Publications by authors named "Muhammad Tariq Javed"

42 Publications

Long-term copper exposure promotes apoptosis and autophagy by inducing oxidative stress in pig testis.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

College of Veterinary, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, China.

Copper (Cu) is a heavy metal which is being used widely in the industry and agriculture. However, the overuse of Cu makes it a common environmental pollutant. In order to investigate the testicular toxicity of Cu, the pigs were divided into three groups and were given Cu at 10 (control), 125, and 250 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The feeding period was 80 days. Serum hormone results showed that Cu exposure decreased the concentrations of follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) and increased the concentration of thyroxine (T4). Meanwhile, Cu exposure upregulated the expression of Cu transporter mRNA (Slc31a1, ATP7A, and ATP7B) in the testis, leading to increase in testicular Cu and led to spermatogenesis disorder. The Cu exposure led to an increased expression of antioxidant-related mRNA (Gpx4, TRX, HO-1, SOD1, SOD2, SOD3, CAT), along with increase in the MDA concentration in the testis. In LG group, the ROS in the testis was significantly increased. Furthermore, the apoptotic-related mRNA (Caspase3, Caspase8, Caspase9, Bax, Cytc, Bak1, APAF1, p53) and protein (Active Caspase3) and the autophagy-related mRNA (Beclin1, ATG5, LC3, and LC3B) expression increased after Cu exposure. The mitochondrial membrane potential in the testicular tissue decreased, while the number of apoptotic cells increased, as a result of oxidative stress. Overall, our study indicated that the Cu exposure promotes testicular apoptosis and autophagy by mediating oxidative stress, which is considered as the key mechanism causing testicular degeneration as well as dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14853-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8203493PMC
June 2021

Influence of foliar glutathione and putrescine on metabolism and mineral status of genetically diverse rapeseed cultivars under hexavalent chromium stress.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Botany, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

We studied the physio-biochemical involvement of exogenous signaling compounds, glutathione and putrescine (alone and in combination), on three contrasting genotypes (cvs. Shiralee, Rainbow, and Dunkled) of canola (Brassica napus L.) of plants exposed to chromium stress. Seeds were germinated in Cr-contaminated soil (0 and 50 μg/g Cr), and both signaling compounds were applied as a foliar spray to 20-day-old plants. Changes in root, stem, and leaf nitro-oxidative metabolism, endogenous GSH level, secondary metabolites, and mineral nutrients were investigated from 60-day-old plants. Exposure to Cr increased stem GSH and NO concentrations in all cultivars. Maximum root Cr bioaccumulation was recorded in cv. Rainbow and the least in cv. Shiralee. Also, Cr stress decreased number and weight of seeds and pod length. Disturbances in root and shoot mineral profile were evident; however, its magnitude varied in all cultivars. The exogenous GSH improved root and shoot P, Fe, S, and Zn concentrations; however, the effect was cultivar specific. Leaf endogenous GSH was increased by exogenous GSH while NO levels remained unaffected. The GSH application also promoted shoot Cr bioaccumulation while PUT application caused a recovery in seed number and seed weight. Both PUT and GSH differentially affected tissue-specific secondary metabolite profile. Overall, the exogenous GSH was much more effective in alleviating the Cr toxicity in canola.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13702-2DOI Listing
April 2021

Elucidating Cd-mediated distinct rhizospheric and ionomic and physio-biochemical responses of two contrasting L. cultivars.

Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2021 Feb 18;27(2):297-312. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Botany, Faculty of Life Sciences, Government College University, Faisalabad, 38000 Pakistan.

Cadmium (Cd) in soil-plant system can abridge plant growth by initiating alterations in root zones. Hydroponics and rhizoboxes are useful techniques to monitor plant responses against various natural and/or induced metal stresses. However, soil based studies are considered more appropriate in order to devise efficient food safety and remediation strategies. The present research evaluated the Cd-mediated variations in elemental dynamics of rhizospheric soil together with ionomics and morpho-physio-biochemical traits of two differentially Cd responsive maize cultivars. Cd-sensitive (31P41) and Cd-tolerant (3062) cultivars were grown in pots filled with 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 µg/kg CdCl supplemented soil. The results depicted that the maize cultivars significantly influenced the elemental dynamics of rhizosphere as well as mineral accumulation under applied Cd stress. The uptake and translocation of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn and Fe from rhizosphere and root cell sap was significantly higher in Cd stressed cv. 3062 as compared to cv. 31P41. In sensitive cultivar (31P41), Cd toxicity resulted in significantly prominent reduction of biomass, leaf area, chlorophyll, carotenoids, protein contents as well as catalase activity in comparison to tolerant one (3062). Analysis of tolerance indexes (TIs) validated that cv. 3062 exhibited advantageous growth and efficient Cd tolerance due to elevated proline, phenolics and activity of antioxidative machinery as compared to cv. 31P41. The cv. 3062 exhibited 54% and 37% less Cd bio-concentration (BCF) and translocation factors (TF), respectively in comparison to cv. 31P41 under highest Cd stress regime. Lower BCF and TF designated a higher Cd stabilization by tolerant cultivar (3062) in rhizospheric zone and its potential use in future remediation plans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12298-021-00936-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7907289PMC
February 2021

Characterization of bio-fabricated silver nanoparticles for distinct anti-fungal activity against sugarcane phytopathogens.

Microsc Res Tech 2021 Jul 20;84(7):1522-1530. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Advanced research, development, and application of silver nanoparticles is proceeding in recent times due to their incredible utilization in various fields. Present study was focused on the production, characterization, and antifungal activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). An environment friendly extracellular biosynthetic approach was adopted to produce the AgNPs by using bacteria, fungi, and sugarcane husk. Agents used for reduction of silver to nanoparticles were taken from culture filtrate of plant growth promoting bacteria, Fusarium oxysporum and supernatant extract of sugarcane husk. Nanoparticles were also characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Synthesis of colloidal AgNPs was observed by UV-Visible diffused reflectance spectroscopy (UV-Vis DRS). Primary peak of surface plasmon resonance band was noticed around 339.782, 336.735, and 338.258 nm for bacterial, fungal, and sugarcane husk produced AgNPs. Structure of all biologically produced nanoparticles were crystalline cubic with nano size of 45.41, 49.06, and 42.75 nm for bacterial, fungal, and sugarcane husk-based nanoparticles, respectively as calculated by Debye-Scherrer equation using XRD. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis revealed the presence of various compounds that aid in the reduction, capping, and stability of AgNPs. The antifungal activity of AgNPs was also investigated for sugarcane fungal pathogens Colletotricum falcatum and Fusarium moniliforme. All nanoparticles exhibit prominent antifungal activities. Maximum zone of fungal inhibition was noticed about 18, 19, and 21 mm for C. falcatum while 21, 20, and 24 mm for F. moniliforme in case of bacterial, fungal, and plant-based nanoparticles (15 ppm), respectively. Best fungal inhibition was observed under application of sugarcane husk based AgNPs. Moreover, biologically produced AgNPs responded better towards the suppression of F. moniliforme in comparison to C. falcatum. Mentioned sources in present study can be ecofriendly nano-factories for biosynthesis of AgNPs and mankind should benefit from their commercial application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.23708DOI Listing
July 2021

Chromium retention potential of two contrasting Solanum lycopersicum Mill. cultivars as deciphered by altered pH dynamics, growth, and organic acid exudation under Cr stress.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 29;28(22):27542-27554. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan.

