Publications by authors named "Mumtaz Hussain"

32 Publications

The Effect of Midazolam and Dexmedetomidine Sedation on Block Characteristic Following Spinal Bupivacaine: A Randomized Comparative Study.

Anesth Essays Res 2020 Jul-Sep;14(3):497-503. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of General Surgery, Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India.

Background: Dexmedetomidine is widely used as an adjunct to general as well as regional anesthesia.

Aims: This study was conducted to compare and evaluate the synergistic effect of single intravenous (i.v.) bolus dose of dexmedetomidine with midazolam on spinal block duration, analgesia, and sedation in patients undergoing infra-umbilical surgeries.

Settings And Design: Prospective, randomized, comparative, and double-blinded study.

Materials And Methods: One hundred patients between 18 and 60 years of age of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II posted for elective infra-umbilical surgery under subarachnoid block were randomly divided into two groups (Group D and Group M). Patients of Group D received i.v. dexmedetomidine 0.5 μg.kg and of Group M received i.v. midazolam 0.05 mg.kg as premedication 5 min before spinal anesthesia over 10 min. Vital parameters, Ramsay sedation score, level of sensory and motor block, recovery time for sensory blockade, postoperative numerical rating scale, time of requirement of the first dose of postoperative rescue analgesic, and duration of analgesia were recorded and analyzed.

Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test, -test, and analysis of variance test were applied to analyze data using SPSS package for Windows.

Results And Conclusion: Premedication with single i.v. dexmedetomidine prolonged the duration and increased the maximum upper level of only sensory component of spinal anesthesia (6.42 ± 3.21 vs. 4.8 ± 1.21 thoracic segments higher than with midazolam sedation). This property can be beneficial in preventing undesirable prolongation of motor block and facilitating early ambulation in shorter duration of infra-umbilical surgeries. In addition, dexmedetomidine slowed the regression of sensory block and increased the time of the first request of analgesic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/aer.AER_85_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8159054PMC
December 2020

Heavy metal accumulation by roadside vegetation and implications for pollution control.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(5):e0249147. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Geology and Soil Science, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Brno, Czech Republic.

Vehicular emissions cause heavy metal pollution and exert negative impacts on environment and roadside vegetation. Wild plants growing along roadsides are capable of absorbing considerable amounts of heavy metals; thus, could be helpful in reducing heavy metal pollution. Therefore, current study inferred heavy metal absorbance capacity of some wild plant species growing along roadside. Four different wild plant species, i.e., Acacia nilotica L., Calotropis procera L., Ricinus communis L., and Ziziphus mauritiana L. were selected for the study. Leaf samples of these species were collected from four different sites, i.e., Control, New Lahore, Nawababad and Fatehabad. Leaf samples were analyzed to determine Pb2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Mn2+ and Fe3+ accumulation. The A. nilotica, Z. mauritiana and C. procera accumulated significant amount of Pb at New Lahore site. Similarly, R. communis and A. nilotica accumulated higher amounts of Mn, Zn and Fe at Nawababad and New Lahore sites compared to the rest of the species. Nonetheless, Z. mauritiana accumulated higher amounts of Ni at all sites compared with the other species included in the study. Soil surface contributed towards the uptake of heavy metals in leaves; therefore, wild plant species should be grown near the roadsides to control heavy metals pollution. Results revealed that wild plants growing along roadsides accumulate significant amounts of heavy metals. Therefore, these species could be used to halt the vehicular pollution along roadsides and other polluted areas.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0249147PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8118294PMC
May 2021

Ethno-veterinary practice for the treatment of animal diseases in Neelum Valley, Kashmir Himalaya, Pakistan.

PLoS One 2021 30;16(4):e0250114. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Botany, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan.

Plant species are not only used as fodder or forage but also contribute substantially in the treatment of various health disorders, particularly in livestock. This study is the first quantitative ethnobotanical effort on ethnoveterinary uses of medicinal plants conducted in the Upper Neelum Valley of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Pakistan. Information pertaining to cure different ailments of animals were collected from 126 informants through semi-structured interviews, group discussion and field walks. In order to identify the plant species used and their preferred habitats, elderly and experienced members of the tribes, locally known 'Budhair' (aged), were interviewed and sometimes accompanied in the field. The data was further analyzed through ethnobotanical indices. In all, 39 plant species, belonging to 31 genera and 21 families were documented which were used by the indigenous communities of Kashmir Himalaya for curing 21 different diseases of 7 different types of livestock. The highest number of ethno-medicinal plants were contributed by the Polygonaceae family, followed by Crassulaceae, Asteraceae and other families. Roots were the most used part of the plant for preparing ethnoveterinary medicines, followed by the aerial parts. The highest frequency of citation (41) and relative frequency of citation (7.32) was recorded for Saussurea lappa, followed by Rumex acetosa (37/6.61), Rumex nepalensis (36/6.43), Thymus linearis (28/5.0) and Angelica cyclocarpa (28/5.0). The highest use value was recorded for Saussurea lappa (0.33), followed by Rumex acetosa (0.29), Rumex nepalensis (0.29), Thymus linearis and Angelica cyclocarpa (0.22 each). The current study has made an important contribution towards the preservation of indigenous plants-based knowledge from extinction. The phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of the plants with high use value can be a potential source of novel drugs to treat health problems of animals and humans.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250114PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087047PMC
April 2021

