Publications by authors named "Muhammad Sajid"

270 Publications

Layered double hydroxide-modified membranes for water treatment: Recent advances and prospects.

Chemosphere 2021 Sep 1;287(Pt 1):132140. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Chemistry Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, 31261, Saudi Arabia.

Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) represent an exciting class of two-dimensional inorganic materials with unique physicochemical properties. They have been widely employed in water treatment due to their high surface areas, excellent ion exchange capacities, and highly tunable structures. They have also been employed in the fabrication and development of membranes for water treatment. 2D nanostructures as well as tailorable "structure forming units", surface functionalization with desired moieties, and interlayer galleries with adjustable heights and internal compositions make them attractive materials for membrane separations. This paper critically overviews the recent advancements in the synthesis and applications of LDH based membranes in water purification. The synthesis techniques and the effect of LDH incorporation into different membrane compositions have been described. LDH-based membranes showed excellent antifouling capability and improved water flux due to enhanced hydrophilicity. Such membranes have been successfully used for the treatment of inorganics, organics from environmental water samples. This review will be useful for understanding the current state of the LDH-based membranes for water purification and defining future research dimensions. In the end, we highlight some challenges and future prospects for the efficient application of LDH-based membranes in water decontamination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132140DOI Listing
September 2021

An ensemble framework based on Deep CNNs architecture for glaucoma classification using fundus photography.

Math Biosci Eng 2021 Jun;18(5):5321-5346

Faculty of Electrical Engineering, GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi 23640, District Swabi, KPK, Pakistan.

Glaucoma is a chronic ocular degenerative disease that can cause blindness if left untreated in its early stages. Deep Convolutional Neural Networks (Deep CNNs) and its variants have provided superior performance in glaucoma classification, segmentation, and detection. In this paper, we propose a two-staged glaucoma classification scheme based on Deep CNN architectures. In stage one, four different ImageNet pre-trained Deep CNN architectures, i.e., AlexNet, InceptionV3, InceptionResNetV2, and NasNet-Large are used and it is observed that NasNet-Large architecture provides superior performance in terms of sensitivity (99.1%), specificity (99.4%), accuracy (99.3%), and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (97.8%) metrics. A detailed performance comparison is also presented among these on public datasets, i.e., ACRIMA, ORIGA-Light, and RIM-ONE as well as locally available datasets, i.e., AFIO, and HMC. In the second stage, we propose an ensemble classifier with two novel ensembling techniques, i.e., accuracy based weighted voting, and accuracy/score based weighted averaging to further improve the glaucoma classification results. It is shown that ensemble with accuracy/score based scheme improves the accuracy (99.5%) for diverse databases. As an outcome of this study, it is presented that the NasNet-Large architecture is a feasible option in terms of its performance as a single classifier while ensemble classifier further improves the generalized performance for automatic glaucoma classification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/mbe.2021270DOI Listing
June 2021

Exploration of ethnomedicinal plants and their practices in human and livestock healthcare in Haripur District, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2021 Sep 8;17(1):55. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Mathematics, College of Science Al-Zulfi, Majmaah University, Al-Majmaah, 11952, Saudi Arabia.

Background: The utilization of plants and plant resources for various ethnobotanical purposes is a common practice in local towns and villages of developing countries, especially in regard to human and veterinary healthcare. For this reason, it is important to unveil and document ethnomedicinal plants and their traditional/folk usage for human and livestock healthcare from unexplored areas. Here we advance our findings on ethnomedicinal plants from Haripur District, Pakistan, not only for conservation purposes, but also for further pharmacological screenings and applied research.

Methodology: Information of ethnomedicinal plants was obtained using a carefully planned questionnaire and interviews from 80 local people and traditional healers (Hakims) in Haripur District, Pakistan, from 2015 to 2017. Informed consent was obtained from each participant before conducting the interview process. Quantitative ethnobotanical indices, such as relative frequency of citation (RFC), use value (UV) and Jaccard index (JI), were calculated for each recorded species. Correlation analysis between the RFC and UV was tested by Pearson's correlation, SPSS (ver. 16).

Results: A total of 80 plant species (33 herbs, 24 trees, 21 shrubs and 2 climbers) belonging to 50 families were being used in the study area to treat livestock and human diseases. Lamiaceae was the most dominant family with 7 species (8.7%), followed by Fabaceae with 6 species (7.5%), and Moraceae with 5 species (6.2%). Local people used different methods of preparation for different plant parts; among them, decoction/tea (22 species) was the popular method, followed by powder/grained (20 species) and paste/poultice (14 species). It was observed that most of the species (~ 12 to 16 species) were utilized to treat human and livestock digestive system-related problems, respectively. The Jaccard index found that plant usage in two studies (District Abbottabad and Sulaiman Range) was more comparable. Local people mainly relied on folk medicines due to their rich accessibility, low cost and higher efficacy against diseases. Unfortunately, this important traditional knowledge is vanishing fast, and many medicinal plants are under severe threat. The most threats associated to species observed in the study area include Dehri, Garmthun, Baghpur, Najafpur and Pharala.

Conclusion: The study has indicated that local people have higher confidence in the usage of ethnomedicinal plants and are still using them for the treatment of various ailments. Comparative analysis with other studies may strongly reflected the novel use of these plants, which may be due to the deep-rooted and unique socio-cultural setup of the study area. However, awareness campaigns, conservation efforts and pharmacological and applied research are required for further exploration and may be a step in the right direction to unveil prospective pharmaceuticals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13002-021-00480-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8424965PMC
September 2021

Hybrid Cyclic-Linear Cell-Penetrating Peptides Containing Alternative Positively Charged and Hydrophobic Residues as Molecular Transporters.