Chromium (Cr), being a persistent toxic heavy metal, triggered the retardation of plant's metabolic processes by initiating changes in rhizospheric zone. Current study focused the Cr accumulation potential of two tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill.) cultivars through alterations of rhizospheric pH and exudation of organic acids together with plant's ionomics and morpho-physiological responses. Four-week-old seedlings of tomato cultivars (cv. Nakeb and cv. Nadir) were maintained in hydroponic solutions supplemented with 0, 100, 200, and 300 mg/L KCrO and a start pH of 6.0. The pH of the growth medium was monitored twice a day up to 6 days as well as mineral contents and morpho-physiological attributes were recorded by harvesting half of plants after 1 week. The remaining half plants were shifted to rhizoboxes for the collection of root exudates. After 6 days, cv. Nakeb exhibited medium acidification by 0.7 units while cv. Nadir showed basification by 0.6 units under 300 mg/L treatment. Increase in applied Cr levels enhanced the root and shoot Cr accumulation in both cultivars with concomitant reduction in growth and accumulation of nutrients (Fe, Zn, K, Mg, and Ca). However, this reduction in biomass and nutrient acquisition was predominant in cv. Nakeb as compared to cv. Nadir. The release of organic acid exudates (citric, acetic, maleic, tartaric, and oxalic acids) was also recorded higher in cv. Nadir at 300 mg/L applied Cr level. This enhanced production of organic acids caused greater retention of mineral nutrients and Cr in cv. Nadir, probably due to growth medium basification. Enhanced exudations of di- and tri- carboxylic organic acids together with accumulation of mineral nutrients are the physiological and biochemical indicators which confer this genotype a better adaptation to Cr polluted biotic systems. Furthermore, it was perceived that organic acid and rhizospheric pH variation response by studied tomato cultivars under Cr stress is an important factor to be considered in food safety and metal remediation programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-12269-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Elucidating the distinct interactive impact of cadmium and nickel on growth, photosynthesis, metal-homeostasis, and yield responses of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) varieties.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 28;28(21):27376-27390. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Environmental Science, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Contamination of soils with heavy metals (HMs) caused serious problems because plants tend to absorb HMs from the soil. In view of HM hazards to plants as well as agro-ecosystems, we executed this study to assess metal toxicity to mung bean (Vigna radiata) plants cultivated in soil with six treatment levels of cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) and to find metal tolerant variety, i.e., M-93 (V) and M-1(V) with multifarious plant biochemical and physiological attributes. Increasing doses of Cd and Ni inhibited plant growth and photosynthesis and both varieties showed highly significant differences in the morpho-physiological attributes. V showed sensitivity to Cd and Ni treatments alone or in combination. Tolerance indices for attributes presented a declined growth of Vigna plants under HM stress accompanied by highly significant suppression in gas exchange characteristics. Of single element applications, the adverse effects on mung bean were more pronounced in Cd treatments. V showed much reduction in photosynthesis attributes except sub-stomatal CO concentration in all treatments compared to V. The yield attributes, i.e., seed yield/plant and 100-seed weight, were progressively reduced in T for both varieties. In combination, we have observed increased mobility of Cd and Ni in both varieties. The results showed that water use efficiency (WUE) generally increased in all the treatments for both varieties compared to control. V exhibited less soluble sugars and free amino acids compared to V in all the treatments. Similarly, we recorded an enhanced total free amino acid contents in both varieties among all the metal treatments against control plants. We conclude that combinatorial treatment proved much lethal for Vigna plants, but V performed better than V in counteracting the adverse effects of Cd and Ni.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12579-5DOI Listing
June 2021

Plant growth-promoting sp. strain SDA-4 confers Cd tolerance by physio-biochemical improvements, better nutrient acquisition and diminished Cd uptake in L.

Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2020 Dec 19;26(12):2417-2433. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320 Pakistan.

Cadmium (Cd) is highly toxic metal for plant metabolic processes even in low concentration due to its longer half-life and non-biodegradable nature. The current study was designed to assess the bioremediation potential of a Cd-tolerant phytobeneficial bacterial strain sp. SDA-4, isolated, characterized and identified from Chakera wastewater reservoir, Faisalabad, Pakistan, together with spinach (as a test plant) under different Cd regimes. Spinach plants were grown with and without sp SDA-4 inoculation in pots filled with 0, 5 or 10 mg kg CdCl-spiked soil. Without sp. SDA-4 inoculation, spinach plants exhibited reduction in biomass accumulation, antioxidative enzymes and nutrient retention. However, plants inoculated with sp. SDA-4 revealed significantly augmented growth, biomass accumulation and efficiency of antioxidative machinery with concomitant reduction in proline and MDA contents under Cd stress. Furthermore, application of sp. SDA-4 assisted the Cd-stressed plants to sustain optimal levels of essential nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and Mg). It was inferred that the characterized Cd-tolerant PGPR strain, sp. SDA-4 has a potential to reduce Cd uptake and lipid peroxidation which in turn maintained the optimum balance of nutrients and augmented the growth of Cd-stressed spinach. Analysis of bioconcentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) revealed that sp. SDA-4 inoculation with spinach sequestered Cd in rhizospheric zone. Research outcomes are important for understanding morpho-physio-biochemical attributes of spinach- sp. SDA-4 synergy which might provide efficient strategies to decrease Cd retention in edible plants and/or bioremediation of Cd polluted soil colloids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12298-020-00900-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7772128PMC
December 2020

Serratia sp. CP-13 alleviates Cd toxicity by morpho-physio-biochemical improvements, antioxidative potential and diminished Cd uptake in Zea mays L. cultivars differing in Cd tolerance.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jan 6;208:111584. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Botany, Faculty of Life Sciences, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan.