Spatial and Temporal Heterogeneity of Metal Contaminants in Soils Along Two Major Roads.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2020 Jul 17;105(1):111-118. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

The concentrations of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium owing to vehicles were analyzed in roadside soils during all the four seasons from Faisalabad-Gojra road (M-4) and Gojra-Jhang road (GJR) in the Punjab, Pakistan. Results indicated that all the polluted sites along the roadside had comparatively higher metal concentrations as compared to control, nevertheless, spatio-temporal variations in metal concentrations were apparent in different soil samples. The spatial differences in metal concentrations were strongly associated with vehicle density at the Gojra Interchange site and Forest Park site along M-4 and GJR roads, respectively. Among seasons, metal ions exhibited the following order: summer > autumn > spring > winter, indicating that high temperature might have released more metal ions. The metals were recorded in contaminated soil in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd along both roads. This investigation emphasizes the need for proper environmental management particularly the improvement of roads and proper checking of vehicles running on these regards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-020-02899-6DOI Listing
July 2020

Synthesis, antibacterial activity and molecular docking study of vanillin derived 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles as inhibitors of bacterial DNA synthesis.

Heliyon 2019 Nov 19;5(11):e02812. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, The University of Lahore, Defence Road Campus, Lahore, Pakistan.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) compelled scientists in general while pharmacists, chemists and biologists in specific to believe that we could always remain ahead of the pathogens. The pipeline of new drugs is running gasping and the inducements to develop new antimicrobials to address the global problems of drug resistance are weak. In this pursuit, effective endeavours to prepare new anti-bacterial entities is highly wished. The present study demonstrates successful synthesis of a library of 1,4-disbustituted 1,2,3-triazoles ( using Click-chemistry concept and anti-their bacterial potential. In this 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, the 3-methoxy-4-(prop-2-yn-1-yloxy)benzaldehyde (1) was used as alkyne partner which was synthesized from vanillin and propargyl bromide and further reacted with differently substituted arylpropoxy azides () to furnish series of mono and 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazoles. All the synthesized compounds were characterized spectroscopically and were evaluated for their initial antimicrobial activity. Preliminary results of antibacterial screening revealed that the synthesized compounds have the highest inhibitory effects compare to the control ciprofloxacin. The compounds and were found to be the most active (MIC: 5 μg/mL, MIC: 10 μg/mL respectively) against various strains of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The molecular docking study against 4GQQ protein with synthesized ligands was performed to see the necessary interactions responsible for anti-bacterial activity. The docking analysis of the most potent compound supported the antibacterial activity exhibiting high inhibition constant and binding energy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02812DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6872831PMC
November 2019

Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Glycyrrhizic Acid Aggregates as Drug-Carriers for Paclitaxel.

Authors:
Mumtaz Hussain

Curr Drug Deliv 2019 ;16(7):618-627

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Technologi MARA, Bandar Puncak Alam, 42300 Selangor, Malaysia.

Background: Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is a glycoside that has shown considerable promise as a penetration enhancer and drug carrier to improve the absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. The aggregation behavior of GA and its ability to form large micelles at higher solution concentrations are thought to contribute to these bioavailability enhancing properties. The oral absorption of Paclitaxel (PTX) for example, an anti-cancer agent which exhibits poor oral bioavailability, has been found to significantly increase in the presence of GA.

Methods: In an attempt to visualize the aggregation behavior of GA and its subsequent association with PTX, 100 ns molecular dynamics simulation of a 5 mM aqueous solution of GA with 10 molecules of PTX was conducted using GROMACS and an all-atom forcefield.

Results: Aggregation of GA molecules was found to occur quickly at this level of saturation leading to two stable aggregates of 13 and 17 GA molecules with an effective radius of 10.17 nm to 10.92 nm. These aggregates form not in isolation, but together with PTX molecule embedded within the structures, which reduces the number of interactions and hydrogen-bonding with water.

Conclusion: GA aggregation occurs around PTX molecules in solution, forming co-joined GA-PTX cluster units at a ratio of 3:1. These clusters remain stable for the remainder of the 100ns simulation and serve to isolate and protect PTX from the aqueous environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567201816666190313155117DOI Listing
February 2020

Students perception of an industry based approach problem based learning (PBL) and their performance in drug delivery courses.

Saudi Pharm J 2019 Feb 20;27(2):274-282. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi Mara, Puncak Alam Campus, 42300 Selangor, Malaysia.

Objective: To investigate students perception of an industry based approach problem based learning (PBL) and their performance in drug delivery courses in pharmaceutics.

Methods: PBL was implemented within two drug delivery courses in 2015, in anticipation that the use of formulation or industrial instead of clinical or pharmacy practice based triggers, would open up student interest and understanding towards learning pharmaceutics in relation to industrial pharmacy. Two cohorts were monitored through final year examination results and PBL feedback to evaluate student perception and acceptance of the use of PBL. Previous cohorts were only exposed to conventional tutorials.

