Publications by authors named "Muhammad Safdar"

75 Publications

SNPs at 3'UTR of APOL1 and miR-6741-3p target sites associated with kidney diseases more susceptible to SARS-COV-2 infection: in silco and in vitro studies.

Mamm Genome 2021 Jun 4. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bahawalpur, 63100, Pakistan.

Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) is a common manifestation of COVID-19 and several cases have been reported in the setting of the high-risk APOL1 genotype (common genetic variants). This increases the likelihood that African American people with the high-risk genotype APOL1 are at increased risk for kidney disease in the COVID-19 environment. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are found in various microRNAs (miRNAs) and target genes change the miRNA activity that leads to different diseases. Evidence has shown that SNPs increase/decrease the effectiveness of the interaction between miRNAs and disease-related target genes. The aim of this study is not only to identify miRSNPs on the APOL1 gene and SNPs in miRNA genes targeting 3'UTR but also to evaluate the effect of these gene variations in kidney patients and their association with SARS-COV-2 infection. In 3'UTR of the APOL1 gene, we detected 96 miRNA binding sites and 35 different SNPs with 10 different online software in the binding sites of the miRNA (in silico). Also we studied gene expression of patients and control samples by using qRT-PCR (in vitro). In silico study, the binding site of miR-6741-3p on APOL1 has two SNPs (rs1288875001, G > C; rs1452517383, A > C) on APOL1 3'UTR, and its genomic sequence is the same nucleotide as rs1288875001. Similarly, two other SNPs (rs1142591, T > A; rs376326225, G > A) were identified in the binding sites of miR-6741-3p at the first position. Here, the miRSNP (rs1288875001) in APOL1 3'UTR and SNP (rs376326225) in the miR-6741-3p genomic sequence are cross-matched in the same binding region. In vitro study, the relative expression levels were calculated by the 2 method & Mann-Whitney U test. The expression of APOL1 gene was different in chronic kidney patients along with COVID-19. By these results, APOL1 expression was found lower in patients than healthy (p < 0.05) in kidney patients along with COVID-19. In addition, miR-6741-3p targets many APOL1-related genes (TLR7, SLC6A19, IL-6,10,18, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5, SWT1, NFYB, BRF1, HES2, NFYB, MED12L, MAFG, GTF2H5, TRAF3, angiotensin II receptor-associated protein, PRSS23) by evaluating online software in the binding sites of the miR-6741-3p. miR-6741-3p has not previously shown any association with kidney diseases and SARS-COV-2 infection. It assures that APOL1 can have a significant consequence in kidney-associated diseases by different pathways. Henceforth, this study represents and demonstrates an effective association between miR-6741-3p and kidney diseases, i.e., collapsing glomerulopathy, chronic kidney disease (CKD), acute kidney injury (AKI), and tubulointerstitial lesions susceptibility to SARS-COV-2 infection via in silico and in vitro exploration and recommended to have better insight.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00335-021-09880-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8177038PMC
June 2021

Genome-wide screening of vaccine targets prioritization and reverse vaccinology aided design of peptides vaccine to enforce humoral immune response against Campylobacter jejuni.

Comput Biol Med 2021 Jun 18;133:104412. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Department of Bioinformatics and Biological Statistics, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, PR China; Peng Cheng Laboratory, Vanke Cloud City Phase I Building 8, Xili Street, Nashan District, Shenzhen, Guangdong, 518055, PR China; State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, Shanghai-Islamabad-Belgrade Joint Innovation Center on Antibacterial Resistances, Joint Laboratory of International Cooperation in Metabolic and Developmental Sciences, Ministry of Education and School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200030, PR China. Electronic address:

Campylobacter jejuni, gram-negative bacteria, is an infectious agent of foodborne disease-causing bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome in humans. Campylobacter spp. with multidrug resistance to fluoroquinolones, tetracycline, and erythromycin are reported. Hence, an effective vaccine candidate would provide long-term immunity against C. jejuni infections. Thus, we used a subtractive proteomics pipeline to prioritize essential proteins, which impart a critical role in virulence, replication and survival. Five proteins, i.e. Single-stranded DNA-binding protein, UPF0324 membrane protein Cj0999c, DNA translocase FtsK, 50S ribosomal protein L22, and 50S ribosomal protein L1 were identified as virulent proteins and selected for vaccine designing. We reported that the multi-epitopes subunit vaccine based on CTL, HTL and B-cell epitopes combination possess strong antigenic properties and associates no allergenic reaction. Further investigation revealed that the vaccine interacts with the immune receptor (TLR-4) and triggered the release of primary and secondary immune factors. Moreover, the CAI and GC contents obtained through codon optimization were reported to be 0.93 and 53% that confirmed a high expression in the selected vector. The vaccine designed in this study needs further scientific consensus and will aid in managing C. jejuni infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiomed.2021.104412DOI Listing
June 2021

ZCAM, a colour appearance model based on a high dynamic range uniform colour space.

Opt Express 2021 Feb;29(4):6036-6052

A colour appearance model based on a uniform colour space is proposed. The proposed colour appearance model, ZCAM, comprises of comparatively simple mathematical equations, and plausibly agrees with the psychophysical phenomenon of colour appearance perception. ZCAM consists of ten colour appearance attributes including brightness, lightness, colourfulness, chroma, hue angle, hue composition, saturation, vividness, blackness, and whiteness. Despite its relatively simpler mathematical structure, ZCAM performed at least similar to the CIE standard colour appearance model CIECAM02 and its revision, CAM16, in predicting a range of reliable experimental data.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.413659DOI Listing
February 2021

Inflammation, immunity and potential target therapy of SARS-COV-2: A total scale analysis review.

