Publications by authors named "Muhammad Riaz"

462 Publications

Effects of potato peels inclusion with exogenous enzymes in broiler diet on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and carcass characteristics.

Sci Prog 2021 Oct;104(4):368504211061972

Institute of Animal and Dairy Sciences, 66724University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.

The purpose of the research was to investigate the effects of including potato peels (PP) in broilers diet with exogenous enzymes supplementation on feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG), nutrient digestibility and carcass parameters. For this purpose, five iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous rations were formulated with different levels of PP (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%). Experimental diets were supplemented with a blend of exogenous enzymes (Xylanase, Mannanase, Protease, Cellulase). A total of four hundred male broiler chicks (day old) of 38 ± 3 gram were randomly distributed into 5 experimental groups in such a way that each group had 8 replicates and each replicate had 10 birds. Results revealed that the inclusion of PP @ 5% with exogenous enzymes had similar FI, BWG and nutrients digestibility with control. However, the inclusion of P @ of 10, 15, and 20% with exogenous enzymes in the broiler diet adversely affected the BWG, feed conversion ratio and nutrient digestibility ( < 0.05). Results of carcass parameters were not affected ( > 0.05) by dietary treatments. Based on findings, it is concluded that 5% addition of PP with exogenous enzymes could be practiced in broiler diet without any adverse effect on the performance of commercial broilers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00368504211061972DOI Listing
October 2021

Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant, and cytotoxic potential of maize (zea mays l.) husk leaf extracts.

Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 2021 Jan 31;67(1):165-170. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Department of Allied Health Sciences, The University of Lahore-Gujrat campus, Gujrat.

In current study, Maize (Zea mays L.) husk leave extracts were appraised for biological activities such as cytotoxicity, antidiabetic, antioxidant and antimicrobial. Maceration was performed to collect various fractions of husk leave extracts using a pool of solvents i.e., n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and methanol. Antioxidant potential was measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, reducing power and linoleic acid oxidation assay, using butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) as a positive control. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were found to be 18.47-425.11 mg/100 g GAE and 5.83-16.72 mg/100 g CE, respectively. The DPPH scavenging assay was exhibited in the range of 76.36 to 88.53%. The percentage inhibition in linoleic acid oxidation was found from 10.16 to 79.51%. Significant antimicrobial activity was demonstrated by husk leaf extracts against bacterial strains and fungal strains using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. Amylase alpha assay was employed to analyze the antidiabetic activity which ranged between 9.52-24.81%. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by % age lysis (0.35-9.54%), while thrombolytic activity ranged between 7.67 to 31.27%. The results presented in this study revealed that maize (Zea mays L.) husk leaf extracts can be a valuable source of biologically active compounds and may be consumed as a source of potent herbal medicine in pharmaceuticals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14715/cmb/2021.67.1.25DOI Listing
January 2021

Moderation role of proactive coping between psychological place attachment and its mental health consequences in sojourners.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Nov;71(11):2531-2534

Department of Psychology, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan.

Objective: To investigate the interaction effect of psychological place attachment and proactive coping on psychological distress and mental well-being in sojourners.

Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from July 12, 2019 to July 12, 2020 at University of Sargodha, Pakistan and comprised academic sojourners who stay in a place for a limited period of time. Data was collected using four self-reporting tools: Psychological Place Attachment Scale, Proactive Coping Inventory, Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale and Kasler Psychological Distress Scale. Data was analysed using SPSS 24.

Results: Of the 300 subjects, 181(60.3%) were females; 164(54.7%) were from Punjab; and 261(87%) were aged 17-22 years. Proactive coping, preventive coping and reflective coping significantly moderated the relationship between affective and psychological distress (p<0.05). Proactive coping and reflective coping significantly moderated the relationship between affective bonding and mental well-being (p<0.05). Proactive coping, preventive coping and avoidance coping significantly moderated the relationship between home meaning and psychological distress (p<0.05). Proactive coping moderated the relationship between home meaning and psychological distress. Proactive coping and reflective coping moderated the relationship between place identity and psychological distress (p<0.05). Proactive coping moderated the relationship between place identity and mental well-being (p<0.05). Instrumental support-seeking moderated the relationship between place dependence and psychological distress (p<0.05). Preventive coping and reflective coping moderated the relationship between psychological place attachment and psychological distress (p<0.05). Reflective coping, strategic planning and preventive coping significantly moderated the relationship between psychological place attachment and mental well-being (p<0.05).