Results: Both cohorts showed better performance in their final examination results (2015 & 2016) compared to the previous year (2014) when students were only exposed to tutorials. The maximum and average marks obtained were also higher. There was significant difference between the maximum marks for Drug Delivery Systems 2 and the average marks for Drug Delivery Systems 1 with P < 0.05. It was also noted that although the cGPA of student intake for Cohort 2014 is higher than Cohorts 2015 and 2016, the performance of students were better seen in the two latter cohorts. In addition, student feedback showed positive acquiescence towards using PBL as part of the course.

Conclusions: Introduction of PBL in the drug delivery courses has shown to improve student academic performance either directly or indirectly by increasing student's interest and understanding of the subjects taught. It also enhanced student soft skills and confidence. Students were happy with the implementation of PBL which improved their understanding of the subject, enhancing their abilities to think critically and improved their time management abilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2018.11.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6362177PMC
February 2019

Effects of road proximity on heavy metal concentrations in soils and common roadside plants in Southern California.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Dec 19;25(35):35257-35265. Epub 2018 Oct 19.

Department of Botany, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Concerns about motor vehicle emissions on human health are typically focused on aerial pollution and are regulated via controls on tailpipe emissions. However, vehicles also contribute heavy metal emissions through non-tailpipe pathways (e.g., brake wear, tire particulates). The metal pollutants produced via both tailpipe and non-tailpipe pathways pose threats to both human and ecosystem health long after they have settled from the atmosphere largely via contamination of soils and plants. In this study, we examined the effect of vehicular pollution on soils and plants in five paired sites in Gaviota, CA. In each site, we examined the effect of proximity to road on heavy metal concentrations (cadmium, nickel, lead, and zinc) in four of the most common roadside plant species-Melilotus indicus, Herschfeldia incana, Avena sativa, and Artemisia californica-as well as on soil metal concentrations. Then, to look at potential effects of road proximity and associated metal pollution on plants, we also examined the carbon and nitrogen ratios of all the plant samples. We found strong and significant effects of proximity to road on concentrations of all heavy metals in plants; plants in close proximity to roads had metal concentrations between 8 and 11 times higher than plants farther from roads. Plant C:N ratios also varied strongly among site types and were always higher in close proximity to roads as compared to farther off roads, potentially indicating broader effects of road proximity to plant ecology and leaf quality for consumers in the region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3218-1DOI Listing
December 2018

Assessment of trace metals in five most-consumed vegetables in the US: Conventional vs. organic.

Environ Pollut 2018 Dec 27;243(Pt A):292-300. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Research Center for Soil Contamination & Environment Remediation, South West Forestry University, Yunnan, 650224, China; Soil and Water Science Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611, USA. Electronic address:

Metal concentrations (As, Cd, Pb, Cr, Ba, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn) in conventional and organic produce were assessed, specifically, five most-consumed vegetables from the US including potato, lettuce, tomato, carrot and onion. They were from four representative supermarkets in a college town in Florida. All vegetables contained detectable metals, while As, Cd, Pb, Cr, and Ba are toxic metals, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn are nutrients for humans. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Pb, Cr and Ba in five vegetables were 7.86, 9.17, 12.1, 44.8 and 410 μg/kg for organic produce, slightly lower than conventional produce at 7.29, 15.3, 17.9, 46.3 and 423 μg/kg. The mean concentrations of Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn in five vegetables were 3.86, 58.5, 632, and 2528 μg/kg for organic produce, comparable to conventional produce at 5.94, 68.2, 577, and 2354 μg/kg. For toxic metals, the order followed tomato < lettuce < onion < carrot < potato, with root vegetables being the highest. All metals in vegetables were lower than the allowable concentrations by FAO/WHO. Health risks associated with vegetable consumption based on daily intake and non-carcinogenic risk based on hazard quotient were lower than allowable limits. For the five most-consumed vegetables in the US, metal contents in conventional produce were slightly greater than organic produce, especially for Cd and Pb.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.08.065DOI Listing
December 2018

Polymeric nanoparticles for topical delivery of alpha and beta arbutin: preparation and characterization.

Drug Deliv Transl Res 2019 04;9(2):482-496

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi Mara, Puncak Alam Campus, 42300, Selangor, Malaysia.

To investigate the use of chitosan nanoparticles (CS-TPP-NPs) as carriers for α- and β-arbutin. In this study, CS-TPP-NPs containing α- and β-arbutin were prepared via the ionic cross-linking of CS and TPP and characterized for particle size, zeta potential, and dispersity index. The entrapment efficiency and loading capacity of various β-arbutin concentrations (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6%) were also investigated. SEM, TEM FTIR, DSC and TGA analyses of the nanoparticles were performed to further characterize the nanoparticles. Finally, stability and release studies were undertaken to ascertain further the suitability of the nanoparticles as a carrier system for α- and β-arbutin. Data obtained clearly indicates the potential for use of CS-TPP-NPs as a carrier for the delivery of α- and β-arbutin. The size obtained for the alpha nanoparticles (α-arbutin CSNPs) ranges from 147 to 274 d.nm, with an increase in size with increasing alpha arbutin concentration. β-arbutin nanoparticles (β-arbutin CSNPs) size range was from 211.1 to 284 dn.m. PdI for all nanoparticles remained between 0.2-0.3 while the zeta potential was between 41.6-52.1 mV. The optimum encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity for 0.4% α-arbutin CSNPs were 71 and 77%, respectively. As for β-arbutin, CSNP optimum encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity for 0.4% concentration were 68 and 74%, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy for α-arbutin CSNPs showed a more spherical shape compared to β-arbutin CSNPs where rod-shaped particles were observed. However, under transmission electron microscopy, the shapes of both α- and β-arbutin CSNP nanoparticles were spherical. The crystal phase identification of the studied samples was carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the XRD of both α and β-arbutin CSNPs showed to be more crystalline in comparison to their free form. FTIR spectra showed intense characteristic peaks of chitosan appearing at 3438.3 cm (-OH stretching), 2912 cm (-CH stretching), represented 1598.01 cm (-NH) for both nanoparticles. Stability studies conducted for 90 days revealed that both α- and β-arbutin CSNPs were stable in solution. Finally, release studies of both α- and β-arbutin CSNPs showed a significantly higher percentage release in comparison to α- and β-arbutin in their free form. Chitosan nanoparticles demonstrate considerable promise as a carrier system for α- and β-arbutin, the use of which is anticipated to improve delivery of arbutin through the skin, in order to improve its efficacy as a whitening agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13346-018-0508-6DOI Listing
April 2019