Cadmium (Cd) is highly toxic for plant metabolic processes even in low concentration due to higher retention rates, longer half-life and non-biodegradable nature. The current study was designed to assess the bioremediation potential of Cd tolerant PGPR, Serratia sp. CP-13 together with two differentially Cd tolerant maize cultivars (MMRI-Yellow, Sahiwal-2002) selected amongst ten cultivars after screening. The maize cultivars were grown under different Cd treatments (0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 µM) in Petri plates both with and without Serratia sp. CP-13 inoculation. Treated plants were analyzed for their biomass accumulation, chlorophylls, carotenoids, proline, anthocyanin, protein, malondialdehyde (MDA), HO as well as for antioxidants (POD, SOD, CAT) and mineral elements (Ca, Mg, Zn, K, Fe, Na, Cd). The maize cultivar MMRI-Yellow (tolerant) and Sahiwal-2002 (sensitive) exhibited significant reduction in leaf area, nutrient contents, plant biomass, activity of antioxidants, total proteins, photosynthetic pigments as well as flavonoids with increased production of HO, proline, MDA and relative membrane permeability (RMP) under Cd stress. However, this reduction was cultivar specific and recorded higher in cv. Sahiwal-2002 as compared to MMRI-Yellow. Application of Serratia sp. CP-13 significantly augmented plant biomass, photosynthetic pigments, antioxidative machinery, as well as flavonoids and proline while diminishing HO RMP MDA production even under Cd stress in studied cultivars. Furthermore, CP-13 inoculation assisted the Cd stressed plants to sustain an optimal level of essential nutrients (Ca, Mg, Zn, K, Fe) except for Na and Cd which responded antagonistically. It was inferred that both inoculated maize cultivars exhibited better health and metabolism but substantial Cd tolerance was acquired by the sensitive cv. Sahiwal-2002 than the tolerant cv. MMRI-Yellow under applied Cd regimes. Furthermore, studied maize cultivars depicted maximum Cd tolerance in order of 30 < 24 < 18 < 12 < 6 < 0 µM Cd treatments under Serratia sp. CP-13 inoculation. Findings of current work highlighted the importance of Serratia sp. CP-13 and its inoculation impact on morpho-physio-biochemical attributes of maize growth under Cd dominant environment, which is likely an addition towards efficient approaches for bacterially-assisted Cd bioremediation and minimal Cd retention in edible plant parts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111584DOI Listing
January 2021

Role of Ferrous Sulfate (FeSO) in Resistance to Cadmium Stress in Two Rice ( L.) Genotypes.

Biomolecules 2020 12 18;10(12). Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtze River), Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

The impact of heavy metal, i.e., cadmium (Cd), on the growth, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange characteristics, oxidative stress biomarkers, and antioxidants machinery (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants), ions uptake, organic acids exudation, and ultra-structure of membranous bounded organelles of two rice ( L.) genotypes (Shan 63 and Lu 9803) were investigated with and without the exogenous application of ferrous sulfate (FeSO). Two genotypes were grown under different levels of CdCl [0 (no Cd), 50 and 100 µM] and then treated with exogenously supplemented ferrous sulfate (FeSO) [0 (no Fe), 50 and 100 µM] for 21 days. The results revealed that Cd stress significantly ( < 0.05) affected plant growth and biomass, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange characteristics, affected antioxidant machinery, sugar contents, and ions uptake/accumulation, and destroy the ultra-structure of many membranous bounded organelles. The findings also showed that Cd toxicity induces oxidative stress biomarkers, i.e., malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, hydrogen peroxide (HO) initiation, and electrolyte leakage (%), which was also manifested by increasing the enzymatic antioxidants, i.e., superoxidase dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds (phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, and anthocyanin) and organic acids exudation pattern in both genotypes. At the same time, the results also elucidated that the genotypes Lu 9803 are more tolerant to Cd stress than Shan 63. Although, results also illustrated that the exogenous application of ferrous sulfate (FeSO) also decreased Cd toxicity in both genotypes by increasing antioxidant capacity and thus improved the plant growth and biomass, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange characteristics, and decrease oxidative stress in the roots and shoots of genotypes. Here, we conclude that the exogenous supplementation of FeSO under short-term exposure of Cd stress significantly improved plant growth and biomass, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange characteristics, regulate antioxidant defense system, and essential nutrients uptake and maintained the ultra-structure of membranous bounded organelles in genotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10121693DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7766819PMC
December 2020

Elucidating silicon-mediated distinct morpho-physio-biochemical attributes and organic acid exudation patterns of cadmium stressed Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.).

Plant Physiol Biochem 2020 Dec 10;157:23-37. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, 11451, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Soil contamination with toxic heavy metals [such as cadmium (Cd)] is becoming a serious global problem due to rapid development of social economy. Silicon (Si), being an important fertilizer element, has been found effective in enhancing plant tolerance against biotic and abiotic stresses. The present study investigated the extent to which different levels of Si modulated the Cd tolerance of Ajwain (Trachyspermum ammi L.) seedlings when maintained in artificially Cd spiked regimes. A pot experiment was conducted under controlled conditions for four weeks, by using sand, mixed with different levels of Cd i.e., 0, 1.5 and 3 mM together with the application of Si at 0, 1.5 and 3 mM levels to monitor different growth, gaseous exchange, oxidative stress, antioxidative responses, minerals accumulation, organic acid exudation patterns of T. ammi seedlings. Our results depicted that Cd addition to growth medium significantly decreased plant growth and biomass, gaseous exchange attributes and minerals uptake by T. ammi seedlings as compared to the plants grown without addition of Cd. However, Cd toxicity boosted the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by increasing the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), which is the indication of oxidative stress in T. ammi seedlings and was also manifested by hydrogen peroxide (HO) contents and electrolyte leakage to the membrane bounded organelles. Although, activities of various antioxidative enzymes like superoxidase dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) initially increased up to a Cd level of 1.5 mM but were significantly diminished at the highest Cd level of 3 mM. Results revealed that the anthocyanin and soluble proteins contents were decreased in seedlings grown under elevating Cd levels but increased the Cd accumulation of T. ammi roots and shoots. The negative impacts of Cd injury were reduced by the application of Si which increased plant growth and biomass, improved photosynthetic apparatus, antioxidant enzymes, minerals uptake together with diminished exudation of organic acids as well as oxidative stress indicators in roots and shoots of T. ammi by decreasing Cd retention in different plant parts. Research findings, therefore, suggested that Si application can ameliorate Cd toxicity in T. ammi seedlings and resulted in improved plant growth and composition under metal stress as depicted by balanced exudation of organic acids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.10.010DOI Listing
December 2020

Modulation of growth and key physiobiochemical attributes after foliar application of zinc sulphate (ZnSO) on wheat ( L.) under cadmium (Cd) stress.

Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2020 Sep 14;26(9):1787-1797. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Botany, Government College University, Faisalabad, 38000 Pakistan.

