Publications by authors named "Muhammad Rizwan"

344 Publications

Silicon elevated cadmium tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by endorsing nutrients uptake and antioxidative defense mechanisms in the leaves.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 May 31;166:148-159. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Numerous abiotic stressors including heavy metal stresses, specifically cadmium (Cd) stress in agricultural bio-system hinder the plant adequate growth. The present study was aimed to reveal the protective role of silicon (Si) application with two levels and to recognize the optimum level of Si for wheat plants grown hydroponically under three different levels of Cd toxicities. In methodology, we used nine treatments with three levels of Si (0, 1, and 3 mmol L; NaSiO) against three levels of Cd (0, 50, 200 μmol L; CdCl) with three biological replicates. The results of our study demonstrated that Si incorporation with the advantage of 3 mmol L in cultured media with Cd50 and Cd200 demolished the toxic effects of Cd on the leaves of wheat plants by increasing plant dry biomass by 88% and 262%, leaf area by 48% and 57%, total chlorophyll contents by 120% and 74%, catalase (CAT) activity by 92% and 110%, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity by 62% and 78%, peroxidase (POD) activity by 66% and 40%, ascorbic acid (AsA) contents by 33% and 34%, glutathione (GHS) contents by 39% and 30% and reduced MDA contents by 56% and 50%, HO contents by 61% and 66%, and EL contents by 56% and 47% as parallel to Cd corresponding levels. In addition, Si incorporation with the advantage of 3 mmol L significantly increased relative water contents (RWC) to maintain the cell turgor pressure and protect the plant from wilting and cells flaccid and enhanced membrane stability index (MSI) to protect the plant from logging under damaging effects of Cd toxicities. Based on the present findings, Si can be considered a quasi-essential element that enhanced wheat tolerance against Cd toxicity by limiting uptake, accumulation, and translocation of Cd and through regulating antioxidative defense mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.05.038DOI Listing
May 2021

Potential of organic and inorganic amendments for stabilizing nickel in acidic soil, and improving the nutritional quality of spinach.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Key Laboratory of Arable Land Conservation (Middle and Lower Reaches of Yangtse River), Ministry of Agriculture; College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Contamination of soils by nickel (Ni) has become a serious environmental problem throughout the world, and this substance wields dangerous effects on the ecosystem and food chain. A pot experiment was conducted to examine the effect of rice straw (RS), rice straw biochar (BI), and calcite (CC) at 1% and 2% application rates in a Ni-contaminated soil. The objective was to potentially stabilize Ni and reduce its bioavailability to spinach (Spinacia Oleracea L.). Spinach plants were grown in a Ni-contaminated Ultisol (commonly known as a red clay soil). Plant growth parameter results indicated that a BI 2% application rate significantly increased the root and shoots dry biomass increased by 1.7- and 6.3-fold, respectively, while essential nutrients were enhanced in the spinach plant compared to those in the untreated soil (CK). Moreover, adding amendments significantly decreased CaCl extractable Ni by 62.5% 94.1%, and 87.2%, while the toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) fell by 26.7%, 47.8%, and 41.7% when using RS, BI, and CC, respectively, at 2% compared to CK. The Ni concentrations in the spinach roots declined by 51.6%, 73.3%, and 68.9%, and in the shoots reduced by 54.1%, 76.7%, and 70.8% for RS, BI, and CC, at a 2% application rate, respectively. Bio-concentration factor (BCF) and translocation factor (TF) dropped significantly by as much as 72.7% and 20%, respectively, for BI 2% application rate. Results of the present study clearly indicated that biochar potential soil amendments for Ni stabilization, thereby reducing its bioavailability in the Ni-contaminated soil. This process enhanced the safety of food to be consumed and mitigated security risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14611-0DOI Listing
June 2021

Menadione sodium bisulphite regulates physiological and biochemical responses to lessen salinity effects on wheat ( L.).

Physiol Mol Biol Plants 2021 May 13;27(5):1135-1152. Epub 2021 May 13.

Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Salinity is a significant constraint for plant survival and productivity. Therefore, an immediate solution to this problem is sought to meet the human population's food demands. Recently, Menadione sodium bisulphite (MSB) has emerged as a significant regulator of plant defense response under abiotic stress. Studies on MSB are scarce, and a few reports on salinity (Arabidopsis and okra) and cadmium stress (okra) are present in the literature. However, these studies did not include the impact of MSB on physiological and plant water relation attributes, critical mediators of plant survival, and yield production under stress. Our results studied the impact of MSB on wheat administered to NaCl salinity in hydroponics medium. We used two wheat cultivars (salt-sensitive MH-97 and salt-tolerant Millat-2011, based on our pre-experimental studies). Seeds were primed in different MSB doses [control (unprimed), hydroprimed, 5, 10, 20, and 30 mM]. Salinity significantly diminished growth, chlorophyll molecules, photosynthesis, total free amino acids, water and turgor potentials, K, Ca, and P contents of wheat when administered NaCl salinity in the nutrient solution. Besides, a noteworthy accretion was present in oxidative stress markers [hydrogen peroxide & malondialdehyde], proline, ascorbic acid, antioxidant enzyme activities, and Na accumulation under salinity. Moreover, MSB noticeably enhanced chlorophyll molecules, proline, and oxidative defense to improve photosynthesis, plant water relations, and diminish specific ions toxicity. Our results manifested better defense regulation in salt-administered plants primed with 5 and 10 mM MSB. Our findings strongly advocated the use of MSB in improving plant salinity tolerance, particularly in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12298-021-01001-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8140022PMC
May 2021

Serosurvey and Risk Factors Associated with Infection in High Risk Occupations from District Lahore and Kasur of Punjab, Pakistan.

Pathogens 2021 May 18;10(5). Epub 2021 May 18.