Anesthetic issues in pregnancy with Ebstein's anomaly, hypothyroidism, and sepsis.

Saudi J Anaesth 2018 Jan-Mar;12(1):167-169

Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, IGIMS, Patna, Bihar, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/sja.SJA_417_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5789496PMC
February 2018

Lead Concentrations in Soils and Some Wild Plant Species Along Two Busy Roads in Pakistan.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2018 Feb 16;100(2):250-258. Epub 2017 Dec 16.

Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

This study assessed the level of Pb in soil and five wild plant species (Calotropis procera, Datura alba, Parthenium hysterophorus, Cenchrus ciliaris and Ricinus communis) during all the four seasons. Two busy roads varying in age and traffic volume were selected i.e., Faisalabad-Sargodha road (FSR) and Pindi Bhattian to Lillah (M-2) in the Punjab, Pakistan. Results showed raised levels of Pb in both plants and soil samples along both roads. The range of Pb concentration in plants was 0.08-3.98 and 1.95-4.74 mg kg for soil. Higher Pb contamination was recorded along FSR road as compared to M-2. Among seasons, the higher Pb concentration was found during summer, probably due to very high temperature. Among all the plants studied, Calotropis procera accumulated the highest level (3.98 mg kg dry wt.) of Pb; Thus, it can be used as good biomonitor/phytoremediator at Pb contaminated areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-017-2247-7DOI Listing
February 2018

Echocardiographic assessment of pulmonary artery systolic pressure following treadmill stress testing.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2017 Nov;18(11):1278-1282

Cardiovascular Department, John Hunter Hospital, Locked Bag 1, HRMC, Newcastle, NSW 2310, Australia.

Aims: The use of treadmill stress echocardiography (SE) for the diagnosis of nascent pulmonary hypertension (PH) has been hampered by a lack of well-defined, post-exercise pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) values across representative age groups in a normal cohort.

Methods And Results: Five hundred and eleven subjects (mean age: 53 ±14, 68% female) with normal resting PASP were included in the study. All participants performed treadmill exercise using the Bruce protocol to a high level of perceived exertion. PASP was calculated before and immediately after exercise using Doppler assessment of tricuspid regurgitation. For the cohort, post-exercise PASP was 39 ± 7 mmHg (range: 23-64 mmHg) representing an increase of 11 ± 6 mmHg (44%) from resting values (P < 0.001). The 95th centile values for post-exercise PASP were calculated for the following age cohorts: <30 years; 46 mmHg, 31-50 years; 50 mmHg, 51-70 years; 52 mmHg, >70 years; 53 mmHg. There was a modest independent correlation between post-exercise PASP and (i) increasing age and (ii) resting PASP (r2 = 0.35 and 0.49, respectively, P = 0.01).

Conclusion: An increase of post-exercise PASP was seen in all patients undergoing SE in this study. Age was directly correlated with post-exercise PASP. Using normative data from healthy controls, treadmill SE-derived post-exercise PASP may be a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of PH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jew308DOI Listing
November 2017

Incidence, time of occurrence and response to heart failure therapy in patients with anthracycline cardiotoxicity.

Intern Med J 2017 Jan;47(1):104-109

Cardiovascular Department, John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: Anthracyclines are commonly used chemotherapeutic medications.

Aim: In the current analysis, we evaluated all-cause mortality and incidence, timing and response to medical therapy of anthracycline cardiotoxicity.

Methods: Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was serially assessed using gated heart pool scan/echocardiography in patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy from January 2009 to December 2014.

Results: A total of 1204 patients was administered anthracyclines during the study period. During a median follow up of 32 (interquartile range: 15-58) months, all-cause mortality was 38% (n = 463), with the incidence of cardiotoxicity 10.2% (n = 123). Only 15.4% (n = 19) patients required heart failure hospitalisation, with 48% (n = 59) of patients commenced on beta blockade therapy and/or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The majority of patients (73.2%, n = 90) experienced cardiotoxicity within 1 year of anthracycline initiation. The proportion of patients with complete, partial and no LVEF recovery were 16.3% (n = 20), 29.3% (n = 36) and 54.4% (n = 67) respectively. Mortality was higher in the cardiotoxicity group (49% vs 37%, P < 0.01). History of coronary artery disease, leukaemia, idarubicin use and high cumulative anthracycline dose were predictors of cardiotoxicity.