Mol Pharm 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Center for Targeted Drug Delivery, Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chapman University School of Pharmacy, Harry and Diane Rinker Health Science Campus, Irvine, California 92618, United States.

The cell membrane properties create a significant obstacle in intracellular delivery of cell-impermeable and negatively charged molecules. Herein, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel series of hybrid cyclic-linear peptides containing alternative positive and hydrophobic amino acids on the ring and side chain [(RW)]K(RW) ( = 1-5) to compare their molecular transporter efficiency. The peptides were synthesized through Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis. In vitro cytotoxicity of the peptides showed that the peptides did not exhibit any significant cytotoxicity at the concentration of 10 μM in human leukemia carcinoma cell line (CCRF-CEM), human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells (SK-OV-3), human epithelial embryonic kidney healthy (HEK-293), and human epithelial mammary gland adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-MB-231) after 3 h incubation. The cellular uptake of a fluorescence-labeled phosphopeptide (F'-GpYEEI) and anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drugs (lamivudine (F'-3TC), emtricitabine (F'-FTC), Stavudine (F'-d4T)), where F' is carboxyfluorescein, was measured in the presence of the peptides in CCRF-CEM and SK-OV-3 cells. Among all peptides, [(RW)K](RW) (10 μM) was the most efficient transporter that improved the cellular uptake of F'-GpYEEI (2 μM) by 18- and 11-fold in CCRF-CEM and SK-OV-3, respectively, compared with F'-GpYEEI alone. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis results indicated that the cellular uptake of fluorescence-labeled peptide (F'-[(RW)K](RW)) was only partially inhibited by chlorpromazine as an endocytosis inhibitor after 3 h incubation in MDA-MB-231 cells. These data suggest the potential of this series of hybrid cyclic-linear peptides as cell-penetrating peptides and molecular transporters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.1c00594DOI Listing
September 2021

Scientific premise for the involvement of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT).

J Leukoc Biol 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Following on from the devastating spread of COVID-19, a major global priority has been the production, procurement, and distribution of effective vaccines to ensure that the global pandemic reaches an end. However, concerns were raised about worrying side effects, particularly the occurrence of thrombosis and thrombocytopenia after administration of the Oxford/AstraZeneca and Johnson & Johnson's Janssen COVID-19 vaccine, in a phenomenon being termed vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT). Similar to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), this condition has been associated with the development of anti-platelet factor 4 antibodies, purportedly leading to neutrophil-platelet aggregate formation. Although thrombosis has also been a common association with COVID-19, the precise molecular mechanisms governing its occurrence are yet to be established. Recently, increasing evidence highlights the NLRP3 (NOD-like, leucine-rich repeat domains, and pyrin domain-containing protein) inflammasome complex along with IL-1β and effete neutrophils producing neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) through NETosis. Herein, we propose and discuss that perhaps the incidence of VITT may be due to inflammatory reactions mediated via IL-1β/NLRP3 inflammasome activation and consequent overproduction of NETs, where similar autoimmune mechanisms are observed in HIT. We also discuss avenues by which such modalities could be treated to prevent the occurrence of adverse events and ensure vaccine rollouts remain safe and on target to end the current pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JLB.5COVR0621-320RRDOI Listing
September 2021

Students' and Faculty Perspectives Toward the Role and Value of the Hidden Curriculum in Undergraduate Medical Education: a Qualitative Study from Saudi Arabia.

Med Sci Educ 2021 Apr 8;31(2):753-764. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Pathology, Alfaisal University, Takhassusi street, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

A hidden medical curriculum is defined as the unwritten, unofficial, and unintended learning that students experience in medical school along with more formal aspects of education. This term describes the behaviours, attitudes, assumptions and beliefs conveyed by teachers, peers and the surrounding environment. However, more research is needed to evaluate its impact on student and faculty interactions in this context. We conducted this qualitative study utilizing focus group and semi-structured interviews of students and faculty to evaluate the perspectives of medical students and faculty toward the role and impact of the hidden medical curriculum in medical education at Alfaisal University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Data was analysed using open-, axial- and selective-coding using thematic framework analysis. Interviewees consisted of 24 students in years 1-3 during the spring semester 2018-2019, 8 faculty members and 4 teaching assistants. We identified six core themes of hidden curriculum at Alfaisal University (Appendix). Role and behavioural modelling, value-based teaching, interpersonal faculty-student interactions, effects of diversity and socialization, teaching methodologies and hidden curriculum, mentoring and student support systems. Although some of the themes identified in these focus group interviews were similar to previously published studies, the novel themes that we identified were diversity, socialization and interpersonal faculty-student interactions. We conclude that identifying the issues pertaining to hidden curriculum is important for the development of medical students and for nurturing and upholding the values that we want to instil in our future physicians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40670-021-01247-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8368115PMC
April 2021

A secondary approach with conventional medicines and supplements to recuperate current COVID-19 status.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jul 27;142:111956. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

School of Pharmacy, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710061, China. Electronic address:

Novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is a zoonosis that revised the global economic and societal progress since early 2020. The SARS-CoV-2 has been recognized as the responsible pathogen for COVID-19 with high infection and mortality rate potential. It has spread in 192 countries and infected about 1.5% of the world population, and still, a proper therapeutic approach is not unveiled. COVID-19 indication starts with fever to shortness of breathing, leading to ICU admission with the ventilation support in severe conditions. Besides the symptomatic mainstay clinical therapeutic approach, only Remdesivir has been approved by the FDA. Several pharmaceutical companies claimed different vaccines with exceptionally high efficacy (90-95%) against COVID-19; how long these vaccines can protect and long-term safety with the new variants are unpredictable. After the worldwide spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, numerous clinical trials with different phases are being performed to find the most appropriate solution to this condition. Some of these trials with old FDA-approved drugs showed promising results. In this review, we have precisely compiled the efforts to curb the disease and discussed the clinical findings of Ivermectin, Doxycycline, Vitamin-D, Vitamin-C, Zinc, and cannabidiol and their combinations. Additionally, the correlation of these molecules on the prophylactic and diseased ministration against COVID-19 has been explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111956DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313489PMC
July 2021

Synthesis, in vitro antiurease, in vivo antinematodal activity of quinoline analogs and their in-silico study.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Jul 22;115:105199. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

H. E. J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan.

Synthesis of quinoline analogs and their urease inhibitory activities with reference to the standard drug, thiourea (IC = 21.86 ± 0.40 µM) are presented in this study. The inhibitory activity range is (IC = 0.60 ± 0.01 to 24.10 ± 0.70 µM) which displayed that it is most potent class of urease inhibitor. Analog 1-9, and 11-13 emerged with many times greater antiurease potential than thiourea, in which analog 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, and 11 (IC = 3.50 ± 0.10, 7.20 ± 0.20, 1.30 ± 0.10, 2.30 ± 0.10, 0.60 ± 0.01, 1.05 ± 0.10 and 2.60 ± 0.10 µM respectively) were appeared the most potent ones among the series. In this context, most potent analogs such as 1, 3, 4, 8, and 9 were further subjected for their in vitro antinematodal study against C. elegans to examine its cytotoxicity under positive control of standard drug, Levamisole. Consequently, the cytotoxicity profile displayed that analogs 3, 8, and 9 were found with minimum cytotoxic outline at higher concentration (500 µg/mL). All analogs were characterized through H NMR, C NMR and HR-EIMS. The protein-ligand binding interaction for most potent analogs was confirmed via molecular docking study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.105199DOI Listing
July 2021

A methodologically sound survey of Chinese consumers' willingness to participate in courier, express, and parcel companies' green logistics.

PLoS One 2021 30;16(7):e0255532. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Anhui Vocational College of Electronics and Information Technology, Bengbu, Anhui, China.

The environmental footprint of courier, express, and parcel (CEP) logistics is significant and growing, owing to increased e-commerce. Consumer willingness to participate in the green logistics of CEPs, however, has been understudied. This study addresses this knowledge gap by surveying 155 Chinese consumers about their willingness to participate in CEP green logistics. Additionally, this research identifies some technical issues with previous survey research. Three main factors were extracted after the data were tested for reliability and validity using exploratory factor analysis with principal axis factor extraction and confirmatory factor analysis with diagonally weighted least squares. Consumer willingness is positively correlated with economic (8 items), operational (3 items), and social (3 items) factors, with a statistical significance of p < 0.001. Of all the factors, the strongest correlation, 0.67 (95% CI = 0.57, 0.75; p < 0.001; N = 155), exists between economic factors and consumer willingness. The results of a multinomial logistic regression analysis suggest that all consumers are highly unlikely to participate in economic factors, while they are highly likely to positively commit to operational and social factors. Therefore, it is recommended that the government provides monetary incentives to CEP companies to adopt green logistics, such as tax reductions and subsidies, to reduce the costs of green logistics. Meanwhile, the CEP industry could provide some direct and indirect incentives to consumers to re-use, recycle, and share materials, and to spend time learning about express enterprises' green logistics, to increase consumer participation in economic factors.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0255532PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8323873PMC
July 2021

Targeted Delivery of Cabazitaxel Using Cyclic Cell-Penetrating Peptide and Biomarkers of Extracellular Matrix for Prostate and Breast Cancer Therapy.

Bioconjug Chem 2021 08 26;32(8):1898-1914. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Center for Targeted Drug Delivery, Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chapman University School of Pharmacy, Harry and Diane Rinker Health Science Campus, Irvine, California 92618, United States.

Targeted drug delivery for cancer therapy is an emerging area of research. Cancer cells overexpress certain biomarkers that can be exploited for their targeted therapy. Cyclic cell-penetrating peptides (cCPP) are increasingly assessed for intracellular cargo delivery in cancer cells. In this study, we have conjugated cabazitaxel (CBT) to the cCPP via an ester bond to assist CBT release in the tumor's acidic environment. Integrin targeting (RGDC, TP1) and extra domain B of fibronectin (EDB-Fn) targeting (CTVRTSAD, TP2) peptides were linked to the peptide-drug conjugate (cCPP-CBT) via a disulfide bond to provide targeting ability to the conjugates until they reach the tumor site. Conjugate (TP1-cCPP-CBT) and conjugate (TP2-cCPP-CBT) showed approximately 3-4-fold less antiproliferative activity on integrin and EDB-FN overexpressing cancer cell lines as compared to the CBT analogue used for comparison (CBT-GA, ). Conjugates ( and ) were less toxic (31-34-fold less antiproliferative activity) to the normal human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells as compared to CBT. The flow cytometry and quantitative confocal microscopy data further confirm the selective efficacy of conjugates (TP1-cCPP-FAM () and TP1-cCPP-FAM ()) toward biomarker overexpressing cancer cells. Furthermore, the stability and release studies of conjugate revealed its therapeutic potential under different conditions, such as human plasma, different pHs, and redox conditions. This conjugation strategy was proven to enhance chemotherapeutics agents' efficacy and targeting and can be applied to other chemotherapeutic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.1c00319DOI Listing
August 2021

Inhibition of Hepatitis B Virus by AAV8-Derived CRISPR/SaCas9 Expressed From Liver-Specific Promoters.