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Apr 25;150:112087. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Breeding and Genetics, Faculty of Animal Production and Technology, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences-63100, Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is a complex disease that causes illness ranging from mild to severe respiratory problems. It is caused by a novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2) that is an enveloped positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) virus belongs to coronavirus CoV family. It has a fast-spreading potential worldwide, which leads to high mortality regardless of lows death rates. Now some vaccines or a specific drug are approved but not available for every country for disease prevention and/or treatment. Therefore, it is a high demand to identify the known drugs and test them as a possible therapeutic approach. In this critical situation, one or more of these drugs may represent the only option to treat or reduce the severity of the disease, until some specific drugs or vaccines will be developed and/or approved for everyone in this pandemic. In this updated review, the available repurpose immunotherapeutic treatment strategies are highlighted, elucidating the crosstalk between the immune system and SARS-CoV-2. Despite the reasonable data availability, the effectiveness and safety of these drugs against SARS-CoV-2 needs further studies and validations aiming for a better clinical outcome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2021.112087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7905385PMC
April 2021

Targeting the N-terminal domain of the RNA-binding protein of the SARS-CoV-2 with high affinity natural compounds to abrogate the protein-RNA interaction: a molecular dynamics study.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 Feb 8:1-9. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

State Key Lab of Microbial Metabolism, Department of Bioinformatics and Biological Statistics, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

The emergence of COVID-19 took the world by shock in December 2019, starting from Wuhan, China and swiftly spreading across the globe. The number of COVID-19 cases continues to rise which is a global burden on the health care system worldwide. Efforts are continuing to come up with a solution either to develop a small molecular inhibitor or vaccine, but still no success. In the fight against SARS-CoV-2, targeting a different protein of the SARS-CoV-2 is the need of the hour to impede and relinquish the current pandemic. Therefore, in this study, computational modelling and simulation approaches are used to target the N-terminal domain of the phosphor-nucleoprotein (RNA binding protein), which is primarily responsible for binding and packing the viral genome to get ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP). Our multi-step drug screening approach shortlisted potential drugs. These top hits were confirmed by re-docking which revealed that the interacting molecules block the key residues i.e. Thr57, His59, Ser105, Arg107, and Arg177 and thus ultimately block the NTD from RNA recognition. Furthermore, the activity of the top four hits was also confirmed by using molecular dynamics simulation and free energy calculation. Our analysis suggests that these top hits possess strong inhibitory properties and should be tested experimentally. In conclusion, we hope these top hits would abrogate the binding of RNA and the NTD of the SARS-CoV-2, which might be helpful to combat COVID-19.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2021.1882337DOI Listing
February 2021

Rational Development of Guanidinate and Amidinate Based Cerium and Ytterbium Complexes as Atomic Layer Deposition Precursors: Synthesis, Modeling, and Application.

Chemistry 2021 Mar 20;27(15):4913-4926. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Inorganic Materials Chemistry, Ruhr University Bochum, Universitätsstraße 150, 44801, Bochum, Germany.

Owing to the limited availability of suitable precursors for vapor phase deposition of rare-earth containing thin-film materials, new or improved precursors are sought after. In this study, we explored new precursors for atomic layer deposition (ALD) of cerium (Ce) and ytterbium (Yb) containing thin films. A series of homoleptic tris-guanidinate and tris-amidinate complexes of cerium (Ce) and ytterbium (Yb) were synthesized and thoroughly characterized. The C-substituents on the N-C-N backbone (Me, NMe , NEt , where Me=methyl, Et=ethyl) and the N-substituents from symmetrical iso-propyl (iPr) to asymmetrical tertiary-butyl (tBu) and Et were systematically varied to study the influence of the substituents on the physicochemical properties of the resulting compounds. Single crystal structures of [Ce(dpdmg) ] 1 and [Yb(dpdmg) ] 6 (dpdmg=N,N'-diisopropyl-2-dimethylamido-guanidinate) highlight a monomeric nature in the solid-state with a distorted trigonal prismatic geometry. The thermogravimetric analysis shows that the complexes are volatile and emphasize that increasing asymmetry in the complexes lowers their melting points while reducing their thermal stability. Density functional theory (DFT) was used to study the reactivity of amidinates and guanidinates of Ce and Yb complexes towards oxygen (O ) and water (H O). Signified by the DFT calculations, the guanidinates show an increased reactivity toward water compared to the amidinate complexes. Furthermore, the Ce complexes are more reactive compared to the Yb complexes, indicating even a reactivity towards oxygen potentially exploitable for ALD purposes. As a representative precursor, the highly reactive [Ce(dpdmg) ] 1 was used for proof-of-principle ALD depositions of CeO thin films using water as co-reactant. The self-limited ALD growth process could be confirmed at 160 °C with polycrystalline cubic CeO films formed on Si(100) substrates. This study confirms that moving towards nitrogen-coordinated rare-earth complexes bearing the guanidinate and amidinate ligands can indeed be very appealing in terms of new precursors for ALD of rare earth based materials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202003907DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7986905PMC
March 2021

Perceptually uniform cross-gamut mapping between surface colors.