Conclusions: Cardiotoxicity after anthracycline use predictably occurs within the first year of therapy and is dose-related, with variable degrees of recovery. While the need for hospitalisation for heart failure was uncommon, medical therapy appears underutilised, suggesting there may be a role for improved surveillance and early initiation of treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/imj.13305DOI Listing
January 2017

Comparisons of single-injection thoracic paravertebral block with ropivacaine and bupivacaine in breast cancer surgery: A prospective, randomized, double-blinded study.

Anesth Essays Res 2016 Sep-Dec;10(3):655-660

Department of Anesthesiology, Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, Bihar, India.

Background: Regional anesthesia using paravertebral block has been suggested as an ideal adjunct to general anesthesia for modified radical mastectomy. Paravertebral block is an effective management of peri-operative pain for Modified radical mastectomy, however, there are no established guidelines regarding what is the most suitable strategy when varying drugs and dosages between different groups.

Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of paravertebral block comparing the most frequently employed drugs in this procedure (bupivacaine vs ropivacaine).

Study Design: Prospective randomized double blind study.

Methods: A total 70 ASA I and II adult female patients undergoing Modified radical mastectomy under paravertebral block followed by general anesthesia were randomly divided into two groups. The first group was administered 0.375% Ropivacaine in a dose 0.25 ml /kg in paravertebral block. The second group was administered bupivacaine 0.375% in dose 0.25 ml /kg in paravertebral block. Standard induction technique followed. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), were recorded pre block, post block 5 min, post block 10 min, at skin incision, post skin incision initially at 5 interval for first 15 min till one hour, and every 30 min till end of surgery. Post-operative visual analogue score for pain was recorded at 1 hr, 6 hr and 24 hr.

Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test (Fisher's exact test) for qualitative variables. Independent sample -test for quantitative data.

Results: Ropivacaine and Bupivacaine had no difference in intraoperative analgesia as shown by intraoperative hemodynamic parameters. Bupivacaine got better post-operative VAS scores ( < 0.05) in mean and after first, 6 h and 24 h.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0259-1162.191109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5062188PMC
October 2016

SYNTHESIS AND BIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF N-(SUBSTITUTED PHENYL)-2-(5H-[1,2,4]TRIAZINO[5,6-b]INDOL-3-YLSULFANYL)ACETAMIDES AS ANTIMICROBIAL, ANTIDEPRESSANT AND ANTICONVULSANT AGENTS.

Bioorg Khim 2015 Mar-Apr;41(2):249-56

A new series of N-Aryl-2-(5H-[1,2,4]triazino[5,6-b]indol-3-ylsulfanyl)acetamides were synthesized by condensation of tricyclic compound 2,5-dihydro-3H-[1,2,4]triazino[5,6-b]indole-3-thione with chloro N-phenylacetamides. The tricyclic compound was obtained by condensation of Isatin with thiosemicarbazide. Chloro N-phenylacetamides were obtained from different substituted anilines. Their structures were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, LC-MS and elemental analyses. Newly synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial, antidepressant and anticonvulsant activities. Preliminary results indicated that most of the compounds showed lesser MIC value than the standard drug used when tested for antimicrobial activity. Some of the compounds were endowed with very good antidepressant and anticonvulsant activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7868/s0132342315020141DOI Listing
August 2015

Bilateral Renal Lymphangiectasia in a Thirty-two-Year-Old Woman.

Nephrourol Mon 2015 Jan 19;7(1):e21736. Epub 2014 Dec 19.

Department of Urology, Indira Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Patna, India.

Introduction: Renal lymphangiectasia is a rare disorder of the lymphatic system that might be confused with various other renal cystic diseases and urinoma. Clinical presentation is non-specific and characteristic findings in radiologic imaging are the mainstay of diagnosis.

Case Presentation: We reported a case of bilateral lymphangiectasia in a 32-year-old woman who presented with flank pain and hypertension.

Discussion: Renal lymphangiectasia is an uncommon benign condition. Most of the cases improve with conservative treatment. Surgery is rarely required, except in cases such as those with persistent pain refractory to medication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/numonthly.21736DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4330706PMC
January 2015

Climate change and managing water crisis: Pakistan's perspective.