Institute of Bacterial Infections and Zoonoses, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Naumburger Str. 96a, 07743 Jena, Germany.

Brucellosis is a neglected zoonotic disease, and occupations with a high risk of infection exist. Limited information is available on brucellosis for these employees at high risk in Pakistan. A total of 459 persons with high-risk occupations, i.e., 211 abattoir workers, 63 milkers, 52 dung cake makers, 44 veterinarians, 44 shepherds, and 45 veterinary students of the districts Kasur and Lahore, Pakistan, were tested in this study. Blood samples and information on place of residence, gender, age, urbanicity, type of occupation, socioeconomic status, contact with animals, consumption of raw milk, contact to women who had a miscarriage, contact to aborted animal fetus or abortion material, pregnancy, miscarriage history, or intrauterine fetal death were collected. Serum samples were examined using Rose Bengal tests for anti- antibodies and seropositive samples were subjected to genus-specific qPCR for the detection of DNA. Data were analyzed using chi-squared and binary regression. Twenty (4.35%) persons were seropositive for anti- antibodies. Out of these, 18 (90%) were tested positive by genus-specific qPCR. Positive sera were more often found in Lahore district (8.3%) than in Kasur district (3.1%). Persons older than 36 years were more often seropositive. Persons involved in the handing of milk and in contact with animals were more often seropositive. Contact with women who had had a miscarriage was also a significant factor for seropositivity for brucellosis. Place of residence, gender, age, urbanicity, and contact with animals were identified as potential risk factors in the present study. The present study confirmed that brucellosis is an occupation hazard for abattoir workers, milkers, dung cake makers, and veterinarians in the districts of Lahore and Kasur of Punjab, Pakistan. The study shows the need for strategies for safety at work to minimize the risk of infection. Raising awareness for the prevention and use of proper personal protection equipment during the slaughtering and treatment of animal is highly needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10050620DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8158371PMC
May 2021

COVID-19 Pandemic, Determinants of Food Insecurity, and Household Mitigation Measures: A Case Study of Punjab, Pakistan.

Healthcare (Basel) 2021 May 22;9(6). Epub 2021 May 22.

College of Economics and Management, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Policies centered to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic have created recessionary economic impacts. Adverse income shocks have caused malnutrition and food insecurity and have increased the need for food assistance. The present study examines the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on food insecurity and investigates the determinants of food security and coping strategies in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Data were collected through the internet and received responses from 370 respondents. The household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS) model was applied to examine food insecurity, and a logit regression model was used to analyze its determining factors. The results illustrate that food insecurity substantially increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Households' demographics and socioeconomic factors have influence on food insecurity. Households with a large family size and people in quarantine found more food insecurity during the COVID-19 pandemic, while financial assistance played a role in a decline in food insecurity. Households handle the negative income shocks by eating less preferred food and getting support from government and charity organizations. It is suggested that stakeholders and responsible institutes provide financial assistance to support low-income families in order to enhance food security. Furthermore, policymakers should strengthen social safety nets and aid programs such as the Ehsas income program in the province of the country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9060621DOI Listing
May 2021

Solution Processed PVB/Mica Flake Coatings for the Encapsulation of Organic Solar Cells.

Materials (Basel) 2021 May 12;14(10). Epub 2021 May 12.

King Abdullah Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) die due to their interactions with environmental gases, i.e., moisture and oxygen, the latter being the most dangerous, especially under illumination, due to the fact that most of the active layers used in OPVs are extremely sensitive to oxygen. In this work we demonstrate solution-based effective barrier coatings based on composite of poly(vinyl butyral) (PVB) and mica flakes for the protection of poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)-based organic solar cells (OSCs) against photobleaching under illumination conditions. In the first step we developed a protective layer with cost effective and environmentally friendly methods and optimized its properties in terms of transparency, barrier improvement factor, and bendability. The developed protective layer maintained a high transparency in the visible region and improved oxygen and moisture barrier quality by the factor of ~7. The resultant protective layers showed ultra-flexibility, as no significant degradation in protective characteristics were observed after 10 K bending cycles. In the second step, a PVB/mica composite layer was applied on top of the P3HT film and subjected to photo-degradation. The P3HT films coated with PVB/mica composite showed improved stability under constant light irradiation and exhibited a loss of <20% of the initial optical density over the period of 150 h. Finally, optimized barrier layers were used as encapsulation for organic solar cell (OSC) devices. The lifetime results confirmed that the stability of the OSCs was extended from few hours to over 240 h in a sun test (65 °C, ambient RH%) which corresponds to an enhanced lifetime by a factor of 9 compared to devices encapsulated with pristine PVB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14102496DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151763PMC
May 2021

Arsenic behavior in soil-plant system and its detoxification mechanisms in plants: A review.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 21;286:117389. Epub 2021 May 21.

College of Grassland Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, China. Electronic address:

Arsenic (As) is one of the most toxic and cancer-causing metals which is generally entered the food chain via intake of As contaminated water or food and harmed the life of living things especially human beings. Therefore, the reduction of As content in the food could be of great importance for healthy life. To reduce As contamination in the soil and food, the evaluation of plant-based As uptake and transportation mechanisms is critically needed. Different soil factors such as physical and chemical properties of soil, soil pH, As speciation, microbial abundance, soil phosphates, mineral nutrients, iron plaques and roots exudates effectively regulate the uptake and accumulation of As in different parts of plants. The detoxification mechanisms of As in plants depend upon aquaporins, membrane channels and different transporters that actively control the influx and efflux of As inside and outside of plant cells, respectively. The xylem loading is responsible for long-distance translocation of As and phloem loading involves in the partitioning of As into the grains. However, As detoxification mechanism based on the clear understandings of how As uptake, accumulations and translocation occur inside the plants and which factors participate to regulate these processes. Thus, in this review we emphasized the different soil factors and plant cell transporters that are critically responsible for As uptake, accumulation, translocation to different organs of plants to clearly understand the toxicity reasons in plants. This study could be helpful for further research to develop such strategies that may restrict As entry into plant cells and lead to high crop yield and safe food production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117389DOI Listing
May 2021

examination of anti-parasitic, anti-Alzheimer, insecticidal and cytotoxic potential of Wallich leaves extracts.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 May 18;28(5):3031-3036. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Biotechnology, Bacha Khan University, Charsadda, KPK, Pakistan.

