20200526004; ).
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August 2020

Randomised clinical trial: the effectiveness of Gaviscon Advance vs non-alginate antacid in suppression of acid pocket and post-prandial reflux in obese individuals after late-night supper.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2020 06 28;51(11):1014-1021. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bahru, Malaysia.

Background: Late-night supper increases the risk of postprandial reflux from the acid pocket especially in obesity. An alginate-based, raft-forming medication may be useful for obese patients with GERD.

Aims: To compare the efficacy of Gaviscon Advance (Reckitt Benckiser, UK) and a non-alginate antacid in post-supper suppression of the acid pocket and post-prandial reflux among obese participants.

Methods: Participants underwent 48 h wireless and probe-based pH-metry recording of the acid pocket and lower oesophagus, respectively, and were randomised to single post-supper (10 pm) dose of either Gaviscon Advance or a non-alginate antacid on the second night. Primary outcomes were suppression of median pH of acid pocket and lower oesophagus, measured every 10-minutes post-supper for 1 h. Secondary outcomes were suppression of % time pH < 4 at lower oesophagus and improvement in frequency and visual analogue score (VAS) of regurgitation.

Results: Of the 81 screened participants, 55 were excluded and 26 (mean age 33.5 years, males 77.8% and BMI 32.8 kg/m ) were randomised to Gaviscon Advance (n = 13) or antacid (n = 13). Median pH of the acid pocket but not the lower oesophagus was suppressed with Gaviscon Advance vs antacid (all P < 0.04) Gaviscon Advance but not antacid significantly reduced in % time pH < 4, symptom frequency and VAS on day 2 vs day 1 (all P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Among obese individuals, Gaviscon Advance was superior to a non-alginate antacid in post-supper suppression of the acid pocket. (Clinical trial registration unique identifier: NCT03516188).
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June 2020

Validity and Reliability of the Newly Developed Malay-Language Health Belief of Bloating (HB-Bloat) Scale.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 04 17;17(8). Epub 2020 Apr 17.

Medical Department, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan 16150, Malaysia.

Abdominal bloating (AB), a common complaint that affects quality of life and disturbs psychological well-being, is largely a behavioral-driven disorder. We aimed to develop and validate a new health belief of bloating (HB-Bloat) scale in the Malay language. The initial item pool was developed based on the theory of planned behavior, empirical literatures, expert review and in-depth interviews. Using the population with bloating (diagnosed based on the Rome IV criteria and pictogram), exploratory and confirmatory factor analytical approaches (EFA and CFA, respectively) were utilized to explore and confirm the domains in the new scale. There were 150 and 323 respondents in the EFA and CFA, respectively. There were 45 items in the initial scale, but it was reduced to 32 items after content validity and pre-testing. In EFA, 17 items with three (3) structure factors (attitude 4 items, subjective norm 7 items, and perceived behavior control 6 items) were identified. Total variance explained by the EFA model was 40.92%. The Cronbach alpha of the three (3) factors ranged from 0.61 to 0.79. With CFA, the three factors model was further tested. Five problematic items were identified and removed. The final measurement model fit the data well (root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA (90% CI) = 0.054 (0.038, 0.070), Comparative Fit Index (CFI) = 0.941, Tucker-Lewis Fit Index (TLI) = 0.924, and standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) = 0.044). The construct reliability of the final measurement model ranged from 0.76 to 0.84. As a conclusion, the new HB-Bloat scale is a valid and reliable tool for assessment of health beliefs in bloating.
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April 2020

A Randomised Controlled Trial on the Effectiveness and Adherence of Modified Alternate-day Calorie Restriction in Improving Activity of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

Sci Rep 2019 08 2;9(1):11232. Epub 2019 Aug 2.

School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu, Malaysia.

Currently, there is no effective therapy for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), although intensive calorie restriction is typically recommended but dietary adherence is an issue. The current study aimed to determine the effectiveness and adherence of eight weeks of modified alternate-day calorie restriction (MACR) in the control of NAFLD activity. This was a randomized controlled trial with MACR as the intervention and normal habitual diet as control. The outcome measures were body mass index (BMI), blood lipids, fasting blood sugar (FBS), liver enzymes (ALT and AST), and ultrasonographic measurements of liver steatosis and shear wave elastography (SWE). Per-protocol (PP) and intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis were performed within and between-groups with P < 0.05 as significant. 43 individuals with NAFLD satisfied study entry criteria, 33 were randomized to MACR and 10 to control group, and, 30 from MACR and 9 from control group completed PP. In between-group analysis of MACR vs. control, BMI were reduced in PP (P = 0.02) and ITT (P = 0.04). Only ALT was reduced in between-group analysis of MACR vs. control, both PP and ITT (P = 0.02 and 0.04 respectively). No reductions in all lipid parameters and FBS were found in between-group analyses (PP and ITT, all P > 0.22). Both liver steatosis grades and fibrosis (SWE) scores were reduced in between-group analyses of MACR vs. controls (PP and ITT, all P < 0.01). Adherence level remained between 75-83% throughout the study. As conclusion, 8 weeks of MACR protocol appears more effective than usual habitual diet in the control of NAFLD activity and with good adherence rate.
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August 2019

Gut microbiome of pre-adolescent children of two ethnicities residing in three distant cities.

Sci Rep 2019 05 24;9(1):7831. Epub 2019 May 24.

Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 5 Science Drive 2, Singapore, 117545, Singapore.

Recent studies have realized the link between gut microbiota and human health and diseases. The question of diet, environment or gene is the determining factor for dominant microbiota and microbiota profile has not been fully resolved, for these comparative studies have been performed on populations of different ethnicities and in short-term intervention studies. Here, the Southern Chinese populations are compared, specifically the children of Guangzhou City (China), Penang City (west coast Malaysia) and Kelantan City (east coast Malaysia). These Chinese people have similar ancestry thus it would allow us to delineate the effect of diet and ethnicity on gut microbiota composition. For comparison, the Penang and Kelantan Malay children were also included. The results revealed that differences in microbiota genera within an ethnicity in different cities was due to differences in food type. Sharing the similar diet but different ethnicity in a city or different cities and living environment showed similar gut microbiota. The major gut microbiota (more than 1% total Operational Taxonomy Units, OTUs) of the children population are largely determined by diet but not ethnicity, environment, and lifestyle. Elucidating the link between diet and microbiota would facilitate the development of strategies to improve human health at a younger age.
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May 2019