A pot experiment was conducted to examine the effect of foliar application of various levels of ZnSO on wheat ( L.) under cadmium (Cd) stress. Seeds of two wheat varieties i.e., Ujala-2016 and Anaj-2017 were sown in sand filled plastic pots. Cadmium (CdCl) stress i.e., 0 and 0.5 mM CdCl was applied in full strength Hoagland's nutrient solution after 4 weeks of seed germination. Foliar spray of varying ZnSO levels i.e., 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 mM was applied after 2 weeks of CdCl stress induction (of 6 week old plants). After 3 weeks of foliar treatment leaf samples of 9 week old wheat plants were collected for the determination of changes in various growth and physiobiochemical attributes. Results obtained showed that cadmium stress (0.5 mM CdCl) significantly decreased shoot and root fresh and dry weights, shoot and root lengths, yield attributes, chlorophyll contents and total phenolics, while increased hydrogen peroxide (HO), total soluble proteins, free proline, glycinebetaine (GB) contents, and activities of antioxidant enzymes i.e., catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POD). Foliar application of varying ZnSO levels significantly increased various growth attributes, chlorophyll contents, HO, free proline, GB and activities of antioxidant enzymes i.e., CAT, POD and APX, while decreased relative water contents and total phenolics under Cd stress or non stress conditions. Furthermore, both wheat varieties showed differential response under Cd stress and towards foliar application of ZnSO e.g., wheat var. Ujala-2016 was higher in shoot dry weight, root length, root fresh and dry weights, total leaf area per plant, 100 grains weight, number of tillers per plant, chlorophyll , hydrogen peroxide (HO), activities of APX, POD, glycinebetaine and leaf free proline contents, while var. Anaj-2017 exhibited high shoot fresh weight, grain yield per plant, no. of grains per plant, chlorophyll contents, chlorophyll ratio, total phenolics, MDA and total soluble protein contents under cadmium stress or non stress conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12298-020-00861-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7468032PMC
September 2020

Acinetobacter sp. SG-5 inoculation alleviates cadmium toxicity in differentially Cd tolerant maize cultivars as deciphered by improved physio-biochemical attributes, antioxidants and nutrient physiology.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2020 Oct 15;155:815-827. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Government College University, Faisalabad, 38000, Pakistan.

Cadmium is a phytotoxic metal which threatens the global food safety owing to its higher retention rates and non-biodegradable nature. Optimal study of microbe-assisted bioremediation is a potential way to minimize the adversities of Cd on plants. Current study was aimed to isolate, identify and characterize Cd tolerant PGPBs from industrially contaminated soil and to evaluate the potential of plant-microbe synergy for the growth augmentation and Cd remediation. The Acinetobacter sp. SG-5, identified through 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, was able to tolerate 1000 mg/l of applied Cd stress and ability of in vitro indole-3-acetic acid production, phosphate solubilization, as well as 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity. A Petri plate experiment was designed to investigate the impact of Acinetobacter sp. SG-5 on applied Cd toxicity (0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 μM) in maize cultivars (3062-Cd tolerant, 31P41-Cd susceptible). Results revealed that non-inoculated maize plants were drastically affected with applied Cd treatments for growth, antioxidants and mineral ions acquisition predominantly in susceptible cultivar (31P41). PGPB inoculation positively influenced the maize growth by enhanced anti-oxidative potential coupled with optimum level of nutrients (K, Ca, Mg, Zn). Analysis of morpho-physio-biochemical traits after PGPB application revealed that substantial Cd tolerance was acquired by susceptible cv. 31P41 than tolerant cv. 3062 under applied Cd regimes. Research outcomes may be important for understanding the growth responses of Cd susceptible and tolerant maize cultivars under Acinetobacter sp. SG-5 inoculation and likely to provide efficient approaches to reduce Cd retention in edible plant parts and/or Cd bioremediation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.08.024DOI Listing
October 2020

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (EDTA) Mitigates the Toxic Effect of Excessive Copper Concentrations on Growth, Gaseous Exchange and Chloroplast Ultrastructure of L. and Improves Copper Accumulation Capabilities.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Jun 16;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Copper (Cu) is an important micronutrient for a plant's normal growth and development. However, excess amount of Cu in the soil causes many severe problems in plants-which ultimately affect crop productivity and yield. Moreover, excess of Cu contents causes oxidative damage in the plant tissues by generating excess of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present experiment was designed to investigate the phytoextraction potential of Cu, morpho-physiological features and biochemical reaction of jute ( L.) seedlings using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) of 3 mM under different Cu levels (0 (control), 50 and 100 μM) in a hydroponic nutrient solution (Hoagland). Our results showed that elevated Cu rates (50 and 100 μM) in the nutrient solution significantly reduced plant height, fresh and dry biomass, total chlorophyll content and gaseous exchange attributes in seedlings. As the concentration of Cu in the medium increased (50 and 100 μM), the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and oxidative stress in seedlings also increased, which could have been controlled by antioxidant activity in particular plant cells. In addition, rising Cu concentration in the nutrient solution also increased Cu uptake and accumulation in roots and leaves as well as affected the ultrastructure of chloroplast of seedlings. The addition of EDTA to the nutrient solution significantly alleviated Cu toxicity in seedlings, showing a significantly increase in plant growth and biomass. MDA contents was not significantly increased in EDTA-induced plants, suggesting that this treatment was helpful in capturing ROS and thereby reducing ROS in in seedlings. EDTA modification with Cu, although the bioaccumulation factor in roots and leaves and translocation factor for the leaves of seedlings has significantly increased. These results indicate that has considerable potential to cope with Cu stress and is capable of removing a large quantity of Cu from the Cu-contaminated soil while using EDTA is a useful strategy to increase plant growth and biomass with Cu absorption capabilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9060756DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356174PMC
June 2020

Deciphering metal toxicity responses of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) with exopolysaccharide and ACC-deaminase producing bacteria in industrially contaminated soils.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2020 May 3;152:90-99. Epub 2020 May 3.

Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Rapid industrialization is the main reason of heavy metals contamination of soil colloids and water reservoirs. Heavy metals are persistent inorganic pollutants; deleterious to plants, animals and human beings because of accumulation in food chain. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the role of indole acetic acid (IAA), exopolysaccharide (EPS) and ACC-deaminase producing plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) i.e .B. gibsonii PM11 and B. xiamenensis PM14 in metal phytoremediation of metals, their survival and plant growth promotion potential in metal polluted environment as well as alterations in physio-biochemical responses of inoculated L. usitatissimum plants towards heavy metal toxicity. Two bacterial strains Bacillus gibsonii (PM11) and Bacillus xiamenensis (PM14), previously isolated from sugarcane's rhizosphere, were screened for metal tolerance (50 mg/l to 1000 mg/l) and plant growth promoting traits like IAA, ACC-deaminase, EPS production and nitrogen fixing ability under metal stress. The response of flax plant (Linum usitatissimum L.) was analyzed in a pot experiment containing both industrially contaminated and non-contaminated soils. Experiment was comprised of six different treatments, each with three replicates. At the end of the experiment, role of metal tolerant plant growth promoting bacterial inoculation was elucidated by analyzing the plant growth parameters, chlorophyll contents, antioxidative enzymes, and metal uptake both under standard and metal contaminated rhizospheres. Results revealed that root and shoot length, plant's fresh and dry weight, proline content, chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzymatic activity was increased in plants inoculated with plant growth promoting bacteria as compared to non-inoculated ones both in non-contaminated and industrial contaminated soils. In current study, inoculation of IAA, EPS and ACC-deaminase producing bacteria enhances plant growth and nutrient availability by minimizing metal-induced stressed conditions. Moreover, elevated phytoextraction of multi-metals from industrial contaminated soils by PGPR inoculated L. usitatissimum plants reveal that these strains could be used as sweepers in heavy metals polluted environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.04.039DOI Listing
May 2020