This research study is mainly focused to evaluate the anti-parasitic, insecticidal, cytotoxic and anti-alzheimer potential of various leaf extracts of Wallich ex Bentham. 04 different extracts were prepared using solvent of different polarity to determine the best candidate for potent bioactivity i.e. n-hexane (NH), Ethyl acetate (EA), Ethanol (EL) and Chloroform (CH). Concentrations of each extracts were made specified for all activities. All extracts were exploited for broad range of biomedical applications including leishmaniasis, in vitro anti-Alzheimer, insecticidal and cytotoxic studies. Our results showed that A. bracteosa n-hexane extract was highly active against Leishmania Tropica with significant inhibition of 58 ± 1.61 for promastigote and 63 ± 2.29 for amastigote at 1000 μg/mL. Furthermore, promising anti-alzheimer activity acetylcholinesterase (AChE) 46 ± 0.83 and butrylcholineterase (BChE) 49 ± 1.17 was noted for n-hexane. The insecticidal potential of these extracts were test against five different insects ( and ). The higest mortality rate of insecticidal activity was recorded by n-hexane followed by Ethyl acetate whereas ethanol extract was found to be less effective against all the test species. Significant cytotoxic potential of each plant sample against thus aware us for further detailed research to find out novel drugs. Based on our results we believe that could be used to develop as a potential botanical insecticide against different insect and pests, such as aphids as well as an excellent source for the compound isolation as anti-tumor agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.02.044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8117137PMC
May 2021

Biochar mitigates arsenic-induced human health risks and phytotoxicity in quinoa under saline conditions by modulating ionic and oxidative stress responses.

Environ Pollut 2021 May 15;287:117348. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Environmental Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Vehari Campus, 61100, Pakistan.

Arsenic (As) is a toxic metalloid and its widespread contamination in agricultural soils along with soil salinization has become a serious concern for human health and food security. In the present study, the effect of cotton shell biochar (CSBC) in decreasing As-induced phytotoxicity and human health risks in quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) grown on As-spiked saline and non-saline soils was evaluated. Quinoa plants were grown on As contaminated (0, 15 and 30 mg kg) saline and non-saline soils amended with 0, 1 and 2% CSBC. Results showed that plant growth, grain yield, stomatal conductance and chlorophyll contents of quinoa showed more decline on As contaminated saline soil than non-saline soil. The application of 2% CSBC particularly enhanced plant growth, leaf relative water contents, stomatal conductance, pigment contents and limited the uptake of As and Na as compared to soil without CSBC. Salinity in combination with As trigged the production of HO and caused lipid peroxidation of cell membranes. Biochar ameliorated the oxidative stress by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT). Carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic human health risks were greatly decreased in the presence of biochar. Application of 2% CSBC showed promising results in reducing human health risks and As toxicity in quinoa grown on As contaminated non-saline and saline soils. Further research is needed to evaluate the role of biochar in minimizing As accumulation in other crops on normal as well as salt affected soils under field conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.117348DOI Listing
May 2021

Evaluating data-driven methods for short-term forecasts of cumulative SARS-CoV2 cases.

PLoS One 2021 21;16(5):e0252147. Epub 2021 May 21.

Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology, Bremen, Germany.

Background: The WHO announced the epidemic of SARS-CoV2 as a public health emergency of international concern on 30th January 2020. To date, it has spread to more than 200 countries and has been declared a global pandemic. For appropriate preparedness, containment, and mitigation response, the stakeholders and policymakers require prior guidance on the propagation of SARS-CoV2.

Methodology: This study aims to provide such guidance by forecasting the cumulative COVID-19 cases up to 4 weeks ahead for 187 countries, using four data-driven methodologies; autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), exponential smoothing model (ETS), and random walk forecasts (RWF) with and without drift. For these forecasts, we evaluate the accuracy and systematic errors using the Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE), respectively.

Findings: The results show that the ARIMA and ETS methods outperform the other two forecasting methods. Additionally, using these forecasts, we generate heat maps to provide a pictorial representation of the countries at risk of having an increase in the cases in the coming 4 weeks of February 2021.

Conclusion: Due to limited data availability during the ongoing pandemic, less data-hungry short-term forecasting models, like ARIMA and ETS, can help in anticipating the future outbreaks of SARS-CoV2.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0252147PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8139504PMC
June 2021

The effect of the root-colonizing Piriformospora indica on passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) development: Initial defense shifts to fitness benefits and higher fruit quality.

Food Chem 2021 Oct 22;359:129671. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

College of Horticulture, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, PR China. Electronic address:

Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) has an important economic value as exotic ingredient in juice blends. We inoculated the passion fruit cultivar Passiflora edulis Sims f. edulis's roots with the beneficial root-colonizing fungus Piriformospora indica under greenhouse conditions. The experiments were performed at three different locations and times (between 2017 and 2019). After transient initial growth retardation associated with a mild salicylic-acid (SA)-dependent defense activation and reduced sucrose metabolism, plant performance and growth are promoted during later stages. The elevated SA level in the aerial parts stimulates the plant immune system and promotes pathogen resistance in the adult plants and the fruit peels. P. indica stimulates the fruit size and fruit quality, and the higher amounts of defense-related secondary metabolites in the peels restrict growth of herbivorous insect larvae fed with peel extracts. We conclude that application of P. indica to passion fruits stimulates the plants' immune system and improves the fruits' quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129671DOI Listing
October 2021

Designing Hydrogels for 3D Cell Culture Using Dynamic Covalent Crosslinking.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 May 14:e2100234. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3E5, Canada.