Conclusions: Positive coping strategies were effective in re-educating the negative impacts of place attachment on well-being and buffering against psychological distress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.47391/JPMA.02-336DOI Listing
November 2021

A Fuzzy Logic Model for the Analysis of Ultrasonic Vibration Assisted Turning and Conventional Turning of Ti-Based Alloy.

Authors:
Riaz Muhammad

Materials (Basel) 2021 Nov 1;14(21). Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Bahrain, Isa Town P.O. Box 32038, Bahrain.

Titanium and its alloys are largely used in various applications due its prominent mechanical properties. However, the machining of titanium alloys is associated with assured challenges, including high-strength, low thermal conductivity, and long chips produced in conventional machining processes, which result in its poor machinability. Advanced and new machining techniques have been used to improve the machinability of these alloys. Ultrasonic vibration assisted turning (UVAT) is one of these progressive machining techniques, where vibrations are imposed on the cutting insert, and this process has shown considerable improvement in terms of the machinability of hard-to-cut alloys. Therefore, selecting the right cutting parameters for conventional and assisted machining processes is critical for obtaining the anticipated dimensional accuracy and improved surface roughness of Ti-alloys. Hence, fuzzy-based algorithms were developed for the ultrasonic vibration assisted turning (UVAT) and conventional turning (CT) of the Ti-6Al7Zr3Nb4Mo0.9Nd alloy to predict the maximum process zone temperature, cutting forces, surface roughness, shear angle, and chip compression ratio for the selected range of input parameters (speed and depth-of-cut). The fuzzy-measured values were found to be in good agreement with the experimental values, indicating that the created models can be utilized to accurately predict the studied machining output parameters in CT and UVAT processes. The studied alloy resulted in discontinued chips in both the CT and UVAT processes. The achieved results also demonstrated a significant decline in the cutting forces and improvements in the surface quality in the UVAT process. Furthermore, the chip discontinuity is enhanced by the UVAT process due to the higher process zone temperature and the micro-impact imposed by the cutting tool on the workpiece.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14216572DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8585285PMC
November 2021

Migration of Chlorine in Plant-Soil-Leaching System and Its Effects on the Yield and Fruit Quality of Sweet Orange.

Front Plant Sci 2021 11;12:744843. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Micro-Element Research Center/Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory for New Fertilizers, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

Chlorine (Cl) is indispensable for the growth of plants. While rarely systematic reports are available for the effect of Cl-containing fertilizers on citrus production. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of various Cl-containing fertilizers on the nutrients in the leaves, the yield and quality of sweet orange, and the Cl migration in the plant-soil-leaching system. A 5-year field experiment (2016-2020) with five Cl treatments (0, 75, 150, 450, and 900 kg ha), and soil core lysimeter test with five Cl levels (0, 150, 225, 300, and 450 kg ha) were carried out. The results showed that 77.0% of Cl leached into above 60 cm deeper soil layer, with calcium as the main accompanying ions, resulting in less Cl being absorbed by the citrus plants. The content of Cl in the leaves and soil was enhanced by the increasing input of Cl-containing fertilizer, without yearly increased characteristics, under a mean annual rainfall of 1,474 mm. Chlorine significantly increased the yield (13.24-37.8 9%), fruit weight, and vitamin C (Vc), in addition to enhancing the flavor and the juice yield of sweet orange via improving the absorption of N and K. Moreover, the long-term application of potassium sulfate has elevated the accumulation of sulfur in the soil and in leaves; it is becoming a potential risk factor for citrus production. Taken together, the application of Cl-containing fertilizer in sweet orange is feasible, and trace absorbance of Cl could improve the yield and fruit quality of sweet orange.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.744843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8542884PMC
October 2021

Distinct uptake and accumulation profiles of triclosan in youdonger (Brassica campestris subsp. Chinensis var. communis) under two planting systems: Evidence from C tracing techniques.

Chemosphere 2021 Oct 23:132651. Epub 2021 Oct 23.

Institute of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences of Ministry of Agriculture and Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