J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis 2021 Jan;38(1):140-147

Gamut mapping is an important part of the color reproduction pipeline. A color's appearance depends on the gamut achievable by the reproduction device (e.g., display, printer, etc.) or the reproduction material (e.g., plastics, paints, textiles, etc.). In the surface color industry, often a single color is managed such that, if it lies outside of the reproduction gamut, it would be mapped to a visually similar color on the boundary of the reproduction gamut using a gamut mapping algorithm. The algorithm's performance mainly depends on the uniformity of the working color space and/or selection of a focal point, inside the reproduction gamut, towards which the mapping line should be directed. Hitherto, the CIE standard color difference formula CIEDE2000 is the best known perceptual color difference metric for the standard dynamic range. In this paper, a method is proposed with the aim to achieve perceptually uniform mapping of a source color to the reproduction gamut using the CIEDE2000 as reference for uniformity. The proposed method, named UNIMAP00, is independent of the uniformity of the working color space, and no focal points are needed. The current results closely agreed with the experimental findings previously reported by other researchers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/JOSAA.411618DOI Listing
January 2021

Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication - Pakistan, January 2019-September 2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 Nov 20;69(46):1748-1752. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Pakistan and Afghanistan are the only countries where wild poliovirus type 1 (WPV1) is endemic (1,2). In 2019, Pakistan reported 147 WPV1 cases, approximately 12 times the number reported in 2018. As of September 15, 72 cases had been reported in 2020. Since 2019, WPV1 transmission has also spread from Pakistan's core poliovirus reservoirs (Karachi, Peshawar, and Quetta block) to southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Punjab, and Sindh provinces. Further, an outbreak of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2), first detected in July 2019, has caused 22 paralytic cases in 2019 and 59 as of September 15, 2020, throughout the country. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has substantially reduced delivery of polio vaccines through essential immunization (formerly routine immunization) and prevented implementation of polio supplementary immunization activities (SIAs)* during March-July 2020. This report describes Pakistan's progress in polio eradication during January 2019-September 2020 and updates previous reports (1,3,4). The Pakistan polio program has reinitiated SIAs and will need large, intensive, high-quality campaigns with strategic use of available oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs) to control the surge and widespread transmission of WPV1 and cVDPV2.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6946a5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7676637PMC
November 2020

L-theanine: an astounding sui generis amino acid in poultry nutrition.

Poult Sci 2020 Nov 6;99(11):5625-5636. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, PR China. Electronic address:

L-theanine (γ-Glutamylethylamide) is a nonprotein water soluble amino acid (AA) mostly found in leaves of Camellia sinensis (green tea). This is a key component of green tea and is considered as the most abundant form of total AAs in green tea (i.e., about 50%). L-theanine is an exclusive taste ingredient of tea producing an attractive flavor and aroma in tea. It has biological effects such as antioxidant, growth promoter, immune booster, anti-stresser, hepatoprotective, antitumor, antiaging, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antianxiety activities that are worth noticing. It could reduce the oxidative impairment by reducing the synthesis of reactive oxygen species, oxidative parameters, and lipid damage as well as increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The oral ingestion of L-theanine enhanced γδ T-cell proliferation. Therefore, it is being considered an essential compound of green tea that has the ability to improve immune function. The L-theanine can be used as a potential treatment for hepatic injury and immune-related liver diseases via the downregulation of the inflammatory response through the initiation of nitric oxide synthesis and glutathione production which are likely to be critical for the control of hepatic diseases as well as for the improvement of immune function. In addition, it could be used as a best natural feed additive with a potent antistressor by decreasing the levels of corticosterone, dopamine, and noradrenaline. After systematically reviewing the literature, it is noticed that most studies were carried out on mice, pig, human, and butterfly; while dietary supplementation studies of L-theanine in animal and poultry especially among broilers are very limited because of less awareness of this AA. So, the aim of this review is to encourage the veterinarian and poultry researchers to conduct more research at the molecular level about this AA to expose its more beneficial effects and its mechanism of absorption for potential use of this unique green tea AA in poultry nutrition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.07.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7647716PMC
November 2020

Applications and impact of computer technologies in management of multimorbidity.

J Pak Med Assoc 2020 Sep;70(9):1572-1576

Department of Medicine, Kahuta Research Laboratories (KRL) Hospital Islamabad, Pakistan.

Objective: To highlight clinical scenarios and healthcare practitioners' difficulties where computer applications can help in multimorbidity management.

Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2017 to January 2019 in the twin cities of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan, and comprised local physicians/practitioners. Data was collected using a self-generated questionnaire which was distributed among the subjects. It identified four problems as most commonly faced: treatment/dose management, time management, forgetting to ask necessary questions about disease, and 'others', such as bad handwriting errors and ethical issues. Data was analysed using SPSS 17.

Results: Of the 53 subjects, 33(62%) marked problems related to treatment management, 35(66%) marked problems related to shortage of time, 34(64%) marked those related to difficulty in asking relevant questions about disease, 15(28%) marked the 'other' option.

Conclusions: Computer technologies are significantly helpful in managing the problems of treating multimorbidity by adopting standard database.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/JPMA.37601DOI Listing
September 2020

First Report of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in District Mirpur, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

J Med Entomol 2021 03;58(2):943-946

Field Epidemiology and Disease Surveillance Division, National Institute of Health, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Our article documents the presence of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) from urban and rural locations in the lower Himalaya Mountains, northern Pakistan. Larvae were collected from graveyards, junkyards, plant nurseries, parks, and houses. Used tires, bird drinking pots, and water storage containers were the most common containers used by this mosquito. In the absence of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae), Ae. albopictus appears to be the primary vector of recent dengue virus outbreaks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjaa202DOI Listing
March 2021

Transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) to animals: an updated review.