Designing simple biomaterials to replicate the biochemical and mechanical properties of tissues is an ongoing challenge in tissue engineering. For several decades, new biomaterials have been engineered using cytocompatible chemical reactions and spontaneous ligations via click chemistries to generate scaffolds and water swollen polymer networks, known as hydrogels, with tunable properties. However, most of these materials are static in nature, providing only macroscopic tunability of the scaffold mechanics, and do not reflect the dynamic environment of natural extracellular microenvironment. For more complex applications such as organoids or co-culture systems, there remain opportunities to investigate cells that locally remodel and change the physicochemical properties within the matrices. In this review, advanced biomaterials where dynamic covalent chemistry is used to produce stable 3D cell culture models and high-resolution constructs for both in vitro and in vivo applications, are discussed. The implications of dynamic covalent chemistry on viscoelastic properties of in vitro models are summarized, case studies in 3D cell culture are critically analyzed, and opportunities to further improve the performance of biomaterials for 3D tissue engineering are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202100234DOI Listing
May 2021

Host-Plant Variations Affect the Biotic Potential, Survival, and Population Projection of (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

Insects 2021 Apr 21;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

College of Plant Health and Medicine, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, China.

The green peach aphid, Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a polyphagous insect pest is a major threat to a wide range of crops worldwide. Aiming to evaluate the life history traits of , feeding on different host plants, we used five vegetables: cabbage, (Brassicaceae); chinese cabbage, (Brassicaceae); chili pepper, (Solanaceae); crown daisy, (Asteraceae); and eggplant, (Solanaceae). TWOSEX-MSchart software was used for the statistical analysis about the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. The highest fecundity (69.65 individuals) rate of , intrinsic rate of increase ( = 0.425 d), finite rate of increase ( = 1.531 d), net reproductive rate ( = 69.65 offspring), and shortest mean generation time (T = 9.964 d) were recorded on the chili pepper plant. Whereas, lower fitness occurred on cabbage. The findings attained from population growth parameters indicate that chili pepper is the most susceptible plant, while cabbage is resistant to aphids. Population projection results also supported this statement, as the final total population size on cabbage was significantly lower than other plants. The reported information would be useful for devising integrated pest management programs, particularly those involving . This information also suggests the adaptability of causing economic damage to these vegetable cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects12050375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143353PMC
April 2021

AI inspired EEG-based spatial feature selection method using multivariate empirical mode decomposition for emotion classification.

Multimed Syst 2021 Apr 21:1-14. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Information and Communication Technology Department, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Xiamen University Malaysia, Sepang, 43900 Malaysia.

Classification of human emotions based on electroencephalography (EEG) is a very popular topic nowadays in the provision of human health care and well-being. Fast and effective emotion recognition can play an important role in understanding a patient's emotions and in monitoring stress levels in real-time. Due to the noisy and non-linear nature of the EEG signal, it is still difficult to understand emotions and can generate large feature vectors. In this article, we have proposed an efficient spatial feature extraction and feature selection method with a short processing time. The raw EEG signal is first divided into a smaller set of eigenmode functions called (IMF) using the empirical model-based decomposition proposed in our work, known as intensive multivariate empirical mode decomposition (iMEMD). The Spatio-temporal analysis is performed with Complex Continuous Wavelet Transform (CCWT) to collect all the information in the time and frequency domains. The multiple model extraction method uses three deep neural networks (DNNs) to extract features and dissect them together to have a combined feature vector. To overcome the computational curse, we propose a method of differential entropy and mutual information, which further reduces feature size by selecting high-quality features and pooling the k-means results to produce less dimensional qualitative feature vectors. The system seems complex, but once the network is trained with this model, real-time application testing and validation with good classification performance is fast. The proposed method for selecting attributes for benchmarking is validated with two publicly available data sets, SEED, and DEAP. This method is less expensive to calculate than more modern sentiment recognition methods, provides real-time sentiment analysis, and offers good classification accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00530-021-00782-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8057947PMC
April 2021

BC-TFdb: a database of transcription factor drivers in breast cancer.

Database (Oxford) 2021 Apr;2021

Department of Bioinformatics and Biological Statistics, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, P.R. China.

Transcription factors (TFs) are DNA-binding proteins, which regulate many essential biological functions. In several cancer types, TF function is altered by various direct mechanisms, including gene amplification or deletion, point mutations, chromosomal translocations, expression alterations, as well as indirectly by non-coding DNA mutations influencing the binding of the TF. TFs are also actively involved in breast cancer (BC) initiation and progression. Herein, we have developed an open-access database, BC-TFdb (Breast Cancer Transcription Factors database), of curated, non-redundant TF involved in BC. The database provides BC driver TFs related information including genomic sequences, proteomic sequences, structural data, pathway information, mutations information, DNA binding residues, survival and therapeutic resources. The database will be a useful platform for researchers to obtain BC-related TF-specific information. High-quality datasets are downloadable for users to evaluate and develop computational methods for drug designing against BC. Database URL: https://www.dqweilab-sjtu.com/index.php.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/database/baab018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8060005PMC
April 2021

Green Synthesis of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Fruit Extracts of : Their Characterizations and Biological and Environmental Applications.

ACS Omega 2021 Apr 30;6(14):9709-9722. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Biotechnology, Bacha Khan University, Charsadda 24460,KPK, Pakistan.