Rev Environ Health 2014 ;29(1-2):71-7

Climate change is a global phenomenon manifested mainly through global warming. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has reported its negative consequences on natural resources, anthropogenic activities, and natural disasters. The El Nino and La Nina have affected hydrologic regimes and ecosystems. It has been observed that the average temperature in 1995 was 0.4°C higher than that in 1895. By the end of the 21st century, 10% of the area of Bangladesh is likely to be submerged by the sea. Most of the islands of Pacific Ocean will disappear. A major part of Maldives will be submerged. The sea level is expected to rise by 30-150 cm. Extreme events such as floods, cyclones, tsunamis, and droughts have become regular phenomena in many parts of the world. Other adverse impacts are proliferation of water-borne diseases, sea water intrusion, salinization of coastal areas, loss of biodiversity, eco-degradation of watersheds and global glacial decline, and haphazard snow melts/thaws. In turn, these factors have serious effect on water resources. Pakistan is confronting similar climate change. Meteorological data reveal that winter temperatures are rising and summers are getting cooler. Temperature is expected to increase by 0.9°C and 1.5°C by years 2020 and 2050, respectively. Water resources in Pakistan are affected by climate change as it impacts the behavior of glaciers, rainfall patterns, greenhouse gas emissions, recurrence of extreme events such as floods and droughts. Severe floods have occurred in the years 1950, 1956, 1957, 1973, 1976, 1978, 1988, 1992, 2010, 2011, and 2012. Pakistan has faced the worst-ever droughts during the period from 1998 to 2004. Pakistan has surface water potential of 140 million acre feet (MAF) and underground water reserve of 56 MAF. It is one of the most water-stressed countries in the world. The per capita annual availability of water has reduced from 5140 m3 in 1950 to 1000 m3 now. It is fast approaching towards water scarcity. To minimize adverse impacts of climate change on the water crisis in Pakistan, the preparation of integrated national, provincial, and local level master plans encompassing technical, social, environmental, administrative, and financial considerations is necessary. It is imperative to implement two simultaneous approaches of adaptation (living with climate change) and mitigation (addressing negativities of climate change). Salient features are integrated management of watersheds/catchments/water bodies, optimum exploitation of present sources, development of new sources, water conservation, adequate drainage, efficient design of water storage, conveyance, distribution and supply systems, utilization of waste water, and regulation of water quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2014-0020DOI Listing
September 2014

E-waste: impacts, issues and management strategies.

Rev Environ Health 2014 ;29(1-2):53-8

The present electronic era has seen massive proliferation of electrical and electronic equipment especially during the last two decades. These gadgets have become indispensable components of human life. The gravity of this sensitive 21st century problem is being felt by relevant stakeholders from the community to global level. Consequently, the annual global generation of e-waste is estimated to be 20-50 million tons. According to the Basel Action Network, 500 million computers contain 287 billion kilograms (kg) plastics; 716.7 million kg lead; and 286,700 kg mercury. These gadgets contain over 50 elements from the periodic table. The lethal components include heavy metals (like cadmium, mercury, copper, nickel, lead, barium, hexavalent chromium and beryllium); phosphor; plastics; and brominated flame retardants. These are persistent, mobile, and bioaccumulative toxins that remain in the environment but their forms are changed and are carcinogens, mutagens and teratogens. The ensuing hazardous waste has created deleterious impacts on physical, biological and socioeconomic environments. The lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere, and atmosphere of Earth are being gravely polluted. Human beings and other biodiversity face fatal diseases, such as cancer, reproductive disorders, neural damages, endocrine disruptions, asthmatic bronchitis, and brain retardation. Marginal populations of developing countries living in squatter/slums are most vulnerable. Numerous issues are associated with uncontrolled generation, unscientific and environmentally inappropriate recycling processes for the extraction of heavy and precious metals (e.g., gold, platinum, and silver), illegal transboundary shipments from advanced to developing countries and weak conventions/legislations at global and national levels. Although the Basel Convention has been ratified by most countries, illicit trading/trafficking of hazardous substances remains unchecked, sometimes "disguised" as donations. The fact of matter is that vested business interests have surpassed ethical values. Existing scenarios of unbridled e-waste generation has attained alarming levels for humanity. This warrants immediate attention by public and private sectors, civil society, NGOs, industrialists and the business community for the protection of nature and natural resources from future destruction. Multipronged strategies need to be adopted for the management of e-waste encompassing administrative, technical, environmental, regulatory, legislative, educative, stakeholders' participation and global cooperation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2014-0016DOI Listing
September 2014

Influence of lead on growth and nutrient accumulation in canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars.

J Environ Biol 2011 Sep;32(5):659-66

Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, P.O. Box 128, Jhang Road, Faisalabad - 38000, Pakistan.

Canola (Brassica napus L.) is commonly used as a hyper-accumulator for phytoextraction of heavy metals from soil and water. Like many other heavy metals, lead (Pb) contaminates soil, water and air and thus it is a great problem. This study was conducted to investigate toxic effects of Pb on growth and nutrient uptake in four canola cultivars. Each of four cultivars of canola (Con-II, Con-III, Legend and Shiralee) was subjected to four levels of Pb (0, 30, 60 and 90 mg Pb kg(-1) of soil) from lead chloride [PbCl2]. Due to Pb toxicity, plant growth was adversely affected and relatively a severe reduction in root biomass (45.7%) was recorded. The Pb accumulation increased both in shoot and root, the highest being in root. The uptake of different nutrients, i.e., N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu and Mn was reduced (38.4, 32.8, 33.1, 49.6, 7.78, 52.0, 42.6 and 45.9%, respectively) in the shoots and that of N, Fe, Zn, and Cu in the roots (48.5, 33.2, 24.3 and 44.8%, respectively) of all canola cultivars. The root K, P, Zn and Mn and shoot P, Mg and Fe contents were less affected, the concentration of Pb, Ca and Mg in roots of all cultivars. Among canola cultivars Con-II and Con-III performed better than Legend and Shiralee in terms of growth (26.03%) and nutrient accumulation. Overall, plant growth and nutrient accumulation in the canola cultivars was hampered due to the presence of Pb.
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September 2011

When should pelvic sentinel lymph nodes be harvested in patients with malignant melanoma?