Front Microbiol 2021 26;12:665184. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, Modern Virology Research Center, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Curative therapies for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remain a distant goal, and the persistence of stable covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) during HBV replication is a key barrier that is hard to break through using the drugs currently approved for HBV treatment. Due to the accuracy, efficiency, and cost-effectiveness of genome editing, CRISPR/Cas technologies are being widely used for gene therapy and in antiviral strategies. Although CRISPR/Cas could possibly clear cccDNA, ensuring its safety is requirement for application. In our study, we analyzed the liver specificity of several promoters and constructed candidate promoters in the CRISPR/ Cas9 (SaCas9) system combined with hepatotropic AAV8 (whereby AAV refers to adeno-associated virus) to verify the efficacy against HBV. The results revealed that the reconstructed CRISPR/SaCas9 system in which the original promoter replaced with a liver-specific promoter could still inhibit HBV replication both and . Three functional guide RNAs (gRNAs), T, T, and T, which target the conserved regions of different HBV genotypes, demonstrated consistently better anti-HBV effects with different liver-specific promoters. Moreover, the three gRNAs inhibited the replication of HBV genotypes A, B, and C to varying degrees. Under the action of the EnhII-Pa1AT promoter and AAV8, the expression of SaCas9 was further decreased in other organs or tissues in comparison to liver. These results are helpful for clinical applications in liver by ensuring the effects of the CRISPR/Cas9 system remain restricted to liver and, thereby, reducing the probability of undesired and harmful effects through nonspecific targeting in other organs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.665184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8271097PMC
June 2021

Clinical and Microbiological Analysis of Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia Among Patients With Ischemic Stroke: A Retrospective Outlook.

Cureus 2021 May 24;13(5):e15214. Epub 2021 May 24.

Internal Medicine, Islam Medical and Dental College, Sialkot, PAK.

Background Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with ischemic stroke. Our study aims to explore the clinical and microbiological aspects (culture and sensitivity) of stroke patients with a confirmed diagnosis of HAP. Methodology This retrospective cross-sectional study included a total of 232 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of HAP following ischemic stroke. HAP was diagnosed based on the timing of onset of symptoms and chest X-ray. Patients were evaluated for their demographic details and a myriad of clinical parameters including dysphagia, mechanical ventilation, mortality, spontaneous pneumothorax, and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score. The frequencies of different microorganisms isolated from the tracheal secretions were reported. Thereafter, the percentages of resistant isolates against a plethora of antimicrobial agents were tabulated. Results Out of 232 patients, 110 were males and 122 were females with a mean age of 58.79 ± 8.62 years. Dysphagia and mechanical ventilation were present in 66.4% and 72%, respectively. The mortality rate was 30.6%. was the most frequently isolated organism (28.9%), followed by (24.5%), and (23.3%). The antimicrobial resistance patterns of most of the isolates against different antibiotics were alarmingly high. Conclusions Dysphagia and mechanical ventilation are frequently present in patients of ischemic stroke with associated HAP. The antimicrobial resistance patterns of the isolated organisms are a cause of major concern. This necessitates the need for proper sanitation and the careful use of antibiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.15214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8221085PMC
May 2021

Graphene oxide-metal oxide nanocomposites for on-target enrichment and analysis of phosphorylated biomolecules.

J Sep Sci 2021 Aug 4;44(16):3137-3145. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Division of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.

The surface of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry target is modified for improved signal strength and detection of analytes. The developed method includes on-target enrichment and detection of phosphopeptides/phospholipids using graphene oxide-lanthanide metal oxides (samarium, gadolinium, dysprosium, and erbium) nanocomposites. Enriched phosphopeptides are detected using material enhanced laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and phospholipids by laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry. Nanocomposites are prepared using graphene oxide with respective metal salts at high pH. They are characterized for nano-morphology, chemistry, porosity, composition, crystallinity, and thermal stability. Phosphopeptides enrichment protocol is developed and optimized for tryptic β-casein digest and that of phospholipids by phosphatidylcholine standard. Statistical analyses of phosphopeptides and phospholipids from milk show overlapping results for gadolinium, dysprosium, and erbium oxide nanocomposites. GO-Gd O has better enrichment efficiency and application as LDI material. Selectivity for GO-Dy O is 1:2500, for GO-Sm O is 1:3500, and 1:4000 for GO-Gd O . GO-Er O has a sensitivity of 25 fmol, whereas the highest sensitivity is down to 0.5 fmol for GO-Gd O . On-target enrichment is batch to batch reproducible with a standard deviation of <1, reduced time of enrichment to 10 min, and ease of operation compared to solid-phase batch extraction. The developed method enriches serum phosphopeptides characteristic of cancer-related phosphoproteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jssc.202001276DOI Listing
August 2021

Patient's perspective and awareness of materials used in dentistry.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Apr;71(4):1171-1174

Department of Community and Preventive Dentistry, Institute of Dentistry, CMH Lahore Medical College, Lahore, Pakistan.

Objective: To assess patients' knowledge and attitude towards different dental materials used in private and public dental facilities in an urban setting.

Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted at the Islamabad Dental and Medical College, Islamabad, Pakistan, from February to July 2019, and comprised individuals at private dental clinics and teaching hospitals. Data was collected using a pre-validated structured questionnaire that recorded socio-demographic information as well as patients' perception on evidence-based dentistry using visual analogue, trust on the dentist, quality of materials and the source of information. Data was analysed using SPSS 21.