In the present work, bioaugmented zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) were prepared from aqueous fruit extracts of . The ZnO-NPs were characterized by different techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The crystallites exhibited a mean size of 41.23 nm measured via XRD and were highly pure, while SEM and TEM analyses of synthesized NPs confirmed their spherical or elliptical shape. The functional groups responsible for stabilizing and capping of ZnO-NPs were confirmed using FTIR analysis. The ζ-size and ζ-potential of synthesized ZnO-NPs were reported as 66 nm and -22.1 mV, respectively, via the DLS technique can be considered as moderate stable colloidal solution. Synthesized NPs were used to evaluate for their possible antibacterial, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antiparasitic, and larvicidal properties. The NPs were found to be highly active against bacterial strains both coated with antibiotics and alone. was found to be the most sensitive strain against NPs (27 ± 1.73) and against NPs coated with imipinem (26 ± 1.5). ZnO-NPs displayed outstanding inhibitory potential against enzymes protein kinase (12.23 ± 0.42), α-amylase (73.23 ± 0.42), and α-glucosidase (65.21 ± 0.49). Overall, the synthesized NPs have shown significant larvicidal activity (77.3 ± 1.8) against , the mosquitoes involved in the transmission of dengue fever. Similarly, tremendous leishmanicidal activity was also observed against both the promastigote (71.50 ± 0.70) and amastigote (61.41 ± 0.71) forms of the parasite. The biosynthesized NPs were found to be excellent antioxidant and biocompatible nanomaterials. Biosynthesized ZnO-NPs were also used as photocatalytic agents, resulting in 88% degradation of methylene blue dye in 140 min. Owing to their eco-friendly synthesis, nontoxicity, and biocompatible nature, ZnO-NPs synthesized from can be exploited as potential candidates for biomedical and environmental applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c00310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047667PMC
April 2021

Classification of COVID-19 individuals using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system.

Multimed Syst 2021 Mar 28:1-15. Epub 2021 Mar 28.

School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, USA.

Coronavirus is a fatal disease that affects mammals and birds. Usually, this virus spreads in humans through aerial precipitation of any fluid secreted from the infected entity's body part. This type of virus is fatal than other unpremeditated viruses. Meanwhile, another class of coronavirus was developed in December 2019, named Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV), first seen in Wuhan, China. From January 23, 2020, the number of affected individuals from this virus rapidly increased in Wuhan and other countries. This research proposes a system for classifying and analyzing the predictions obtained from symptoms of this virus. The proposed system aims to determine those attributes that help in the early detection of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) using the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). This work computes the accuracy of different machine learning classifiers and selects the best classifier for COVID-19 detection based on comparative analysis. ANFIS is used to model and control ill-defined and uncertain systems to predict this globally spread disease's risk factor. COVID-19 dataset is classified using Support Vector Machine (SVM) because it achieved the highest accuracy of 100% among all classifiers. Furthermore, the ANFIS model is implemented on this classified dataset, which results in an 80% risk prediction for COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00530-021-00774-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8004563PMC
March 2021

Synthesis and Characterization of Na-Zeolites from Textile Waste Ash and Its Application for Removal of Lead (Pb) from Wastewater.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 24;18(7). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Massive production of carcinogenic fly ash waste poses severe threats to water bodies due to its disposal into drains and landfills. Fly ash can be a source of raw materials for the synthesis of adsorbents. Rag fly ash as a new class of raw materials could be a cheap source of Al and Si for the synthesis of Na-zeolites. In this work, NaOH activation, via a prefusion- and postfusion-based hydrothermal strategy, was practiced for the modification of rag fly ash into Na-zeolite. Morphology, surface porosity, chemical composition, functionality, mineral phases, and crystallinity, in conjunction with ion exchangeability of the tailored materials, were evaluated by SEM, ICP-OES, XRF, FTIR, XRD, and cation exchange capacity (CEC) techniques. Rag fly ash and the synthesized Na-zeolites were applied for the removal of Pb (II) from synthetic wastewater by varying the reaction conditions, such as initial metal ion concentration, mass of adsorbent, sorption time, and pH of the reaction medium. It was observed that Na-zeolite materials (1 g/100 mL) effectively removed up to 90-98% of Pb (II) ions from 100 mg/L synthetic solution within 30 min at pH ≈ 8. Freundlich adsorption isotherm favors the multilayer heterogeneous adsorption mechanism for the removal of Pb (II). It is reasonable to conclude that recycling of textile rag fly ash waste into value-added Na-zeolites for the treatment of industrial wastewater could be an emergent move toward achieving sustainable and green remediation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18073373DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037912PMC
March 2021

Phosphate-lanthanum coated sewage sludge biochar improved the soil properties and growth of ryegrass in an alkaline soil.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Mar 30;216:112173. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Key Laboratory of Material Chemistry for Energy Conversion and Storage, Ministry of Education, Hubei Key Laboratory of Material Chemistry and Service Failure, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, PR China. Electronic address:

The reclamation of alkaline soils remains challenging while the application of biochar has been proposed as a viable measure to rehabilitate soil fertility. The objective of the current pot study was to evaluate the efficacy of various P-La modified sewage sludge biochars (SSBC, La-SSBC, SSBC-P, La-SSBC-P) on soil phosphate-retention and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) growth in an alkaline soil (excess CaCO). The results revealed that germination percentage, plant dry biomass, plant height, and the total amount of P in the ryegrass leaves were significantly (P < 0.05) improved under La-SSBC-P treatment as compared to other treatments. La-SSBC-P treatment significantly altered the chemical characteristics of post-harvest alkaline soil, such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic matter (SOM), limestone (CaCO), phosphate, and lanthanum contents. In comparison to the SSBC treatment, soil available phosphorous (AP) contents under La-SSBC-P were enhanced by 6.7 times after loading biochar with P and La (La-SSBC-P). After the plantation of ryegrass, concentration of lanthanum in the soil was negligible. The contents of CaCO reduced by 76.2% after La-SSBC-P biochar treatment, compared to the cultivated control. This phenomenon clearly indicated that lanthanum was reduced due to the precipitation with limestone, which was proposed based on the data of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Overall, results showed that the P-loaded lanthanum decorated biochar (La-SSBC-P) could be used as a potential substitute for P-fertilizer under the experimental conditions. However, field experiments are required to confer the efficiency of La-SSBC-P as P fertilizer in different soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112173DOI Listing
March 2021