Multi-stress tolerant PGPR Bacillus xiamenensis PM14 activating sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) red rot disease resistance.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2020 Jun 16;151:640-649. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Sustainability in crop production has emerged as one of the most important concerns of present era's agricultural systems. Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) has been characterized as a set of microorganisms used for enhancing plant growth and a tool for biological control of phytopathogens. However, the inconsistent performance of these bacteria from laboratory/greenhouse to field level has emerged due to prevailing abiotic stresses in fields. Sugarcane crop encounters a combination of biotic and abiotic stresses during its long developmental stages. Nevertheless, the selection of antagonistic PGPB with abiotic stress tolerance would be beneficial for end-user by the successful establishment of product with required effects under field conditions. Stress tolerant Bacillus xiamenensis strain (PM14) isolated from the sugarcane rhizosphere grown in the fields was examined for various PGP activities, enzyme assays, and antibiotic resistance. Strain was screened for in vitro tolerance against drought, salinity, heat stress, and heavy metal toxicity. Inhibition co-efficient of B. xiamenensis PM14 was also calculated against six phyto-pathogenic fungi, including Colletotrichum falcatum (53.81), Fusarium oxysporum (68.24), Fusarium moniliforme (69.70), Rhizoctonia solani (71.62), Macrophomina phaseolina (67.50), and Pythium splendens (77.58). B. xiamenensis is reported here for the first time as the rhizospheric bacterium which possesses resistance against 12 antibiotics and positive results for all in vitro PGP traits except HCN production. Role of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase in the amelioration of biotic and abiotic stress was also supported by the amplification of acds gene. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo experiments revealed B. xiamenensis as the potential antagonistic PGPR and bio-control agent. Results of greenhouse experiment against sugarcane red rot indicated that inoculation of B. xiamenensis to sugarcane plants could suppress the disease symptoms and enhance plant growth. Augmented production of antioxidative enzymes and proline content may lead to the induced systemic resistance against red rot disease of sugarcane. Thus, the future application of native multi-stress tolerant bacteria as bio-control agents in combination with current heat, drought, salinity, and heavy metal tolerance strategy could contribute towards the global food security.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.04.016DOI Listing
June 2020

Effect of Citric Acid on Growth, Ecophysiology, Chloroplast Ultrastructure, and Phytoremediation Potential of Jute ( L.) Seedlings Exposed to Copper Stress.

Biomolecules 2020 04 11;10(4). Epub 2020 Apr 11.

Department of Botany, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan.

Soil and water contamination from heavy metals and metalloids is one of the most discussed and caused adverse effects on food safety and marketability, crop growth due to phytotoxicity, and environmental health of soil organisms. A hydroponic investigation was executed to evaluate the influence of citric acid (CA) on copper (Cu) phytoextraction potential of jute ( L.). Three-weeks-old seedlings of were exposed to different Cu concentrations (0, 50, and 100 μM) with or without the application of CA (2 mM) in a nutrient growth medium. The results revealed that exposure of various levels of Cu by 50 and 100 μM significantly ( < 0.05) reduced plant growth, biomass, chlorophyll contents, gaseous exchange attributes, and damaged ultra-structure of chloroplast in seedlings. Furthermore, Cu toxicity also enhanced the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) which indicated the Cu-induced oxidative damage in the leaves of seedlings. Increasing the level of Cu in the nutrient solution significantly increased Cu uptake by the roots and shoots of seedlings. The application of CA into the nutrient medium significantly alleviated Cu phytotoxicity effects on seedlings as seen by plant growth and biomass, chlorophyll contents, gaseous exchange attributes, and ultra-structure of chloroplast. Moreover, CA supplementation also alleviated Cu-induced oxidative stress by reducing the contents of MDA. In addition, application of CA is helpful in increasing phytoremediation potential of the plant by increasing Cu concentration in the roots and shoots of the plants which is manifested by increasing the values of bioaccumulation (BAF) and translocation factors (TF) also. These observations depicted that application of CA could be a useful approach to assist Cu phytoextraction and stress tolerance against Cu in seedlings grown in Cu contaminated sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10040592DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226093PMC
April 2020

Use of Nitric Oxide and Hydrogen Peroxide for Better Yield of Wheat ( L.) under Water Deficit Conditions: Growth, Osmoregulation, and Antioxidative Defense Mechanism.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Feb 22;9(2). Epub 2020 Feb 22.

Department of Biology, College of Science, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh 11474, Saudi Arabia.

The present experiment was carried out to study the influences of exogenously-applied nitric oxide (NO) donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and hydrogen peroxide (HO) as seed primers on growth and yield in relation with different physio-biochemical parameters, antioxidant activities, and osmolyte accumulation in wheat plants grown under control (100% field capacity) and water stress (60% field capacity) conditions. During soaking, the seeds were covered and kept in completely dark. Drought stress markedly reduced the plant growth, grain yield, leaf photosynthetic pigments, total phenolic content (TPC), total soluble proteins (TSP), leaf water potential (Ψ), leaf turgor potential (Ψ), osmotic potential (Ψ), and leaf relative water content (LRWC), while it increased the activities of enzymatic antioxidants and the accumulation of leaf ascorbic acid (AsA), proline (Pro), glycine betaine (GB), malondialdehyde (MDA), and HO. However, seed priming with SNP and HO alone and in combination mitigated the deleterious effects of water stress on growth and yield by improving the Ψ, Ψ, Ψ, photosynthetic pigments, osmolytes accumulation (GB and Pro), TSP, and the antioxidative defense mechanism. Furthermore, the application of NO and HO as seed primers also reduced the accumulation of HO and MDA contents. The effectiveness was treatment-specific and the combined application was also found to be effective. The results revealed that exogenous application of NO and HO was effective in increasing the tolerance of wheat plants under drought stress in terms of growth and grain yield by regulating plant-water relations, the antioxidative defense mechanism, and accumulation of osmolytes, and by reducing the membrane lipid peroxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9020285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7076392PMC
February 2020