J Transl Med 2020 09 21;18(1):358. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Pathobiology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

COVID-19 caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) originated in Wuhan (Hubei province, China) during late 2019. It has spread across the globe affecting nearly 21 million people with a toll of 0.75 million deaths and restricting the movement of most of the world population during the past 6 months. COVID-19 became the leading health, economic, and humanitarian challenge of the twenty-first century. In addition to the considerable COVID-19 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths in humans, several cases of SARS-CoV-2 infections in animal hosts (dog, cat, tiger, lion, and mink) have been reported. Thus, the concern of pet owners is increasing. Moreover, the dynamics of the disease requires further explanation, mainly concerning the transmission of the virus from humans to animals and vice versa. Therefore, this study aimed to gather information about the reported cases of COVID-19 transmission in animals through a literary review of works published in scientific journals and perform genomic and phylogenetic analyses of SARS-CoV-2 isolated from animal hosts. Although many instances of transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 have been reported, caution and further studies are necessary to avoid the occurrence of maltreatment in animals, and to achieve a better understanding of the dynamics of the disease in the environment, humans, and animals. Future research in the animal-human interface can help formulate and implement preventive measures to combat the further transmission of COVID-19.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-020-02534-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7503431PMC
September 2020

The Relevance of SNPs at 3'UTR Region of CASP7 and miR-371b-5p Associated Diseases: A Computational Analysis.

Cell Biochem Biophys 2020 Dec;78(4):541-557

Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Cholistan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Bahawalpur, 63100, Pakistan.

The process of genetically programmed cell death, or apoptosis, plays a crucialrolein cellular homeostasis and gene expression. Disruption of apoptosis may lead to aberrant immune responses, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) present in various microRNA (miRNA) genes and targets being an alteration of miRNA activity resulting in human diseases. Evidence reported that SNPs increase/decrease the effectiveness of the interaction between miRNAs and their target genes associated with diseases. The primary purpose of this study is not only to identify miRSNPs on the CASP7 gene (caspase-7) and SNPs in miRNA genes targeting 3'UTR but also to evaluate the effect of thesegene variations in apoptosis and their associated diseases. We detected 120 miRNAs binding sites and 27 different SNPs in binding sites of miRNA in 3'UTR of the CASP7 gene by ten different online softwares. Interestingly, miR-371b-5p's binding site on CASP7 has an SNP (rs576198588, G/T) on CASP7 3'UTR, and its genomic sequence has an SNP (rs751339395, G/T) at the same nucleotide with rs576198588. Similarly, two other SNPs (rs774879764, C/G rs750389063, C/T) were identified at the first position binding site of miR-371b-5p. Here, miRSNP (rs576198588) at CASP7 3'UTR and SNP (rs751339395) at miR-371b-5p genomic sequence cross-matches at the same site of binding region. Besides, miR-371b-5p targets many apoptosis-related genes (HIP1, TRIAP1, GSKIP, NIN, DAP, CAAP1, XIAP, TMBIM1, TMBIM4, TNFRSF10A, RAD21, AKT1, BAG1, BAG4) even though it had no apoptosis correlated interaction demonstrated formerly. It assures that CASP7 could have a significant consequence on apoptosis through different pathways. Henceforth, this study was representing and signifying an influential connotation among miR-371b-5p and apoptosis via computational exploration and recommended to have better insight.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12013-020-00941-2DOI Listing
December 2020

COVID-19: A threat to educated Muslim women's negotiated identity in Pakistan.

Gend Work Organ 2020 May 8. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of English University of Gujrat, Hafiz Hayat Campus Pakistan.

This study attempts to explore how the lockdown/containment measures taken by the government during the COVID-19 pandemic have threatened educated Muslim women's negotiated identity regarding wifehood and motherhood in urban Pakistan and how they struggle to reposition to reconstruct it. Through semi-structured interviews, making an in-depth comparative study of three differently situated cases (Muslim women), this study argues that the abnormal situation that has ensued from the pandemic has reinforced the vulnerability of women's nascent negotiated identity by landing them in a space where they are supposed by the normative structures to step back to carrying out their traditional responsibilities as 'good' wife and mother during the crisis. It has found that the pandemic has similarity in its impacts for the women in their familial lives, despite their being variously situated and resistive, due to the general religio-culturally defined patriarchal social behaviour of the place (Pakistan) toward women and lack of action on the part of the state for implementing its laws of women's empowerment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gwao.12457DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7264734PMC
May 2020

Butanolide alleviated cadmium stress by improving plant growth, photosynthetic parameters and antioxidant defense system of brassica oleracea.

Chemosphere 2020 Dec 23;261:127728. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

National Agriculture Research Centre, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Current study was performed to explore the effect of butanolide (KAR1) in mitigation of cadmium (Cd) induced toxicity in Brussels sprout (Brassica oleracea L.). Brussels sprout seeds, treated with 10-5 M, 10-7 M and 10-10 M solution of KAR1 were allowed to grow in Cd-contaminated (5 mg L-1) regimes for 25 d. Cadmium toxicity decreased seed germination and growth in B. oleracea seedlings. Elevated intensity of electrolyte leakage (EL), malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (HO) were observed in Cd-stressed seedlings. Additionally, reduced level of stomatal conductivity, transpiration rate, photosynthesis rate, intercellular carbon dioxide concentration, and leaf relative water content (LRWC) was also observed in Cd-stressed seedlings. Nevertheless, KAR1 improved seed germination, seedling growth and biomass production in Cd stressed plants. KAR1 application showed elevated LRWC, osmotic potential, and higher membranous stability index (MSI) in seedlings under Cd regime. Furthermore, seedlings developed by KAR1 treatment exhibited higher stomatal conductivity, and intercellular carbon dioxide concentration together with improved rate of transpiration and photosynthetic rate in B. oleracea under Cd stress. These findings elucidate that the reduced level of MDA, EL and HO, as well as improvement in antioxidative machinery increased growth and alleviated Cd toxicity in KAR1 treated seedlings under Cd stress.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127728DOI Listing
December 2020

Adaptive Molecular Evolution of Gene for Positive Diversifying Selection in Mammals.