Multi-element uptake and growth responses of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) to TiO nanoparticles applied in different textured soils.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jun 25;215:112149. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, 11451 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The aim of present work was to evaluate the effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO NPs) on rice's growth (Oryza sativa L.) and nutrient availability under different soil textures. Greenhouse experiment was carried out with three soil textures (sandy loam, silt loam and silty clay loam) and two concentrations of TiO NPs (500, 750 mg kg). Control (without TiO NPs) was also maintained for the comparison. Growth parameters including chlorophyll content, root/shoot length, fresh/dry biomass and nutrients' uptake including calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), phosphorous (P), potassium (K) and zinc (Zn) were determined. The results revealed that application of 500 mg kg TiO NPs in silty clay loam soil increased the chlorophyll content (3.3-folds), root length (49%), shoot length (31%), root and shoot biomass (41% & 39%, respectively) as compared to other soil textures. The maximum plant growth was observed in silty clay loam > silt loam > sandy loam. Concentration of Cu, Fe, P and Zn in shoot was increased by 8 - , 2.3 - , 0.4 - , 0.05 -folds in silty clay loam upon 500 mg kg TiO NPs application as compared to the control. Backward selection method to model the parameters (nutrients in soil) for the response variables (root/shoot length and biomass) showed that Ca, Fe, P are the main nutrients responsible for the increase in plant length and biomass. Overall, the growth of rice was better in silty clay loam at 500 mg kg of TiO NPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112149DOI Listing
June 2021

Effect of three different types of biochars on eco-physiological response of important agroforestry tree species under salt stress.

Int J Phytoremediation 2021 Mar 25:1-11. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Soil reclamation through afforestation along with soil amendments is one of the most suitable practices to combat soil salinity while the use of biochar may have potential to ameliorate salt-affected soils. This study was designed to check effects of different biochars on the physico-chemical properties of soil and characteristics of three important agroforestry trees species: , in saline soils. Farmyard manure biochar (FYMB), sugarcane bagasse biochar (SCB), woodchips biochar (WCB) were applied (6% w/w) to check their effects on plants under saline conditions. Results revealed that FYMB was the best for promoting all growth and physiological parameters of three tree species while was the best suited species. Different types of biochars influenced the growth of agroforestry species differently as SCB showed better results for as compared to WCB but for and WCB was more effective than SCB. Trend of growth and other physiological attributes for and was FYMB > WCB > SCB > control whereas showed trend as FYMB > SCB > WCB > control. Biochar was helpful in improving physicochemical characteristics of saline soils by lowering values of soil EC and SAR but type of biochar has a differential effect on tree growth.Novelty statementBiochar may be a potential source for the amelioration of salt affected soils while less is known about the effects of different types of biochars on the soil and eco-physiological response of important agroforestry trees species in saline soils. In this study, although all types of biochar ameliorated the soil conditions and enhanced the plant growth, but farmyard manure biochar was the most efficient treatment among three types of used biochars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15226514.2021.1901849DOI Listing
March 2021

Combined use of different nanoparticles effectively decreased cadmium (Cd) concentration in grains of wheat grown in a field contaminated with Cd.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jun 21;215:112139. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in arable lands has become a serious matter for food security. Among various approaches, the application of nanoparticles (NPs) for remediation of contaminated water and soils is attaining more popularity worldwide. The current field experiment was executed to explore the impacts of single and combined use of ZnO NPs, Fe NPs and Si NPs on wheat growth and Cd intake by plants in a Cd-contaminated field. Wheat was sown in a field which was contaminated with Cd and was irrigated with the raw-city-effluent while NPs were applied as foliar spray alone and in all possible combinations. The data revealed that straw and grain yields were enhanced in the presence of NPs over control. Chlorophyll, carotenoids contents and antioxidants activities were enhanced while electrolyte leakage was reduced with all NPs over control. In comparison with control, Cd uptake in wheat straw was reduced by 84% and Cd uptake in grain was reduced by 99% in T8 where all three NPs were foliar-applied simultaneously. Zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) contents were increased in those plants where ZnO and Fe NPs were exogenously applied which revealed that ZnO and Fe NPs enhanced the bio-fortification of Zn and Fe in wheat grains. Overall, foliar application of different NPs is beneficial for better wheat growth, yield, nutrients uptake and to lessen the Cd intake by plants grown in Cd-contaminated soil under real field conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112139DOI Listing
June 2021

Menadione sodium bisulfite alleviated chromium effects on wheat by regulating oxidative defense, chromium speciation, and ion homeostasis.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Botany, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, 38000, Pakistan.

Menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB) is a crucial growth regulator mediating plant defense response. MSB-mediated regulation of defense mechanisms in wheat under chromium (Cr) toxicity has not been reported in the literature. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to appraise the efficacy of exogenous MSB on circumventing Cr phytotoxic effects on wheat. We also compared the effects of water-soluble MSB with that of water-insoluble menadiol diacetate (MD). The levels used in the present investigation for MSB and MD were 100 and 200 mg L. Wheat plants grown in soil contaminated with 25 mg kg Cr in the form of KCrO showed a notable reduction in growth, chlorophyll molecules, relative water contents, grain yield, total soluble sugars, phenolics, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POD, CAT), and uptake of essential nutrients (K, P, and Ca). Cr toxicity caused a noticeable accretion in total free amino acids, proline, malondialdehyde, HO, O, relative membrane permeability, methylglyoxal contents, activities of enzymes (lipoxygenase, glutathione-S-transferase, and ascorbate peroxidase), nitric oxide and HS contents, glutathione and oxidized glutathione contents, total Cr contents, and Cr and Cr accumulation. MSB application significantly reduced lipid peroxidation, ROS overproduction, methylglyoxal levels, total Cr contents, and maintained higher Cr:Cr ratio in aerial parts. Besides, Cr-mediated inhibition in essential nutrient uptake was significantly circumvented by exogenous MSB. Consequently, MSB enhanced wheat growth by lessening oxidative damage, total Cr contents in aerial parts, and strengthening antioxidant enzyme activities. MD was not effective in mediating defense responses in wheat under Cr toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13221-0DOI Listing
March 2021

Synthesis and molecular characterization of chitosan/alginate blends based polyurethanes biocomposites.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jun 15;180:324-331. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad 38030, Pakistan.

The present work aims to examine the structural properties of polyurethanes bio-composites with mole ratios of alginate and chitosan. For this concern, a two-step reaction mechanism was carried out; in the first step isocyanate (-NCO) terminated pre-polymer was synthesized by the reaction of hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB). The pre-polymer was further extended with 1,4-butanediol (BDO), chitosan (CS) and alginate (ALG) in the second step. Structural and functional group elucidation was done by using Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT-IR) and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H NMR) spectroscopy. The crystallinity of the prepared samples was investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) method, the maximum observed intensity was 7704 a.u. The thermal properties of polyurethane composites were carried out using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The TGA results showed that thermal stability of RPU-5 was 20 °C more than RPU-1 at each corresponding degradation temperature. It is observed all physical parameters like crystallinity, glass transition temperature, melting point are much dependent on ratio of chain extenders. Overall, CS based samples along with small amount of ALG showed better thermal properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.03.064DOI Listing
June 2021

Effect of green and chemically synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles on cadmium accumulation in wheat grains and potential dietary health risk: A field investigation.

J Hazard Mater 2021 08 8;415:125585. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan; Department of Biological Sciences and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung 40402, Taiwan. Electronic address:

A field study was designed to explore the impacts of foliar-applied chemically and green synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO NPs) on cadmium (Cd) uptake in wheat plants. The wheat was grown in field which was contaminated with Cd and plants were subjected to foliar episodes of TiO NPs during plant growth period. Leaf extracts of two plant species (Trianthema portulacastrum, Chenopodium quinoa) were used for green synthesis while sol-gel method was used for chemical preparation of TiO NPs. Results showed that TiO NPs significantly enhanced the plant height, length of spikes photosynthesis, and straw and grain yield compared to control. TiO NPs minimized the oxidative burst in leaves and improved the enzyme activities than control. Cadmium concentrations of straw, roots and grains decreased after TiO NPs treatments than control. The grain Cd contents were below recommended threshold (0.2 mg Cd /kg grain DW) for cereals upon NPs exposure. The health risk index by the dietary use of grains for adults was below threshold upon NPs exposure. Overall, foliar use of TiO NPs prepared from plant extracts was appropriate in minimizing Cd contents in wheat grains, thereby reducing risk of Cd to human health via food chain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125585DOI Listing
August 2021

Ecological and Health Risks Assessment of Potentially Toxic Metals and Metalloids Contaminants: A Case Study of Agricultural Soils in Qatar.

Toxics 2021 Feb 12;9(2). Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Microelement Research Center, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

In recent years, Qatar has witnessed exponential growth in the human population, urbanization, and increased anthropogenic activities, including agriculture. Potentially toxic environmental contaminants, including metals and metalloids, are commonly found in emerging economies. At high concentrations, elements such as As, Cr, and Ni can be hazardous and may lead to various health problems in humans, including cancer. The current study measured As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn concentrations in agricultural soils. Pollution levels and potential negative impacts on human and environmental health were determined using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standard methodologies. According to the study's findings, the studied element concentrations descended in the following order: Zn > Cr > V > Ni > As > Cu > Pb > Cd. Of these, As (27.6 mg/kg), Cr (85.7 mg/kg), Ni (61.9 mg/kg), and Zn (92.3 mg/kg) concentrations were higher than average world background levels. Each of these elements also had an enrichment factor (EF > 1), indicating their anthropogenic origin. The combined pollution load index (PLI > 1) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) range values of -0.2-2.5 further indicated that the soil was up to 58% polluted. However, the ecological risk factor (Er ≤ 40.6) and potential ecological risk index (PERI = 79.6) suggested low ecological risk. A human health risk evaluation showed that only As, with a hazard index (HI) of 1.3, posed a noncarcinogenic risk to infants. Additionally, As, Cr, and Ni, with total carcinogenic risk (TCR) values of 1.18 × 10 and 2.06 × 10 for adults and children, respectively, proved carcinogenic to both age groups. The elements' carcinogenic risk (CR) potential descended in the following order: Ni > As > Cr. Additionally, for both adults and children, oral ingestion is the most likely exposure pathway. Our findings support the need for closer monitoring of potentially toxic metals and metalloids levels in cultivated soils and farm produce in Qatar. Reducing the elements' bioavailability in soil and developing innovative remediation technologies is needed to limit potential risks to human health. Further studies on As, Cr, and Ni gastrointestinal bioaccessibilities are needed to fully understand the effects after long-term exposure and the cancer-causing potential of these elements over a lifetime.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxics9020035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7918611PMC
February 2021

Schiff Bases of Pioglitazone Provide Better Antidiabetic and Potent Antioxidant Effect in a Streptozotocin-Nicotinamide-Induced Diabetic Rodent Model.

ACS Omega 2021 Feb 3;6(6):4470-4479. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Riphah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Riphah International University, Islamabad 44000 Pakistan.