Triclosan is a widely used biocide against microorganisms and is ubiquitously distributed in the environment. Triclosan can be accumulated into plants from soil and hydroponic media. However, little information is currently available on the comparative fate of triclosan in plants under soil and hydroponics cultivation conditions and factors governing uptake. Therefore, this study was designed to comparatively elucidate the uptake mechanism of C-triclosan in youdonger (Brassica campestris subsp. Chinensis var. communis) grown under different soils and hydroponics and clarify dominant uptake factors. Results showed that 77.2% of C were accumulated in youdonger grown in a hydroponic system, while only 1.24%-2.33% were accumulated in the two soil-planting systems. In addition, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of C-triclosan in soil-plant systems was approximately 400-fold smaller than that in the hydroponics. In the soil-planting system, a strong linear correlation was found between concentrations of triclosan in soil pore water and youdonger plant (R > 0.85, p < 0.01) at different incubation times. Therefore, triclosan in pore water might be a good indicator to estimate its accumulation in plants and is significantly affected by soil pH, clay, and organic matter contents. The estimated average dietary intakes of triclosan for youdonger grown in hydroponic and soil-planting systems were estimated to be 1.31 ng day kg and 0.05-0.12 ng day kg, respectively, much lower than the acceptable dietary intakes of triclosan (83 μg day kg), indicating no significant human health risks from youdonger consumption. This study provided insights into uptake routes of triclosan into youdonger plants from both soil and hydroponic systems, bioavailability of triclosan in different soils, and further assessment of human exposure to triclosan from youdonger.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132651DOI Listing
October 2021

Biofilm Inhibition and Antibacterial Potential of Different Varieties of Garlic () Against Sinusitis Isolates.

Dose Response 2021 Oct-Dec;19(4):15593258211050491. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Sinusitis or rhinosinusitis is inflammation of the paranasal sinuses which can be due to autoimmune, allergy, and infection problems. Current study was aimed to evaluate the antibiofilm and antibacterial potential of different varieties of . Four different varieties (China white, China pink, Desi white, and Desi pink) were used and extracted with methanol and water. Results of antioxidant analysis of extracts showed that all varieties of garlic have considerable quantity of flavonoids with significant DPPH inhibition and reductive potential. Antibacterial activity of extracts was tested against different Gram negative and Gram-positive sinusitis isolates. All the sinusitis isolates were susceptible to both methanolic and aqueous extracts of different varieties of with least MIC values. Antibiofilm potential of extracts against sinusitis isolates was evaluated through crystal violet assay, and all extracts of were significantly effective against destruction of microbial biofilm. In summary, extracts possess effective antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against sinusitis isolates and can be utilized for prevention of drug resistance against sinusitis infections and further evaluation is necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15593258211050491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8532223PMC
October 2021

Transcriptome analysis reveals the molecular mechanism of boron deficiency tolerance in leaves of boron-efficient Beta vulgaris seedlings.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Oct 14;168:294-304. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, Root Biology Center, College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, Guangdong, PR China. Electronic address:

Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) has a high demand for B, and B deficiency inhibits normal growth and productivity. However, there is a lack of information on how B deficiency affects the growth of beet at the transcriptome level, and the factors that govern B utilisation efficiency. This study aimed to identify the genes differentially expressed under B deficiency and those that underlie the mechanisms of efficient B use in two sugar beet cultivars. Accordingly, B-efficient (H, KWS1197) and B-inefficient (L, KWS0143) sugar beet cultivars were used, and two levels of boron were employed in the hydroponic experiments: B0.1 (0.1 μM B, deficiency) and B50 (50 μM B, CK). The results showed that B deficiency inhibited leaf growth, significantly reduced B concentration and B transfer coefficient, and increased peroxidase (POD) activity and malondialdehyde and proline content. The transcriptome data showed that the B-efficient variety exhibited more differentially expressed genes than the B-inefficient variety. Metabolic pathways were the most critical pathways involved in the B deficiency response. The expression of POD, bHLH, WRKY transcription factors, and nodulin26-like intrinsic protein (NIP5;1) were upregulated in the KWS1197 variety. In conclusion, the KWS1197 variety had physiological advantages and a highly efficient B utilisation molecular mechanism, contributing to a high B deficiency tolerance. This study provides a theoretical basis for the adaptation mechanism to B deficiency in sugar beets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.10.017DOI Listing
October 2021

Biochemical Stress Markers, Antioxidants, and Infectious Wound-Healing Potential of UV Irradiation and Salt Stress Effects on the Pre-Treated Seed of Bitter Melon ( L.).

Dose Response 2021 Oct-Dec;19(4):15593258211044062. Epub 2021 Oct 10.

Department of Chemistry, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan.

Purpose: The secondary metabolites in plants are the basis of defense and stress balance, which is an important aspect in plant growth. The UV-B treatment (a biotic stress) and salt stress on bitter melon ( L.) were studied, and the impact of pre-sowing seed treatment was evaluated on the basis of biochemical and enzymatic biomarkers, antioxidants, and wound-healing potential during early growth stages.

Methods: The UV-B treatment for 5 and 10 min and salt stress 250 mM and 500 mM treatments were applied, and 21-day seedling tissue were collected for total phenolic contents (TPC), total flavonoid contents (TFC), antioxidant, chlorophyll contents, hydrogen peroxide, total soluble sugar, enzymes activities, and wound-healing potential studies.