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2012 Jan 21;65(1):85-90. Epub 2011 Sep 21.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, St George's Hospital, Tooting, London SW17 0QT, United Kingdom.

Background: Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node biopsy (SNB) combined with intra-operative gamma-probe detection often identifies nodes within the pelvis. This study investigates the role of pelvic SNB harvest.

Methods: Retrospective review of eighty-two stage I/II melanoma patients with primary tumour on the lower limb and trunk who underwent groin SNB, either inguinal or pelvic or both, over a three year period.

Results: Of the 82 patients, 19 had positive SNBs (24%), all of which were inguinal nodes. None of the 11 patients with pelvic nodes removed had a positive pelvic node. The median follow-up period was 18 months (SD: 10.8; range: 8-43). Although the complication rate was higher following pelvic SNB, the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.5). The average operative time for an inguinal SNB was 92 min, and increased significantly to 134 min for a pelvic SNB (p < 0.0001). Lymphoscintigraphy of trunk and thigh melanomas identified individual tracks to be leading directly from the tumour to a pelvic node(s). However, when the primary tumour was located at or below the knee, pelvic nodes identified by lymphoscintigraphy appeared to be second level nodes.

Conclusion: A lymphoscintigraphy protocol that includes dynamic images obtained in frequent intervals following injection of the radiotracer combined with thorough preoperative analysis of the lymphoscintigraphy scans and effective communication between the radiologist and the surgeon allows accurate identification of the primary tracks and prevent unnecessary harvest of second echelon pelvic lymph nodes. In patients with significant co-morbidities due consideration is required before harvesting pelvic sentinel nodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2011.08.027DOI Listing
January 2012

Lead (Pb)-induced regulation of growth, photosynthesis, and mineral nutrition in maize (Zea mays L.) plants at early growth stages.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2011 Dec 7;144(1-3):1229-39. Epub 2011 Jun 7.

Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

The phytotoxic effects of lead (Pb) on seed germinability, seedling growth, photosynthetic performance, and nutrient accumulation (K(+) and Cu(2+)) in two maize genotypes (EV-1098 and EV-77) treated with varying levels of PbSO(4) (0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mg L(-1)) were appraised in this study. In the seed germination experiment, lead stress significantly reduced seed germination percentage and index, plumule and radicle lengths as well as fresh and dry weights in both genotypes. In the second experiment, lengths and fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots decreased due to Pb in both genotypes with increase in plant age. Higher Pb levels also decreased photosynthetic rate (A), water use efficiency (A/E), and intrinsic water use efficiency (A/g(s)), but increased transpiration rate (E) and C(i)/C(a) ratio as a result of increase in stomatal conductance (g(s)). The concentrations of K(+) and Cu(2+) decreased in root, stem, and leaves of both genotypes, which could be a direct consequence of multifold increase in Pb concentration in these tissues. Overall, cv. EV-1098 had better Pb tolerance potential than EV-77 because the former genotype showed less reduction in seed germinability parameters, photosynthetic performance, and K(+) and Cu(2+) accumulation in shoot and root under lead stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-011-9099-5DOI Listing
December 2011

Toxic effect of nickel (Ni) on growth and metabolism in germinating seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

Biol Trace Elem Res 2011 Dec 15;143(3):1695-703. Epub 2011 Jan 15.

Plant Stress Physiology Lab, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Jhang Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

To assess the toxic effect of nickel (Ni) on the growth and some key metabolic processes in sunflower, varying levels of Ni as Ni(NO(3))(2) up to 60 mg L(-1) were applied once to sunflower cultivars SF-187 and Hysun-33 at sowing time in sand culture. An increase in Ni in the growth medium adversely affected growth parameters, sugar concentration (both reducing and non-reducing), as well as the activities of α-amylase and protease. It also slowed down mobilization of stored proteins and amino acids in the germinating seeds. However, an increase in the activities of α-amylase and protease was observed over time from 24 to 120 h after sowing. Cultivar Hysun-33 showed better performance than SF-187 in the presence of excess Ni. Overall, Ni-induced reduction in germination of sunflower seed appeared to be due to disturbance in biochemical metabolism as the availability of sugars for the synthesis of metabolic energy as well as necessary amino acids for the synthesis of proteins and enzymes essential for the growing embryo are generally reduced due to suppression in α-amylase and protease activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-011-8955-7DOI Listing
December 2011

Phytotoxic effects of nickel on yield and concentration of macro- and micro-nutrients in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) achenes.

J Hazard Mater 2011 Jan 16;185(2-3):1295-303. Epub 2010 Oct 16.

Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Jail Road, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan.

The phytotoxic effects of varying levels of nickel (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mg L(-1)) on growth, yield and accumulation of macro- and micro-nutrients in leaves and achenes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were appraised in this study. A marked reduction in root and shoot fresh biomass was recorded at higher Ni levels. Nickel stress also caused a substantial decrease in all macro- and micro-nutrients in leaves and achenes. The lower level of Ni (10 mg L(-1)) had a non-significant effect on various yield attributes, but higher Ni levels considerably decreased these parameters. Higher Ni levels decreased the concentrations of Ca, Mn and Fe in achenes. In contrast, achene N, K, Zn, Mn and Cu decreased consistently with increasing level of Ni, even at lower level (10 mg L(-1)). Sunflower hybrid Hysun-33 had better yield and higher most of the nutrients in achenes as compared with SF-187. The maximum reduction in all parameters was observed at the maximum level of nickel (40 mg L(-1)) where almost all parameters were reduced more than 50% of those of control plants. In conclusion, the pattern of uptake and accumulation of different nutrients in sunflower plants were nutrient- and cultivar-specific under Ni-stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.10.045DOI Listing
January 2011

The acyl-homoserine lactone-type quorum-sensing system modulates cell motility and virulence of Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae.