Pioglitazone is a Food and Drug Administration-approved thiazolidinedione (TZD) derivative and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonist and used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). However, this drug is still associated with many adverse effects. In the present study, four new Schiff bases of pioglitazone (P1-P4) were synthesized and characterized using FTIR, HNMR, CNMR, mass spectrometry, and elemental analysis. For preliminary screening, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and alpha-amylase antidiabetic inhibitory assay were performed. Further, P3 was used to investigate antioxidant and antidiabetic effects in a streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetic rat model. Diabetic rats were administered with an i.p dose of pioglitazone 10 mg/kg body weight for 21 days. Moreover, biochemical parameters and antioxidants were quantified from liver and kidney tissues of rodents. In the DPPH assay, compound P3 showed superior antioxidant effects. Using the α-amylase inhibitory assay, P3 exhibited potent effects as compared to other groups, that is, 93% inhibition, while pioglitazone showed 81% inhibition. Enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants showed significant changes in P3 (10 mg/kg)-treated groups ( < 0.001). Similarly, compound P3 produced significant and better results in comparison to pioglitazone in the rodent model. This study confirmed potent antidiabetic and superior antioxidant potential of the newly synthesized Schiff base (P3), which could ultimately account for insulin sensitization and for cellular protection and hence provide a potential clue for dual therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c06064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7893790PMC
February 2021

Affective Interpersonal Touch in Close Relationships: A Cross-Cultural Perspective.

Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2021 Feb 22:146167220988373. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima, Peru.

Interpersonal touch behavior differs across cultures, yet no study to date has systematically tested for cultural variation in affective touch, nor examined the factors that might account for this variability. Here, over 14,000 individuals from 45 countries were asked whether they embraced, stroked, kissed, or hugged their partner, friends, and youngest child during the week preceding the study. We then examined a range of hypothesized individual-level factors (sex, age, parasitic history, conservatism, religiosity, and preferred interpersonal distance) and cultural-level factors (regional temperature, parasite stress, regional conservatism, collectivism, and religiosity) in predicting these affective-touching behaviors. Our results indicate that affective touch was most prevalent in relationships with partners and children, and its diversity was relatively higher in warmer, less conservative, and religious countries, and among younger, female, and liberal people. This research allows for a broad and integrated view of the bases of cross-cultural variability in affective touch.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167220988373DOI Listing
February 2021

TiO nanoparticles dose, application method and phosphorous levels influence genotoxicity in Rice (Oryza sativa L.), soil enzymatic activities and plant growth.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Apr 9;213:111977. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Institute of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan. Electronic address:

The present study focused on investigating the effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiONPs) on rice (Oryza sativa L.) growth and changes in soil health in two contrasting soil textures (silt-loam and clay). Moreover, response of rice to different methods of TiONPs application and phosphorous fertilizer levels were also evaluated. For toxicity assessment, pot experiment was carried out. TiONPs (0, 500, 750 mg kg) were applied and plants were grown till vegetative stage. After harvesting, physiological parameters, stress assay, soil microbial and enzymatic activities were determined. Based on the results of toxicity study, impact of three methods of TiONPs application (foliar, irrigation, soil) and four phosphorous fertilizer levels (0, 10, 20, 40 mg kg) on rice growth were assessed. During the 1st phase, results showed an adverse effect of TiONPs on plant growth and soil microorganisms in both soil textures at 750 mg kg. The HO production, lipid peroxidation and leaf membrane injury index were increased by 4.3-, 2.4-, and 1.9-folds in clay soil upon 750 mg kg TiONPs application. Likewise, at the same level of TiONPs; microbial biomass, dehydrogenase, and respiration were decreased by 0.91-, 0.79-, and 0.78- folds respectively. In 2nd phase, maximum shoot length, biomass, phosphorous uptake and rice grain protein content were observed under application of TiONPs (500 mg kg) through irrigation method in combination with 40 mg P kg. However, 20 and 40 mg P kg performed equally well upon TiONPs application and the results were not statistically significant. The results suggest that 750 mg kg of TiONPs negatively affect plant growth and soil enzymatic activities. Moreover, combined application of TiONPs (500 mg kg) through irrigation and 20 mg P kg is recommended to be the optimum for growth of rice plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.111977DOI Listing
April 2021

Synthesis, characterization and advanced sustainable applications of titanium dioxide nanoparticles: A review.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Apr 6;212:111978. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Universiti Teknologi, Malaysia.

Nanotechnology is capturing great interest worldwide due to their stirring applications in various fields. Among nanoparticles (NPs), titanium dioxide (TiO) NPs have been widely used in daily life and can be synthesized through various physical, chemical, and green methods. Green synthesis is a non-toxic, cost-effective, and eco-friendly route for the synthesis of NPs. Plenty of work has been reported on the green, chemical, physical and biological synthesis of TiO NPs and these NPs can be characterized through high tech. instruments. In the present review, dense data have been presented on the comparative synthesis of TiO NPs with different characteristics and their wide range of applications. Among the TiO NPs synthesis techniques, the green methods have been proven to be efficient than chemical synthesis methods because of the less use of precursors, time-effectiveness, and energy-efficiency during the green synthesis procedures. Moreover, this review describes the types of plants (shrubs, herbs and trees), microorganisms (bacteria, fungi and algae), biological derivatives (proteins, peptides, and starches) employed for the synthesis of TiO NPs. The TiO NPs can be effectively used for the treatment of polluted water and positively affected the plant physiology especially under abiotic stresses but the response varied with types, size, shapes, doses, duration of exposure, metal species along with other factors. This review also highlights the regulating features and future standpoints for the measurable enrichment in TiO NPs product and perspectives of TiO NPs reliable application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.111978DOI Listing
April 2021