Results: Of the 269 participants, 151(56.1%) were females with a mean age of 33.87±12.63 years, and 118(43.9%) were males with a mean age of 33.28±13.71 years. Overall, 208(77.3%) respondents were in favour of using materials with long-term scientific data; 201(74.7%) recognised a difference in quality of materials used at private clinics and teaching hospitals; 128(63.7%) believed that poor quality materials were used in teaching hospitals; 229(85%) trusted their dentists for using high-quality materials; and 108(40%) identified dentists as the source of information. There was a significant relationship between patient's education level and realising the importance of using dental materials supported by scientific evidence (p≤0.01).

Conclusions: Majority of subjects believed that poor quality materials were used in teaching hospitals compared to private dental facilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.47391/JPMA.056DOI Listing
April 2021

Comparative anthelmintic efficacy of Arundo donax, Areca catechu, and Ferula assa-foetida against Haemonchus contortus.

Rev Bras Parasitol Vet 2021 28;30(2):e001221. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

In the present study, anthelmintic activities of Arundo (A.) donax L., Areca (Ar.) catechu L., and Ferula (F.) assa-foetida L. were determined. Leaves of A. donax L., latex of F. assa-foetida L. and seeds of Ar. catechu L. in different solvent fractions were subjected to in vitro (egg hatch assay; EHA, and adult motility assay; AMA) and in vivo (faecal egg count reduction test; FECRT) tests of anthelmintic activity using Haemonchus contortus model. In the AMA, crude aqueous methanol extracts (CAME) and ethyl acetate fractions of F. assa-foetida at 10 hr post-treatment showed maximum mortality of H. contortus at 12.5-50 mg mL-1. In the EHA, CAME of F. assa-foetida was identified as a potent ovicide based on its low LC50 (16.9 µg mL-1), followed in order by Ar. catechu and A. donax. Results from the FECRT also showed the extract of F. assa-foetida L. to be more effective than those of Ar. catechu L. and A. donax L., against the gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes. Chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions showed better anthelmintic activities against the adult worms in vitro, while CAME of these plants were better than their crude powders in vivo. It is recommended to document and investigate indigenous knowledge of possible medicinal plants to plan scientific trials that may justify their endorsement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-29612021028DOI Listing
June 2021

Detection of in Humans with Babesiosis Symptoms.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 May 25;11(6). Epub 2021 May 25.

Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Human babesiosis is a life-threatening infectious disease that causes societal and economic impact worldwide. Several species of cause babesiosis in terrestrial vertebrates, including humans. A one-day clinic was held in Ontario, Canada, to see if a red blood cell parasite, which is present in blacklegged ticks, , is present in humans. Based on PCR testing and DNA sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene, we unveiled in two of 19 participants. DNA amplicons from these two patients are almost identical matches with the type strains of in GenBank. In addition, the same two human subjects had the hallmark symptoms of human babesiosis, including night sweats, chills, fevers, and profound fatigue. Based on symptoms and molecular identification, we provide substantive evidence that is pathogenic to humans. Dataset reveals that serologically cross-reacts with . Clinicians must realize that there are more than two spp. in North America that cause human babesiosis. This discovery signifies the first report of causing human babesiosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11060947DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8228967PMC
May 2021

Intraperitoneal local anaesthesia for post-operative pain management in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Minerva Surg 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton, UK.

Introduction: Intraperitoneal instillation of local anaesthetic agents has been reported as an effective adjunct to pain management and early functional recovery in colorectal surgery. Laparoscopic colorectal resection (LCR) is considered as the gold standard approach to resect benign and malignant lesions of the colon and rectum due to the advantages of reduced pain score, quicker recovery, and shorter hospitalization. The objective of this study is to systematically analyze the published RCTs evaluating the effectiveness of intraperitoneal local anesthetic (IPLA) instillation versus standard analgesia in patients undergoing LCR.

Evidence Analysis: Electronic databases such as Embase, Medline, PubMed, PubMed Central and the Cochrane library pertaining to the use of IPLA infiltration after LCR were systematically reviewed using the principles of meta-analysis.

Evidence Synthesis: Five RCTs on 292 patients undergoing LCR were either given IPLA or standard post-operative analgesia. In the random-effects model analysis using the statistical software Review Manager, statistically 2-4 hours pain score (Standardized mean difference (SMD), -1.72; 95% CI, -2.62, -0.81; z = 3.71; P = 0.0002) was significantly ower in the IPLA group. The 12 hours post-operative pain score (P = 0.23) was also lower in the IPLA group but failed to reach the statistical significance. Opioid analgesia requirement was lower in the IPLA group (SMD -7.60; 95% CI, -11.21, -3.90; z = 4.12; P = 0.0001) but the time to flatus, length of stay and the frequency of nausea/vomiting were statistically similar in both groups.

Conclusions: IPLA instillation is an effective modality to reduce the post-operative pain score and lower the opioid analgesic requirements in patients undergoing LCR without influencing the time to first flatus, length of stay, and post-operative nausea/vomiting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-5691.21.08789-XDOI Listing
May 2021

Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials Comparing the Efficacy of Radioactive Iodine Monotherapy versus Radioactive Iodine Therapy and Adjunctive Lithium for the Treatment of Hyperthyroidism.

Endocr Res 2021 May 24:1-10. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Surgery, University Hospitals Sussex NHS Foundation Trust (Royal Sussex County Hospital), Brighton, UK.