Assisted phytoremediation of chromium spiked soils by Sesbania Sesban in association with Bacillus xiamenensis PM14: A biochemical analysis.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2020 Jan 13;146:249-258. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Due to anthropogenic activities, chromium (Cr) contamination is ubiquitous with deleterious effects on plant and soil microbiota. Present study was designed to address beneficial effects of Bacillus xiamenensis PM14 on Sesbania sesban. Its physiological and biochemical attributes along with enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities under different levels of Cr toxicity (50, 100 and 200 mg kg) were evaluated. After harvesting at 50 days of sowing, plant growth attributes (root and shoot length, fresh and dry weight), physiological parameters (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid content), antioxidant activities (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase), malondialdehyde content, electrolyte leakage, proline, relative water content and total Cr uptake in S. sesban were recorded. Experiment was statistically managed as complete randomized design (CRD). Results revealed that Cr stress reduced plant growth, relative water content at all levels of Cr contamination. However, inoculation of B. xiamenensis PM14 positively influence all parameters of S. sesban both under normal and stressed conditions. Inoculation of B. xiamenensis PM14 promoted plant growth (root length 17.08%, shoot length 28.36%) physiological attributes (chlorophyll a 55.26%, chlorophyll b 59.13%), antioxidant activities (superoxide dismutase 30.09%, peroxidase 6.96% and catalase 0.89%), relative water content 25.79%, enhanced total Cr uptake 47.33% and reduced proline 12.33%, malondialdehyde content 27.53% and electrolyte leakage 2.73% in S. sesban at 200 mg kg Cr stress as compared to uninoculated plants grown under the same level of Cr. Our findings revealed first report of B. xiamenensis as phytoremediator and its inoculation on Sesbania plant. It also exposed dual effects of B. xiamenensis to ameliorate Cr stress along with improved plant growth and induced heavy metal stress tolerance in spiked soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2019.11.010DOI Listing
January 2020

The effect of lead pollution on nutrient solution pH and concomitant changes in plant physiology of two contrasting Solanum melongena L. cultivars.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Nov 25;26(33):34633-34644. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan.

Lead (Pb) is highly toxic to plants because it severely affects physiological processes by altering nutrient solution pH. The current study elucidated Pb-induced changes in nutrient solution pH and its effect on physiology of two Solanum melongena L. cultivars (cv. Chuttu and cv. VRIB-13). Plants were grown in black plastic containers having 0, 15, 20, and 25 mg L PbCl in nutrient solutions with starting pH of 6.0. pH changes by roots of S. melongena were continuously monitored for 8 days, and harvested plants were analyzed for physiological and biochemical attributes. Time scale studies revealed that cv. Chuttu and cv. VRIB-13 responded to Pb stress by causing acidification and alkalinization of growth medium during the first 48 h, respectively. Both cultivars increased nutrient solution pH, and maximum pH rise of 1.21 units was culminated by cv. VRIB-13 at 15 mg L Pb and 0.8 units by cv. Chuttu at 25 mg L Pb treatment during the 8-day period. Plant biomass, photosynthetic pigments, ascorbic acid, total amino acid, and total protein contents were significantly reduced by Pb stress predominantly in cv. Chuttu than cv. VRIB-13. Interestingly, chlorophyll contents of cv. VRIB-13 increased with increasing Pb levels. Pb contents of roots and shoots of both cultivars increased with applied Pb levels while nutrient (Ca, Mg, K, and Fe) contents decreased predominately in cv. Chuttu. Negative correlations were identified among Pb contents of eggplant roots and shoots and plant biomasses, leaf area, and free anthocyanin. Taken together, growth medium alkalinization, lower root to shoot Pb translocation, and optimum balance of nutrients (Mg and Fe) conferred growth enhancement, ultimately making cv. VRIB-13 auspicious for tolerating Pb toxicity as compared with cv. Chuttu. The research outcomes are important for devising metallicolous plant-associated strategies based on plant pH modulation response and associated metal uptake to remediate Pb-polluted soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-06575-zDOI Listing
November 2019

Alpha-tocopherol fertigation confers growth physio-biochemical and qualitative yield enhancement in field grown water deficit wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

Sci Rep 2019 09 9;9(1):12924. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Water stress is a major problem to fulfill the world food demand and to solve the problem of malnutrition. Different strategies are being used to solve these problems including the fertigation of plants with different biochemical at different growth stages. The present study was conducted for the induction of drought tolerance in field grown wheat for better yield and nutritional quality through foliar spray of α-tocopherol (α-Toc) at start of reproductive stage. Water stress was maintained based on number of irrigation. Three levels of α-Toc 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 mM were applied as foliar spray. Water stress significantly reduced the biomass production that associated with the decreased photosynthetic pigments, water relation, photosynthetic efficiency, but increased the lipid peroxidation, leaf relative membrane permeability, activities of antioxidant enzymes and the contents of phenolic, flavonoids, α-toc and ASA. Water stress also negatively effected the different yield attributes and seed nutrient quality. Foliar fertigation of wheat plants with α-Toc significantly improved the water stress tolerance of wheat plants in term of improvement in growth and seed yield associated with improved water relations, photosynthetic efficiency, contents of photosynthetic pigments and improvement in antioxidative defence mechanism (enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants). Fertigation of water stressed wheat plants with α-Toc also improved the seed nutritional quality in terms of the contents of seed phenolics, flavonoids, activities of antioxidant enzymes and the content of α-, β- and γ-tocopherols. In conclusion, it was found that fertigation of water stressed wheat plants not only improved the water stress tolerance but also improved the seed yield and nutritional quality that will not only be helpful for the improvement in wheat yield that also be a step to solve the problem of malnutrition through the bio-fertification of α-Toc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-49481-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6733879PMC
September 2019

Mechanistic elucidation of germination potential and growth of wheat inoculated with exopolysaccharide and ACC- deaminase producing Bacillus strains under induced salinity stress.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Nov 10;183:109466. Epub 2019 Aug 10.

Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan. Electronic address:

The potential of plant growth regulating microorganisms present in the soil can be explored towards the purpose of identifying salt tolerant strategies and crop cultivars. Current study was designed to elucidate the capabilities of salt stress tolerant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) Bacillus siamensis (PM13), Bacillus sp. (PM15) and Bacillus methylotrophicus (PM19) in undermining the effects of salt stress on wheat seedling. Strains were characterized for their IAA (81-113 μM/ml), ACC-deaminase (0.68-0.95 μM/mg protein/h) and exopolysaccharide (EPS) (0.62-0.97 mg/ml) producing activity both under normal and NaCl stressed conditions. Effects of bacterial inoculation on germination and seedling growth of wheat variety Pakistan-13 was observed under induced salinity stress levels (0, 4, 8, 16 dS/m). All the morpho-physiological characteristics of wheat seedlings were affected drastically by the NaCl stress and the growth parameters expressed a negative relationship with increased NaCl levels. PGPR application had a very positive influence on germination rate of wheat seedlings, root and shoot length, photosynthetic pigments etc. Elongated roots and enhanced vegetative shoot growth as well as seedling's fresh and dry weights were highest in plants treated with B. methylotrophicus PM19. Sequestration of Na ion by EPS production and degradation of exuded ACC into a-ketobutyrate and ammonia by ACCD bacteria efficiently reduced the impact of salinity stress on wheat growth. Current findings suggested that the used PGPR strains are potential candidates for improving crop growth in salt stressed agricultural systems. However further research validation would be necessary before large scale/field application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.109466DOI Listing
November 2019

Evaluation of a Strain Isolated from Honeybee Gut as a Potential Live Oral Vaccine Against Lethal Infection of Typhimurium.