Biomed Res Int 2020 19;2020:2584627. Epub 2020 May 19.

Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Ministry of Education, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei 430070, China.

The V-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 3 (AKT3) gene is of the serine/threonine-protein kinase family and influences the production of milk fats and cholesterol by acting on the sterol administrative area restricting protein (SREBP). The AKT3 gene is highly preserved in animals, and during lactation in cattle, its expression increases. The AKT3 gene is expressed in the digestive system, mammary gland, and immune cells. A phylogenetic investigation was performed to clarify the evolutionary role of AKT3, by maximum probability. The AKT3 gene sequence data of various mammalian species was evident even with animals undergoing breeding selection. From 39 mammalian species studied, there was a signal of positive diversifying selection with Hominidae at 13Q, 16G, 23R, 24P, 121P, 294K, 327V, 376L, 397K, 445T, and 471F among other codon sites of the AKT3 gene. These sites were codes for amino acids such as arginine, proline, lysine, and leucine indicating major roles for the function of immunological proteins, and in particular, the study highlighted the importance of changes in gene expression of AKT3 on immunity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/2584627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256775PMC
March 2021

Genetic biomarkers: Potential roles in cancer diagnosis.

Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2020 Jun 5;66(3):1-7. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Biology, Gaziantep University, Gaziantep, Turkey.

Biomarkers are indicators of pathogenic processes, typical biological processes, or pharmacological reactions to a therapy. It has several potential usages in cancer; differential diagnosis, prognosis, risk assessment, therapeutic response, and monitoring of disease progression. Recently, advances in oncomarkers raised significant opportunities for enhancing management of cancer. Chromosomal aberration, molecular impairment and epigenetic alteration might be applied to diagnose and prognose cancer and its epidemiology. Some oncomarkers are specific and highly sensitive for detection. An oncomarker might be used to see how the body reacts to an intervention or a situation. The present study represents a short review about various genetic oncomarkers with diagnostic and prognostic values.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
June 2020

Immunity and field efficacy of type 2-containing polio vaccines after cessation of trivalent oral polio vaccine: A population-based serological study in Pakistan.

Vaccine X 2020 Aug 6;5:100067. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Pediatrics & Child Health, The Aga Khan University, Pakistan.

Background: In Pakistan and other countries using oral polio vaccine (OPV), immunity to type 2 poliovirus is now maintained by a single dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) in routine immunization, supplemented in outbreak settings by monovalent OPV type 2 (mOPV2) and IPV. While well-studied in clinical trials, population protection against poliovirus type 2 achieved in routine and outbreak settings is generally unknown.

Methods: We conducted two phases of a population-based serological survey of 7940 children aged 6-11 months old, between November 2016 and October 2017 from 13 polio high-risk locations in Pakistan.

Results: Type 2 seroprevalence was 50% among children born after trivalent OPV (tOPV) withdrawal (April 2016), with heterogeneity across survey areas. Supplementary immunization activities (SIAs) with mOPV2 followed by IPV improved population immunity, varying from 89% in Pishin to 64% in Killa Abdullah, with little observed marginal benefit of subsequent campaigns. In the other high-risk districts surveyed, a single SIA with IPV was conducted and appeared to improve immunity to 57% in Karachi to 84% in Khyber.

Conclusions: Our study documents declining population immunity following trivalent OPV withdrawal in Pakistan, and wide heterogeneity in the population impact of supplementary immunization campaigns. Differences between areas, attributable to vaccination campaign coverage, were far more important for type 2 humoral immunity than the number of vaccination campaigns or vaccines used. This emphasizes the importance of immunization campaign coverage for type 2 outbreak response in the final stages of polio eradication. Given the declining type 2 immunity in new birth cohorts it is also recommended that 2 or more doses of IPV should be introduced in the routine immunization program of Pakistan.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvacx.2020.100067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7240192PMC
August 2020

Acclimation strategy and plasticity of different soybean genotypes in intercropping.

Funct Plant Biol 2020 06;47(7):592-610

College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University, 211-Huimin Road, Wenjiang District,Chengdu 611130, PR China; and Sichuan Engineering Research Center for Crop Strip Intercropping System, Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest China (Ministry of Agriculture), Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, PR China; and Corresponding authors. Email:

In response to shading, plant leaves acclimate through a range of morphological, physiological and biochemical changes. Plants produce a myriad of structurally and functionally diverse metabolites that play many important roles in plant response to continually changing environmental conditions as well as abiotic and biotic stresses. To develop a clearer understanding of the effects of shade on soybeans at different growth stages, a comprehensive, three-year, stage-wise study was conducted. Leaf area, leaf thickness, stem diameter, chlorophyll contents, photosynthetic characteristics and other morphological and physiological features were measured along with biochemical assays for antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and caralase and yield attributes of different soybean genotypes (Guixia 2, Nandou12, Nandong Kang-22, E61 and C103) under shading nets with 50% light transmittance. It was observed that early shading (VER1 and VER2) significantly decreased main stem length and main stem length/stem diameter. Later shading (R1R8 and R2R8) had significant effects on morphological characters such as branch number and pod height. In Nandou 12, the protein contents in plants shaded at R1R8, R2R8 and R5R8 were 9.20, 8.98 and 6.23% higher than in plants grown under normal light levels (CK), respectively, and the crude fat content was 9.31, 10.74 and 4.28% lower. The influence of shading in the later period on anatomy was greater than that in the earlier period. Shading reduced the light saturation point (LSP), the light compensation point (LCP) and the maximum photosynthetic rate (Pnmax), and increased the apparent quantum yield (AQ). Shading also increased the antioxidant enzyme activity in the plants, and this increase was greater with early shading than late. The variability in the chlorophyll (a + b) content and the chlorophyll a/b ratio in R2 stage plants was less than in R5 stage (VER5) plants. Similarly, the activity of antioxidant enzymes in R2 after returning the plants to normal light levels (VER2) was lower than in R5 after relighting (VER5). Compared with later shading, the early shading had a greater effect on the photosynthetic and related characteristics. The longer the shading time, the greater the adverse effects and the less able the plants' were to recover. The data collected in this study contribute to an understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying the early and late growth stage acclimation strategies in different soybean genotypes subjected to shade stress.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/FP19161DOI Listing
June 2020

A Comparative Analysis of Data Augmentation Approaches for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Scan Images of Brain Tumor.

Acta Inform Med 2020 Mar;28(1):29-36

KRL Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Introduction: Machine Learning (ML) is a rapidly growing subfield of Artificial Intelligence (AI). It is used for different purposes in our daily life such as face recognition, speech recognition, text translation in different languages, weather prediction, and business prediction. In parallel, ML also plays an important role in the medical domain such as in medical imaging. ML has various algorithms that need to be trained with large volumes of data to produce a well-trained model for prediction.

Aim: The aim of this study is to highlight the most suitable Data Augmentation (DA) technique(s) for medical imaging based on their results.

Methods: DA refers to different approaches that are used to increase the size of datasets. In this study, eight DA approaches were used on publicly available low-grade glioma tumor datasets obtained from the Tumor Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA) repository. The dataset included 1961 MRI brain scan images of low-grade glioma patients. You Only Look Once (YOLO) version 3 model was trained on the original dataset and the augmented datasets separately. A neural network training/testing ecosystem named as supervisely with Tesla K80 GPU was used for YOLO v3 model training on all datasets.

Results: The results showed that the DA techniques rotate at 180o and rotate at 90o performed the best as data enhancement techniques for medical imaging.

Conclusion: Rotation techniques are found significant to enhance the low volume of medical imaging datasets.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5455/aim.2020.28.29-36DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7085309PMC
March 2020

Diethylstilbestrol exposure disrupts mouse oocyte meiotic maturation in vitro through affecting spindle assembly and chromosome alignment.

Chemosphere 2020 Jun 11;249:126182. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Education Ministry of China, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong, Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China; Hubei Province's Engineering Research Center in Buffalo Breeding & Products, Wuhan, 430070, China. Electronic address:

An adverse tendency induced by the environmental estrogens in female reproductive health is one serious problem worldwide. Diethylstilbestrol (DES), as a synthetic estrogen, is still used as an animal growth stimulant in terrestrial livestock and aquaculture illegally. It has been reported to negatively affect ovarian function and oogenesis. Nevertheless, the mechanism and toxicity of DES on oocyte meiotic maturation are largely unknown. Herein, we found that DES (40 μM) intervened in mouse oocyte maturation and first polar body extrusion (PBE) was decreased in vitro. Cell cycle analysis showed meiotic process was disturbed with oocytes arrested at metaphase I (MI) stage after DES exposure. Further study showed that DES exposure disrupted the spindle assembly and chromosome alignment, which then continuously provoke the spindle assemble checkpoint (SAC). We also observed that the acetylation levels of α-tubulin were dramatically increased in DES-treated oocytes. In addition, the dynamics of actin were also affected. Moreover, the distribution patterns of estrogen receptor α (ERα) were altered in DES-treated oocyte, as indicated by the significant signals accumulation in the spindle area. However, ERα inhibitor failed to rescue the defects of oocyte maturation caused by DES. Of note, the same phenomenon was observed in estrogen-treated oocytes. Collectively, we showed that DES exposure lead to the oocyte meiotic failure via impairing the spindle assembly and chromosome alignment. Our research is helpful to understand how environmental estrogen affects female germ cells and contribute to design the potential therapies to preserve fertility especially for occupational exposure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126182DOI Listing
June 2020

Amorphous-to-crystalline transition and photoluminescence switching in guest-absorbing metal-organic network thin films.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2019 Dec;56(2):241-244

Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Aalto University, FI-00076 Espoo, Finland.

An amorphous metal-organic framework (aMOF) is an oxymoron as the porosity derived from the ordered network of the metal and organic moieties is the main characteristic of conventional crystalline MOFs. However, amorphous metal-organic materials can be synthesized from gaseous precursors through atomic/molecular layer deposition (ALD/MLD). We demonstrate an exciting interplay between luminescence properties and amorphous-to-crystalline transition realized upon water absorption in ALD/MLD aMOF films.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cc08904gDOI Listing
December 2019

Drought Tolerance of Soybean ( L. Merr.) by Improved Photosynthetic Characteristics and an Efficient Antioxidant Enzyme Activities Under a Split-Root System.