: The objective of this article is to evaluate the outcomes in patients undergoing radioactive iodine (RAI) with adjunctive lithium (Li) therapy versus (vs.) RAI therapy alone for the treatment of hyperthyroidism.: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to analyze clinical trials comparing RAI with adjunctive Li therapy vs. RAI therapy alone for the treatment of hyperthyroidism.: Six randomized-controlled trials (RCT) involving 755 patients were analyzed. RAI with adjunctive Li was associated with a significantly higher cure rate for hyperthyroidism when compared to RAI alone. Furthermore, a significantly higher cure rate for hyperthyroidism at 12 months was achieved with RAI and adjunctive Li. Adjuvant Li with RAI for ≤ 7 days showed significantly higher cure rate compared to RAI alone, whereas > 7 days of adjuvant Li with RAI did not show any difference in cure rate compared to RAI alone. RAI with adjunctive Li was associated with a significantly higher cure rate for patients with Graves' disease compared to RAI alone. There was no significant difference between RAI with adjunctive Li and RAI alone for toxic nodular thyroid disorder (toxic nodule and toxic multinodular goiter) and thyroid volume >40 grams and ≤40 grams.: RAI with adjunctive Li therapy demonstrated superiority over RAI therapy alone with regards to both curing hyperthyroidism and, reduced time till cure, with a limited side effect profile. A large multicenter RCT is required, and if this confirms the data from these smaller trials, then this could change current practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07435800.2021.1924769DOI Listing
May 2021

siRNA Therapeutics for the Therapy of COVID-19 and Other Coronaviruses.

Mol Pharm 2021 06 4;18(6):2105-2121. Epub 2021 May 4.

Center for Targeted Drug Delivery, Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chapman University School of Pharmacy, Harry and Diane Rinker Health Science Campus, Irvine, California 92618, United States.

The ongoing pandemic of global concern has killed about three million humans and affected around 151 million people worldwide, as of April 30, 2021. Although recently approved vaccines for COVID-19 are engendering hope, finding new ways to cure the viral pandemic is still a quest for researchers worldwide. Major pandemics in history have been of viral origin, such as SARS, MERS, H1NI, Spanish flu, and so on. A larger emphasis has been on discovering potential vaccines, novel antiviral drugs, and agents that can mitigate the viral infection symptoms; however, a relatively new area, RNA interference (RNAi), has proven effective as an antiviral agent. The RNAi phenomenon has been largely exploited to cure cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and some rare diseases. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has recently approved three siRNA products for human use that garner significant hope in siRNA therapeutics for coronaviruses. There have been some commentaries and communications addressing this area. We have summarized and illustrated the significance and the potential of the siRNA therapeutics available as of April 30, 2021 to combat the ongoing viral pandemic and the emerging new variants such as B.1.1.7 and B.1.351. Numerous successful studies and several investigations to address the clinical application of siRNA therapeutics provide great hope in this field. This seminal Review describes the significance of siRNA-based therapy to treat diverse viral infections in addition to the current coronavirus challenge. In addition, we have thoroughly reviewed the patents approved for coronaviruses, the major challenges in siRNA therapy, and the potential approaches to address them, followed by innovation and prospects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.0c01239DOI Listing
June 2021

Iron Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anemia Are Common Epidemiological Conditions in Saudi Arabia: Report of the National Epidemiological Survey.

Anemia 2020 29;2020:6642568. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Pathology, Alfaisal University, Riyadh 11533, Saudi Arabia.

Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency worldwide. According to an estimate by the World Health Organization, up to 27% of the world's population experience iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Studies conducted in the Middle East, including Saudi Arabia, have suggested that IDA is the most common cause of anemia, especially among females. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of IDA and iron deficiency (ID) among apparently healthy young university students from four regions in Saudi Arabia. Students were asked to complete a simple survey questionnaire; blood samples were then collected and analyzed after obtaining informed consent. A total of 981 students completed the survey, with 11% of the participants reporting symptoms of anemia; 34% of participants were diagnosed with IDA and 6% reported a diagnosis of hemoglobinopathy. Blood analysis confirmed the prevalence of ID and IDA in 28.6% and 10.7% of the participants, respectively; those with ID and IDA were mostly females (88.5% and 94%, resp.). Thalassemia trait and sickle cell trait were detected in 1.3% and 7% of participants, respectively. Our findings from a national survey among young university in Saudi Arabia indicate a high prevalence of ID and IDA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/6642568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8056870PMC
December 2020

Catalytic Conversion of Xylose to Furfural by -Toluenesulfonic Acid (TSA) and Chlorides: Process Optimization and Kinetic Modeling.

Molecules 2021 Apr 12;26(8). Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Institute of Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Furfural is one of the most promising precursor chemicals with an extended range of downstream derivatives. In this work, conversion of xylose to produce furfural was performed by employing -toluenesulfonic acid (TSA) as a catalyst in DMSO medium at moderate temperature and atmospheric pressure. The production process was optimized based on kinetic modeling of xylose conversion to furfural alongwith simultaneous formation of humin from xylose and furfural. The synergetic effects of organic acids and Lewis acids were investigated. Results showed that the catalyst TSA-CrCl·6HO was a promising combined catalyst due to the high furfural yield (53.10%) at a moderate temperature of 120 °C. Observed kinetic modeling illustrated that the condensation of furfural in the DMSO solvent medium actually could be neglected. The established model was found to be satisfactory and could be well applied for process simulation and optimization with adequate accuracy. The estimated values of activation energies for xylose dehydration, condensation of xylose, and furfural to humin were 81.80, 66.50, and 93.02 kJ/mol, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26082208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8070381PMC
April 2021

Detection of glaucoma using retinal fundus images: A comprehensive review.