Pol J Microbiol 2019 ;68(2):173-183

Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Agriculture , Faisalabad, Punjab , Pakistan.

In this research, species were isolated from the animal, insect and human enteric sources in Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. These species were characterized by different microbiological and molecular techniques including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. Furthermore, sequencing of the amplicons confirmed all ten isolates as strains. The antigenic cross-reactivity was found maximum between the HB1 (strain isolated from honeybee) antiserum and its antigen with an antibody titer of 1:128, while the HB1 antiserum showed a cross-reactive titer range of 1:8 to 1:64. On the basis of the highest geometric mean titer (GMT) shown by the antiserum of the HB1 antigen, it was selected as the best candidate for a cross-reactive live oral antigen. Moreover, the HB1 antigen was used a live oral antigen (1 × 10 CFU/ml) in a safety test in rabbits and proved to be avirulent. During the animal trial, three different oral doses of the HB1 live oral antigen were evaluated in four different rabbits' groups (R1, R2, R3, and R4). The dose number 2 of 0.5 ml (two drops orally and repeated after one week) gave the best GMT measured by indirect hemagglutination (IHA) as compared to the other two doses, while R4 group was kept as control. Results of the challenge protection test also validated the efficacy of the double dose of the HB1 live vaccine, which gave the highest survival percentage. Results of this study lay the foundation for a potential cross-reactive live oral vaccine that has proved to be immunogenic in rabbits.

In this research, species were isolated from the animal, insect and human enteric sources in Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan. These species were characterized by different microbiological and molecular techniques including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by amplification of the 16S rRNA gene. Furthermore, sequencing of the amplicons confirmed all ten isolates as strains. The antigenic cross-reactivity was found maximum between the HB1 (strain isolated from honeybee) antiserum and its antigen with an antibody titer of 1:128, while the HB1 antiserum showed a cross-reactive titer range of 1:8 to 1:64. On the basis of the highest geometric mean titer (GMT) shown by the antiserum of the HB1 antigen, it was selected as the best candidate for a cross-reactive live oral antigen. Moreover, the HB1 antigen was used a live oral antigen (1 × 10 CFU/ml) in a safety test in rabbits and proved to be avirulent. During the animal trial, three different oral doses of the HB1 live oral antigen were evaluated in four different rabbits’ groups (R1, R2, R3, and R4). The dose number 2 of 0.5 ml (two drops orally and repeated after one week) gave the best GMT measured by indirect hemagglutination (IHA) as compared to the other two doses, while R4 group was kept as control. Results of the challenge protection test also validated the efficacy of the double dose of the HB1 live vaccine, which gave the highest survival percentage. Results of this study lay the foundation for a potential cross-reactive live oral vaccine that has proved to be immunogenic in rabbits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21307/pjm-2019-017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7260634PMC
July 2019

Amelioration of toxicopathological effects of cadmium with silymarin and milk thistle in male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Jul 23;26(21):21371-21380. Epub 2019 May 23.

Department of Pathology, Chulistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bahawalpur, Pakistan.

Cadmium is an important widely distributed heavy metal in the environment due to its several industrial uses, while milk thistle is an important herb and is a source of several antioxidant particularly silymarin which is a pharmacological active substance present in seeds of milk thistle plant (Silybum marianum). The current study investigated pathological effects of cadmium (Cd) and their amelioration with silymarin (SL) and milk thistle (MT) quails. A total of 144 quails were equally divided into 9 groups and given different combinations of cadmium chloride (150 and 300 mg/kg feed), SL (250 mg/kg), and MT (10 g/kg) feed. Parameters studied were clinical signs, mortality, organ weights, testes weight and volume, and gross and microscopic pathology. Results of this study indicated an increased mortality and reduced body weight in cadmium-treated quails. Quails were dull, depressed compared with control. Swollen hemorrhagic liver along with atrophied testes were also observed in these groups. No active spermatozoa were observed in lumen of seminiferous tubules of Cd-treated birds presenting arrest of spermatogenesis. Supplementing MT and SL ameliorated mortality, organ weights, spermatogenesis, and histopathological lesions. It may be concluded that MT and SL proved beneficial in cadmium-induced toxicities in Japanese quails.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-05385-7DOI Listing
July 2019

Induction of tolerance to salinity in wheat genotypes by plant growth promoting endophytes: Involvement of ACC deaminase and antioxidant enzymes.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2019 Jun 1;139:569-577. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, 45320, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Plant growth-promoting endophytes (PGPEs) can colonize the internal tissues of plants and are capable of promoting plant growth. These bacteria can improve plant tolerance against various biotic and abiotic stresses via the expression of antioxidant enzymes and the production of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase. Two salt-tolerant PGPEs, Kocuria rhizophila: KF875448 (14ASP) and Cronobacter sakazakii: KM042090 (OF115), with ACC deaminase activity were investigated for their potential to ameliorate plant salinity stress. The wheat varieties Pasban 90 and Khirman were subjected to two levels of salt stress (80 and 160 mM NaCl) under greenhouse conditions by using a completely randomized design. Analyses of plant growth parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities, chlorophyll and plant mineral contents were conducted to investigate the stress tolerance induced by the PGPEs. The ACC utilization by the PGPEs directly relates to the promotion of plant growth due to the lowering of excess ethylene production under salt stress. High levels of NaCl exhibited negative effects in both varieties. However, inoculation with PGPEs increased the morphological traits and antioxidant activities of the plants while decreasing the Na contents in all treatments compared to uninoculated treatment. Wheat variety Pasban 90 was more tolerant than Khirman in to salt stress in all the measured morphological and biochemical parameters, while the bacterial strain OF115 performed significantly better in all morphological and biochemical parameters, such as fresh dry weight, root shoot length, proline and chlorophyll contents, compared to strain 14ASP. The K/Na ratio in the tissues of bacterial treated plants was higher than the control, probably in order to maintain the nutrient balance. The results of our study revealed that the inoculation of plants by ACC deaminase-producing PGPEs is a potential tool for the enhancement of plant growth and stress tolerance. Moreover, endophytic bacteria allied with host plants are capable of enduring high saline conditions and can interact with plants in a very efficient way.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2019.03.041DOI Listing
June 2019

Transcriptome analysis reveals the molecular mechanism of hepatic metabolism disorder caused by chromium poisoning in chickens.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Jun 21;25(16):15411-15421. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, People's Republic of China.