Front Physiol 2019 3;10:786. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

Water deficiency significantly affects photosynthetic characteristics. However, there is little information about variations in antioxidant enzyme activities and photosynthetic characteristics of soybean under imbalanced water deficit conditions (WDC). We therefore investigated the changes in photosynthetic and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, total soluble protein, Rubisco activity (RA), and enzymatic activities of two soybean varieties subjected to four different types of imbalanced WDC under a split-root system. The results indicated that the response of both cultivars was significant for all the measured parameters and the degree of response differed between cultivars under imbalanced WDC. The maximum values of enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GR, APX, and POD), chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm, qP, ɸPSII, and ETR), proline, RA, and total soluble protein were obtained with a drought-tolerant cultivar (ND-12). Among imbalanced WDC, the enhanced net photosynthesis, transpiration, and stomatal conductance rates in T2 allowed the production of higher total soluble protein after 5 days of stress, which compensated for the negative effects of imbalanced WDC. Treatment T4 exhibited greater potential for proline accumulation than treatment T1 at 0, 1, 3, and 5 days after treatment, thus showing the severity of the water stress conditions. In addition, the chlorophyll fluorescence values of FvFm, ɸPSII, qP, and ETR decreased as the imbalanced WDC increased, with lower values noted under treatment T4. Soybean plants grown in imbalanced WDC (T2, T3, and T4) exhibited signs of oxidative stress such as decreased chlorophyll content. Nevertheless, soybean plants developed their antioxidative defense-mechanisms, including the accelerated activities of these enzymes. Comparatively, the leaves of soybean plants in T2 displayed lower antioxidative enzymes activities than the leaves of T4 plants showing that soybean plants experienced less WDC in T2 compared to in T4. We therefore suggest that appropriate soybean cultivars and T2 treatments could mitigate abiotic stresses under imbalanced WDC, especially in intercropping.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2019.00786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6621490PMC
July 2019

Early Diagnosis Of Acute Kidney Injury By Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin In Adult Critically Ill Patients.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2019 Jan-Mar;31(1):12-15

Department of Nephrology, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the hospitalized patients. It is also a risk factor for chronic kidney disease and advance renal failure. Early diagnosis with new biomarkers for AKI can prevent and/or reverse the process before rise in serum creatinine and symptomatic renal failure. This study is aimed at the accuracy of Urine neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) for detection of AKI at an early stage.

Methods: It is a descriptive, cross sectional study conducted in the Medical Intensive Care Unit of Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad. Total 97 patients admitted in intensive care unit, age from 18-75 years, fulfilling the inclusion criteria were included by non-probability, consecutive sampling technique. Duration of study was six months, from 1st February 2014 till 31st July 2014. Urine samples of study population were tested for NGAL and simultaneously serum creatinine levels were checked, which were repeated at 48 hours for diagnosis of AKI. Patients with AKI and positive values of NGAL were considered true positive while patients without AKI and negative values of NGAL were considered true negative. Accuracy of NGAL was then calculated and effect modifiers like age and gender checked by chi square testing..

Results: Mean age of the participants was 57.76 years with the range of 26-74 years. Out of the total population of 97 patients, 48.5% were males and remainder 51.5% were females. The study found that the accuracy of the urinary NGAL in diagnosis of AKI when compared with serum creatinine was 90.7%..

Conclusions: Urine NGAL is an accurate marker of AKI in critically ill patients. Therefore, it should be included in the diagnostic workup of AKI in early stages..
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
May 2019

Changes in morphology, chlorophyll fluorescence performance and Rubisco activity of soybean in response to foliar application of ionic titanium under normal light and shade environment.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Mar 12;658:626-637. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University, 211-Huimin Road, Wenjiang District, Chengdu 611130, PR China; Sichuan Engineering Research Center for Crop Strip Intercropping System, Key Laboratory of Crop Ecophysiology and Farming System in Southwest China (Ministry of Agriculture), Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, PR China. Electronic address:

Titanium (Ti) is considered an essential element for plant growth; however, its role in crop performance through stimulating the activities of certain enzymes, enhancing chlorophyll content and photosynthesis, and improving crop morphology and growth requires more study. We therefore conducted a laboratory experiments to study the effects of ionic Ti application on morphology, growth, biomass distribution, chlorophyll fluorescence performance and Rubisco activity of soybean (Glycine max L.) under normal light (NL) and shade conditions (SC). In this study, we sprayed soybean plants with five different levels of ionic Ti (T1 = 0, T2 = 1.25, T3 = 2.5, T4 = 5 and T5 = 10 mg Ti Plant) through foliar application method. Our results show that with increasing moderate (2.5 mg Ti Plant) Ti concentration, the chlorophyll pigments (chlorophyll [Chl] a, b, carotenoid [Car]), plant biomass, photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), and electron transport rate (ETR) of soybean increased, but higher levels (5-10 mg Ti Plant), resulted in leaf anatomical and chloroplast structural disruptions under both NL and SC. Soybean plants showed maximum biomass, leaf area, leaf thickness, Chl a, b, Car, Rubisco activity, Fv/Fm and ETR for T3 at 2.5 mg Ti Plant; however, declined significantly for T5 at high concentration of 10 mg Plant. In NL, the application of 2.5 mg Ti Plant (T3) increased the Chl a, b, and total Chl contents 40, 20, and 27% as compared to control treatment (T1). In SC, the application of 1.25 mg Ti mg Plant (T2) increased the Chl a, b, and total Chl contents 38, 19, and 14% as compared to control treatment. In NL, the Fv/Fm, qP, PSII, and ETR were higher in the T3 treatment over the T1 (control) by 7, 0.3, 16, and 16%, respectively. In SC, the Fv/Fm, qP, PSII, and ETR were higher in the T3 treatment over the T1 (control) by 5, 5, 19, and 19%, respectively. Moreover, Rubisco activity was at peak (55 and 6% increase under NL and SC) at 2.5 mg Ti Plantand decreased with increasing Ti concentration, reaching the lowest at 10 mg Ti Plant, which indicates that leaf cells were damaged as observed in the leaf anatomy. We concluded that ionic Ti expresses a hormesis effect: at lower concentrations, promoting soybean growth, however, at higher concentrations, suppressing soybean growth both under NL and SC. We therefore suggest that under different light stress conditions, Ti application could serve to mitigate abiotic stresses, especially in intercropping systems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.12.182DOI Listing
March 2019