Math Biosci Eng 2021 03;18(3):2033-2076

Department of Software Engineering, Mirpur University of Science and Technology (MUST), Mirpur- AJK 10250, Pakistan.

Content-based image analysis and computer vision techniques are used in various health-care systems to detect the diseases. The abnormalities in a human eye are detected through fundus images captured through a fundus camera. Among eye diseases, glaucoma is considered as the second leading case that can result in neurodegeneration illness. The inappropriate intraocular pressure within the human eye is reported as the main cause of this disease. There are no symptoms of glaucoma at earlier stages and if the disease remains unrectified then it can lead to complete blindness. The early diagnosis of glaucoma can prevent permanent loss of vision. Manual examination of human eye is a possible solution however it is dependant on human efforts. The automatic detection of glaucoma by using a combination of image processing, artificial intelligence and computer vision can help to prevent and detect this disease. In this review article, we aim to present a comprehensive review about the various types of glaucoma, causes of glaucoma, the details about the possible treatment, details about the publicly available image benchmarks, performance metrics, and various approaches based on digital image processing, computer vision, and deep learning. The review article presents a detailed study of various published research models that aim to detect glaucoma from low-level feature extraction to recent trends based on deep learning. The pros and cons of each approach are discussed in detail and tabular representations are used to summarize the results of each category. We report our findings and provide possible future research directions to detect glaucoma in conclusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/mbe.2021106DOI Listing
March 2021

The Functional and Antiviral Activity of Interferon Alpha-Inducible IFI6 Against Hepatitis B Virus Replication and Gene Expression.

Front Immunol 2021 1;12:634937. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, Modern Virology Research Center, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Hepatitis B virus is an enveloped DNA virus, that infects more than three hundred and sixty million people worldwide and leads to severe chronic liver diseases. Interferon-alpha inducible protein 6 (IFI6) is an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) whose expression is highly regulated by the stimulation of type I IFN-alpha that restricts various kinds of virus infections by targeting different stages of the viral life cycle. This study aims to investigate the antiviral activity of IFI6 against HBV replication and gene expression. The IFI6 was highly induced by the stimulation of IFN-α in hepatoma cells. The overexpression of IFI6 inhibited while knockdown of IFI6 elevated replication and gene expression of HBV in HepG2 cells. Further study determined that IFI6 inhibited HBV replication by reducing EnhII/Cp of the HBV without affecting liver enriched transcription factors that have significant importance in regulating HBV enhancer activity. Furthermore, deletion mutation of EnhII/Cp and CHIP analysis revealed 100 bps (1715-1815 nt) putative sites involved in IFI6 mediated inhibition of HBV. Detailed analysis with EMSA demonstrated that 1715-1770 nt of EnhII/Cp was specifically involved in binding with IFI6 and restricted EnhII/Cp promoter activity. Moreover, IFI6 was localized mainly inside the nucleus to involve in the anti-HBV activity of IFI6. analysis based on the hydrodynamic injection of IFI6 expression plasmid along with HBV revealed significant inhibition of HBV DNA replication and gene expression. Overall, our results suggested a novel mechanism of IFI6 mediated HBV regulation that could develop potential therapeutics for efficient HBV infection treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.634937DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047077PMC
April 2021

Antiviral Activity of Interferon Alpha-Inducible Protein 27 Against Hepatitis B Virus Gene Expression and Replication.

Front Microbiol 2021 31;12:656353. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

State Key Laboratory of Virology, Modern Virology Research Center, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Despite the availability of effective vaccines, hepatitis B virus (HBV) is still a major health issue, and approximately 350 million people have been chronically infected with HBV throughout the world. Interferons (IFNs) are the key molecules in the innate immune response that restrict several kinds of viral infections the induction of hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). The objective of this study was to confirm if interferon alpha-inducible protein 27 (IFI27) as an ISG could inhibit HBV gene expression and DNA replication both in cell culture and in a mouse model. In human hepatoma cells, IFI27 was highly induced by the stimulation of IFN-alpha (IFN-α), and it potentiated the anti-HBV activity. The overexpression of IFI27 inhibited, while its silencing enhanced the HBV replication in HepG2 cell. However, the knocking out of IFI27 in HepG2 cells robustly increases the formation of viral DNA, RNA, and proteins. Detailed mechanistic analysis of the HBV genome showed that a sequence [nucleotide (nt) 1715-1815] of the EnhII/Cp promoter was solely responsible for viral inhibition. Similarly, the hydrodynamic injection of IFI27 expression constructs along with the HBV genome into mice resulted in a significant reduction in viral gene expression and DNA replication. In summary, our studies suggested that IFI27 contributed a vital role in HBV gene expression and replication and IFI27 may be a potential antiviral agent for the treatment of HBV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.656353DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044325PMC
March 2021

Detection of in Ticks Collected in Southern Ontario, Canada.

Pathogens 2021 Mar 10;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Tick-borne zoonotic diseases have an economic and societal impact on the well-being of people worldwide. In the present study, a high frequency of , a red blood cell parasite, was observed in the Huronia area of Ontario, Canada. Notably, 71% (15/21) blacklegged ticks, , collected from canine and feline hosts were infected with . Consistent with U.S. studies, 12.5% (4/32) of questing adults collected by flagging in various parts of southwestern Ontario were positive for . Our data show that all strains in the present study have consistent genetic identity, and match type strains in the GenBank database. The high incidence of in the Huronia area indicates that this babesial infection is established, and is cycling enzootically in the natural environment. Our data confirm that has wide distribution in southern Ontario.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10030327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7999371PMC
March 2021

Evaluation of COVID-19 myths in Saudi Arabia.