Chromium (Cr) is one of the most important environmental pollutants which are released into the environment due to their wide usage in numerous industries. The excess of Cr (VI) can induce hepatotoxicity, while the molecular mechanism that is involved in Cr (VI)-induced hepatotoxicity is unclear. We demonstrated the induction of chromium poisoning model in chickens to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs), and their functions were analyzed under different physiological and pathological conditions. Histopathological examination and transcriptome data for chromium-poisoned livers and control livers were annotated with Illumina® HiSeq 2000. The histopathological examination in chromium poisoning groups showed diapedesis, hemolysis, degeneration, nucleus pycnosis, and central phlebectasia in the liver. A total of 334 genes were upregulated and 509 genes were downregulated. The most strongly upregulated genes were HKDC1, DDX4, ACACA, FDFT1, CYYR1, PPP1R3C, and SLC16A14, while the most downregulated genes were MYBPC3, CCKAR, PCK1, and CPT1A. A Gene Ontology (GO) term with the highest enrichment of DEGs is small molecule metabolic process. In cell component domain, the term with the highest enrichment is extracellular matrix. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways showed that glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and protein metabolism were the most important metabolic pathways in the liver. The current study first time provides important clues and evidence for identifying the differentially expressed genes in livers due to Cr (VI)-induced liver injury in chickens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1653-7DOI Listing
June 2018

Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Pseudorabies virus infection in Tibetan pigs in Tibet.

BMC Vet Res 2018 Jan 22;14(1):25. Epub 2018 Jan 22.

Key laboratory of clinical veterinary medicine in Tibet, Tibet Agriculture and Animal Husbandry College, Linzhi, 860000, Tibet, People's Republic of China.

Background: Pseudorabies (PR) is an important emerging infectious disease that is characterized by fever, extreme itching and encephalomyelitis. However, it is still unclear whether Tibetan pigs are exposed to Pseudorabies virus (PRV) or not. The present study was conducted to investigate the seroprevalence of PRV infection in Tibetan pigs in Nyingchi area of Tibet through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 368 serum samples from Tibetan pigs were collected during 2015.

Results: Results showed that 58 (15.76%) samples were found positive for PRV antibodies with further distribution of 18.23%, 13.42% and 6.25% from Nyingchi, Mainling and Gongbo'gyamda areas on the Tibetan plateau, respectively; along with 12.10%, 17.71% and 17.57% prevalence of PRV in juveniles, sub-adults and adults, respectively. The prevalence of PRV infection between male (14.61%) and female (16.84%) showed non-significant difference (P > 0.05). The risk factors of infection were found to be associated with feed type, age and altitude.

Conclusions: The present study depicts a serious concern with a new emerging infectious disease in Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-018-1347-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5778615PMC
January 2018

Deciphering the growth, organic acid exudations, and ionic homeostasis of Amaranthus viridis L. and Portulaca oleracea L. under lead chloride stress.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Jan 16;25(3):2958-2971. Epub 2017 Nov 16.

Department of Botany, Faculty of Life Sciences, Government College University, Faisalabad, 38000, Pakistan.

Lead (Pb) stress adversely affects in planta nutrient homeostasis and metabolism when present at elevated concentration in the surrounding media. The present study was aimed at investigation of organic acid exudations, elemental contents, growth, and lipid peroxidation in two wild plants (Amaranthus viridis L. and Portulaca oleracea L.), exhibiting differential root to shoot Pb translocation, under Pb stress. Plants were placed in soil spiked with lead chloride (PbCl) concentrations of 0, 15, 30, 45, or 60 mg Pb/kg soil, in rhizoboxes supplied with nylon nets around the roots. The plant mucilage taken from root surfaces, mirroring the rhizospheric solution, was analyzed for various organic acids. Lead stress resulted in a release of basified root exudates from both plants. Exudates of P. oleracea roots showed a higher pH. In both plants, the pH rising effect was diminished at the highest Pb treatment level. The exudation of citric acid, glutamic acid (in both plants), and fumaric acid (in P. oleracea only) was significantly increased with applied Pb levels. In both plant species, root and shoot Pb contents increased while nutrients (Ca, Mg, and K) decreased with increasing Pb treatment levels, predominantly in A. viridis. At 60 mg Pb/kg soil, shoot Na content of A. viridis was significantly higher as compared to untreated control. Higher Pb treatment levels decreased plant fresh and dry masses as well as the quantity of photosynthetic pigments due to enhanced levels of plant HO and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in both species. Photosynthetic, growth, and oxidative stress parameters were grouped into three distinct dendrogram sections depending on their similarities under Pb stress. A positive correlation was identified between Pb contents of studied plants and secretion of different organic acids. It is concluded that Pb stress significantly impaired the growth of A. viridis and P. oleracea as a result of nutritional ion imbalance, and the response was cultivar-specific and dependent on exogenous applied Pb levels. Differential lipid oxidation, uptake of nutrients (Ca, Mg, and K) and exudation of citric acid, fumaric acid, and glutamic acid could serve as suitable physiological indicators for adaptations of P. oleracea to Pb enriched environment. The findings may help in devising strategies for Pb stabilization to soil colloids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0735-2DOI Listing
January 2018

Intestinal epithelial cell injury induced by copper containing nanoparticles in piglets.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2017 Dec 18;56:151-156. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

The nano copper has been widely used in modern clinical medicine practice. However, it has been noticed that nano copper particles induce cell injury and toxicity. The present study was designed to determine the effect of nano copper particles on cell injury of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in piglets. The IECs were treated with different doses of nano copper (5, 10, 20 and 40μg/ml) for 24-48h to observe cell injury and toxicity. Cell injury was measured based on morphological and other changes including oxidative stress and genes expression. The oxidative stress markers were assayed by differential expression levels of SOD, MDA and Metallothionein (MT) in addition to CTR1, SOD1, COX17, MT and ATOX1 genes expression. Cellular morphology showed an increasing growth of cells without nano copper treatment and nano copper showed significant damage to IECs with higher dose as compared to low dose. Higher doses of copper nanoparticles (10, 20 and 40μg/ml) have membrane damaging effect on the intestinal epithelial cells, whereas MDA contents and MT value were significantly increased, and SOD activity was decreased with the increase in concentration of nanoparticles. Nano copper up-regulated the CTR1 and SOD1 genes and down-regulated the relative expression of COX17, MT and ATOX1 genes significantly in a dose-dependent manner. The findings of the current study provide important insights that nano copper plays an important role in intestinal epithelial cell injury and oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2017.09.010DOI Listing
December 2017
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