J Bacteriol 2008 Feb 14;190(3):1045-53. Epub 2007 Dec 14.

Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, 61 Biopolis Drive, Singapore 138673.

Erwinia chrysanthemi pv. zeae is one of the Erwinia chrysanthemi pathovars that infects on both dicotyledons and monocotyledons. However, little is known about the molecular basis and regulatory mechanisms of its virulence. By using a transposon mutagenesis approach, we cloned the genes coding for an E. chrysanthemi pv. zeae synthase of acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing signals (expI(Ecz)) and a cognate response regulator (expR(Ecz)). Chromatography analysis showed that expI(Ecz) encoded production of the AHL signal N-(3-oxo-hexanoyl)-homoserine lactone (OHHL). Null mutation of expI(Ecz) in the E. chrysanthemi pv. zeae strain EC1 abolished AHL production, increased bacterial swimming and swarming motility, disabled formation of multicell aggregates, and attenuated virulence of the pathogen on potato tubers. The mutation also marginally reduced the inhibitory activity of E. chrysanthemi pv. zeae on rice seed germination. The mutant phenotypes were rescued by either exogenous addition of AHL signal or in trans expression of expI(Ecz). These data demonstrate that the AHL-type QS signal plays an essential role in modulation of E. chrysanthemi pv. zeae cell motility and the ability to form multicell aggregates and is involved in regulation of bacterial virulence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.01472-07DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2223575PMC
February 2008

Amniotic membrane to the rescue of partially necrosed dermis fat graft.

Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2006 Sep-Oct;34(7):717-8

A 25-year-old woman underwent dermis fat graft on the right side for persistent ocular pain with her polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) spherical orbital implant. One week later she developed dermal necrosis of the dermis fat graft with potentially devastating fat atrophy if left uncovered. Amniotic membrane graft epithelial side up was sutured to the conjunctiva surrounding the fat. 2 weeks later the graft epithelialized with preservation of fat. Role of amniotic membrane graft as a routine lining over dermis fat grafts to promote conjunctival healing and prevent fat exposure needs to be studied in prospective studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-9071.2006.01330.xDOI Listing
November 2006

Moray eel attack in the tropics: a case report and review of the literature.

Wilderness Environ Med 2004 ;15(3):194-7

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, St James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

As more people use the oceans for recreational purposes, encounters with potentially dangerous sea creatures are becoming more common. We report the case of a scuba diver bitten by a moray eel off the coast of Cuba. The diver received an extensive crush avulsion injury with near loss of his right upper arm. A review of the existing literature identifies the significant characteristics of such attacks. Given the potential seriousness and complications of these attacks, a greater awareness among both treating physicians and emergency personnel may improve overall management of injuries. In addition, greater respect for moray eels among divers and other ocean users may decrease the likelihood of serious eel encounters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1580/1080-6032(2004)15[194:meaitt]2.0.co;2DOI Listing
October 2004

Functional analysis of the tandem-duplicated P450 genes SPS/BUS/CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 in glucosinolate biosynthesis and plant development by Ds transposition-generated double mutants.

Plant Physiol 2004 Jun 11;135(2):840-8. Epub 2004 Jun 11.

Department of Plant Biology and Agronomy, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA.

A significant fraction (approximately 17%) of Arabidopsis genes are members of tandemly repeated families and pose a particular challenge for functional studies. We have used the Ac-Ds transposition system to generate single- and double-knockout mutants of two tandemly duplicated cytochrome P450 genes, SPS/BUS/CYP79F1 and CYP79F2. We have previously described the Arabidopsis supershoot mutants in CYP79F1 that exhibit massive overproliferation of shoots. Here we use a cytokinin-responsive reporter ARR5::uidA and an auxin-responsive reporter DR5::uidA in the sps/cyp79F1 mutant to show that increased levels of cytokinin, but not auxin, correlate well with the expression pattern of the SPS/CYP79F1 gene, supporting the involvement of this gene in cytokinin homeostasis. Further, we isolated Ds gene trap insertions in the CYP79F2 gene, and find these mutants to be defective mainly in the root system, consistent with a root-specific expression pattern. Finally, we generated double mutants in CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 using secondary transpositions, and demonstrate that the phenotypes are additive. Previous biochemical studies have suggested partially redundant functions for SPS/CYP79F1 and CYP79F2 in aliphatic glucosinolate synthesis. Our analysis shows that aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis is completely abolished in the double-knockout plants, providing genetic proof for the proposed biochemical functions of these genes. This study also provides further demonstration of how gluconisolate biosynthesis, regarded as secondary metabolism, is intricately linked with hormone homeostatis and hence with plant growth and development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.104.040113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC514119PMC
June 2004