Saudi Med J 2021 Apr;42(4):377-383

From the Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology (Alhusseini, Cahusac); from the Department of Pathology (Sajid); from the College of Medicine (Alsheikh, Sriwi, Odeh, Elshaer, Altamimi), Alfaisal University; and from the Department of Comparative Medicine (Cahusac), King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Objectives: To examine the awareness level of COVID-19 and to highlight the frequency of myths and misconceptions among Saudi Arabia's population.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study from June 13 to 20, 2020 by distributing a 16-item online Google forms questionnaire among adults (18-65 years old) living in Saudi Arabia. We utilized the convenience sampling. Data analysis was performed using Chi-square and multiple regression analysis on Jamovi.

Results: A total of 1436 responses were analyzed with 43.5% males and 56.5% females. Most respondents (89.1%) thought that only the elderly above 60 years old are considered at high risk of contracting COVID-19. Most respondents (86.5%) agreed that people with other health conditions could be more affected by COVID-19. Approximately 97.2% agreed that wearing a mask and avoiding touching eyes, nose, and mouth with unwashed hands was the leading preventive action. Most participants (99.4%) chose fever as an associated symptom. Respondents from the healthcare sector presented statistically higher scores than those in non-healthcare sectors (<0.001). Higher education and higher salary were important predictors of better COVID-19 knowledge.

Conclusion: Public health officials need to increase awareness measures on COVID-19 to limit myths and misconceptions and reduce psychological distress associated with it.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15537/smj.2021.42.4.20200706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8128637PMC
April 2021

Applications of amphipathic and cationic cyclic cell-penetrating peptides: Significant therapeutic delivery tool.

Peptides 2021 Jul 29;141:170542. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Center for Targeted Drug Delivery, Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chapman University School of Pharmacy, Harry and Diane Rinker Health Science Campus, Irvine, CA, 92618, USA. Electronic address:

A new class of peptides, cyclic cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), has great potential for delivering a vast variety of therapeutics intracellularly for treating diverse ailments. CPPs have been used previously; however, their further use is limited due to instability, toxicity, endosomal degradation, and insufficient cellular penetration. Cyclic CPPs are being investigated in delivering therapeutics to treat various ailments, including multi-drug resistant microbial infections, HIV, and cancer. They can act as a carrier for a variety of cargos and target intracellularly. Approximately 40 cyclic peptides-based therapeutics are available in the market, and annually one cyclic peptide-based drug enters the market. Numerous research and review articles have been published in the last decade about linear and cyclic peptides separately. This review is the first to provide a comprehensive deliberation about cationic and amphipathic cyclic CPPs. Herein, we highlights their structures, significant advantages, translocation mechanisms, and delivery application in the area of biomedical sciences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2021.170542DOI Listing
July 2021

Desalination and environment: A critical analysis of impacts, mitigation strategies, and greener desalination technologies.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 19;780:146585. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Center for Environment and Water, Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia.

The desalination of seawater is perceived as one of the most viable processes to fulfill the mounting demand for freshwater. Despite enormous economic, social, and health benefits offered by desalination, there are several concerns regarding its prospective environmental impacts (EIs). The objective of this work is to critically evaluate the potential EIs of seawater desalination, and assess the prospects of greener desalination. The EIs of desalination on marine environment, land, groundwater, and air quality was systematically reviewed. An attempt has been made to analyze the actuality of these so-called impacts with reference to evidence from real desalination plants. The mitigative measures to counterbalance these unfavorable impacts are critically appraised. Furthermore, the brine management technologies for the disposal of reject stream, the recovery of precious materials and water, and the production of useful chemicals are also reviewed. Current challenges to minimize the adverse impacts of desalination and prospects of sustainable greener desalination to overwhelm global water scarcities are also discussed. The current desalination approaches have moderate and minor negative EIs. However, with proper mitigation and utilization of modern technologies, these impacts can be lessened. Furthermore, by employing various modern techniques, reject brine can be utilized for several useful applications while reducing its adverse impacts simultaneously. Recent advancements in desalination technologies have also offered many alternative approaches that provide a roadmap towards greener desalination. This review article will be beneficial for all the stakeholders in the desalination industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146585DOI Listing
August 2021

Depression and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic in Saudi Arabia.

Cureus 2021 Jan 28;13(1):e12978. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Medicine, Alfaisal University College of Medicine, Riyadh, SAU.

Introduction: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic with significant morbidity and mortality. The Saudi government adopted mandatory home quarantine and curfew hours for all residents, excluding essential service workers. During the lockdown, the public's fear of infection can adversely impact mental health, causing psychological distress. The objective of this research is to assess frequency of depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) among the general population during COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia.

Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised assessment test (OCI-R) in Arabic and English languages distributed via social media platforms. Chi-square test was used with significance determined at p<0.005.

Results: We received a total of 2187 responses. Our results showed that being female, single, and unemployed had a higher frequency of suffering from depression whereas higher income levels and higher education was associated with less depression frequency. Increasing age, males, married individuals, higher income groups, higher levels of education and employed individuals were more likely to have OCD during COVID-19 pandemic.  Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic period is associated with significant mental health risks among the Saudi population. The results can provide further scientific support to better understand the impact of quarantine on psychological distress and mental health during emergency and disaster situations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.12978DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7934801PMC
January 2021
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