Progress Toward Poliomyelitis Eradication - Pakistan, January 2017-September 2018.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Nov 9;67(44):1242-1245. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Among the three wild poliovirus (WPV) serotypes, only WPV type 1 (WPV1) has been reported in polio cases or detected from environmental surveillance globally since 2012. Pakistan remains one of only three countries worldwide (the others are Afghanistan and Nigeria) that has never had interrupted WPV1 transmission. This report documents Pakistan's activities and progress toward polio eradication during January 2017-September 2018 and updates previous reports (1,2). In 2017, Pakistan reported eight WPV1 cases, a 60% decrease from 20 cases in 2016. As of September 18, 2018, four cases had been reported, compared with five cases at that time in 2017. Nonetheless, in 2018, WPV1 continues to be isolated regularly from environmental surveillance sites, primarily in the core reservoir areas of Karachi, Quetta, and Peshawar, signifying persistent transmission. Strategies to increase childhood immunity have included an intense schedule of supplemental immunization activities (SIAs), expanding and refining deployment of community-based vaccination implemented by community health workers recruited from the local community in reservoir areas, and strategic placement of permanent transit points where vaccination is provided to mobile populations. Interruption of WPV1 transmission will require further programmatic improvements throughout the country with a focus on specific underperforming subdistricts in reservoir areas.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6744a5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6223954PMC
November 2018

Comparative Analysis of V-Akt Murine Thymoma Viral Oncogene Homolog 3 Gene between Cow and Buffalo Reveals Substantial Differences for Mastitis.

Biomed Res Int 2018 15;2018:1463732. Epub 2018 May 15.

Key Laboratory of Agricultural Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction, Education Ministry of China, College of Animal Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

gene is a constituent of the serine/threonine protein kinase family and plays a crucial role in synthesis of milk fats and cholesterol by regulating activity of the sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP). is highly conserved in mammals and its expression levels during the lactation periods of cattle are markedly increased. is highly expressed in the intestine followed by mammary gland and it is also expressed in immune cells. It is involved in the TLR pathways as effectively as proinflammatory cytokines. The aims of this study were to investigate the sequences differences between buffalo and cow. Our results showed that there were substantial differences between buffalo and cow in some exons and noteworthy differences of the gene size in different regions. We also identified the important consensus sequence motifs, variation in 2000 upstream of ATG, substantial difference in the "3'UTR" region, and miRNA association in the buffalo sequences compared with the cow. In addition, genetic analyses, such as gene structure, phylogenetic tree, position of different motifs, and functional domains, were performed to establish their correlation with other species. This may indicate that a buffalo breed has potential resistance to disease, environment changes, and airborne microorganisms and some good production and reproductive traits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/1463732DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5976927PMC
October 2018

Progress toward Catalytic Micro- and Nanomotors for Biomedical and Environmental Applications.

Adv Mater 2018 Jun 7;30(24):e1703660. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Department of Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 111, 80101, Joensuu, Finland.

Synthetic micro- and nanomotors (MNMs) are tiny objects that can autonomously move under the influence of an appropriate source of energy, such as a chemical fuel, magnetic field, ultrasound, or light. Chemically driven MNMs are composed of or contain certain reactive material(s) that convert chemical energy of a fuel into kinetic energy (motion) of the particles. Several different materials have been explored over the last decade for the preparation of a wide variety of MNMs. Here, the discovery of materials and approaches to enhance the efficiency of chemically driven MNMs are reviewed. Several prominent applications of the MNMs, especially in the fields of biomedicine and environmental science, are also discussed, as well as the limitations of existing materials and future research directions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201703660DOI Listing
June 2018

Exploring Promising Immunomodulatory Potential of Natural and Synthetic 1,3-Diphenyl-2-propen-1-one Analogs: A Review of Mechanistic Insight.

Mini Rev Med Chem 2018 ;18(12):1047-1063

Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam Campus, Bandar Puncak Alam 42300, Selangor, Malaysia.

The immune system is an intricate and coordinated nexus serving as a natural defense to preclude internal and external pathogenic insults. The deregulation in the natural balance of immunological functions as a consequence of either over expression or under expression of immune cells tends to cause disruption of homeostasis in the body and may lead to development of numerous immune system disorders. Chalcone moieties (1,3-diphenyl-2-propen-1-one) have been well-documented as ideal lead compounds or precursors to design a wide range of pharmacologically active agents to down-regulate various immune disorders. Owing to their unique structural and molecular framework, these α, β-unsaturated carbonyl-based moieties have also gained remarkable recognition due to their other multifarious pharmacological properties including antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-malarial, antibacterial, anti-tuberculosis, and anticancer potential. Though a great number of methodologies are currently being employed for their synthesis, this review mainly focuses on the natural and synthetic chalcone derivatives that are exclusively synthesized via Claisen-Schmidt condensation reaction and their immunomodulatory prospects. We have critically reviewed the literature and provided convincing evidence for the promising efficacy of chalcone derivatives to modulate functioning of various innate and adaptive immune players including granulocytes, mast cells, monocytes, macrophages, platelets, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and T-lymphocytes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389557517666171123212039DOI Listing
July 2018