Results: The TPC, TFC, diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), chlorophyll contents, and total soluble sugar were recorded higher at 5 min treatment with UV-B and salt stress at 250 mM concentration. Antioxidant enzymes activities were recorded higher for 10 min UV-B treatment and 500 mM salt treatment. Wound-healing potential was found significant at 5 min treatment with UV-B radiation, which was studied in rabbits. The LC-MS analysis revealed a variety of phenolic compounds in the seedlings.

Conclusion: The study concluded that treatments significantly affect the biological activities of bitter melon seeds at the seedling stage, and the seeds contain important phenolic compounds responsible for its antioxidant potential and enzymatic activities. Future studies could be focused on the later stages of growth, development, and yield characteristics subjected to salt stress along with UV-B radiation treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15593258211044062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8512281PMC
October 2021

Mitochondrial phylogenetic and diversity analysis in Azi-Kheli buffalo.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Oct 12;53(5):512. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Livestock & Dairy Development Department (Research), Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Novelty Statement: The present study was conducted for the first time in Pakistan to investigate Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit 1 (CO1) gene and full-length Displacement Loop (D-loop) region of mitochondrial DNA in Azi-Kheli buffalo breed native to northern hilly areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. The present study was designed to investigate phylogeny and diversity in Azi-Kheli buffalo, through two mitochondrial DNA regions, i.e., Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit-I (CO1) and Displacement Loop (D-loop) region. Thirty (30) blood samples were taken from Azi-Kheli pure breed animals from original breeding tract, i.e., Khwazakhela, Swat. Polymerase chain reactions using gene-specific primers were carried out for amplifying 709-bp region of CO1 gene and 1159-bp region of D-Loop for identification, phylogeny, and diversity in Azi-Kheli buffalo, respectively. The sequences of CO1 gene revealed four (04) haplotypes, whereas D-loop sequences revealed five (05) haplotypes. Mean interspecific diversity with related species was 2.56%, and mean intraspecific diversity within Azi-Kheli buffalo was 0.25%, estimated via Kimura-2 parameter. Phylogenetic tree (maximum likelihood) revealed clustering of Azi-Kheli haplotypes with river buffalo and is distinct from swamp buffalo and other related species of genus Bubalus. Mean haplotype and nucleotide diversity of D-loop were Hd = 0.9601 ± SD = 0.096 and π = 0.01208 ± SD = 0.00182, respectively. Phylogenetic tree (neighbor-joining) revealed two main clades, i.e., river buffalo and swamp buffalo clade. The haplotypes of Azi-Kheli clustered with haplotypes of different river buffalo breeds at different positions. The current study suggests that Azi-Kheli has common origin with other river buffalo breeds; hence, it is river buffalo which harbors high genetic diversity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-021-02949-zDOI Listing
October 2021

Antibiotic consumption among hospitalized neonates and children in Punjab province, Pakistan.

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2021 Oct 6:1-9. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, UK.

Background: Periodic surveillance of antibiotic consumption in the form of point prevalence studies is a quick and robust methodology to evaluate prescribing trends in hospitals. The current study was undertaken to document antibiotic consumption among neonates and children from hospitals in Pakistan.

Methods: This large multicenter study using the World Health Organization standardized methodology and AWaRe (Access, Watch, and Reserve) classification examined antibiotic consumption for suspected bacterial infection among neonates and children admitted hospitals in Punjab, Pakistan.

Results: A total of 708 beds of children wards of the 16 health facilities were examined. Almost all (97%) hospitalized children were prescribed antibiotics on the day of the assessment with 2.6 antibiotics per patient. The three most common indications were respiratory tract infections (31.58%), sepsis (26.52%), and prophylaxis for medical problems (10.30%). The three most frequently prescribed antibiotics were ceftriaxone (24.2%), amikacin (23.2%), and ampicillin (16.7%). Almost half of the antibiotics were prescribed from the 'Access' (49.5%) and 'Watch' (45.5%) categories under the AWaRe classification. However, no antimicrobial was prescribed from the 'Reserved' category.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that empirical antimicrobials use among hospitalized children is highly prevalent in Pakistan. The utilization of 'Watch' category of antimicrobials is frequent, stressing immediate action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14787210.2021.1986388DOI Listing
October 2021

Methods for Differentiating hiPSCs into Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells.

Methods Mol Biol 2022 ;2375:21-34

Yale Cardiovascular Research Center, Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Despite numerous efforts to generate vascular tissues that recapitulate the physiological characteristics of native vessels, vascular cell source remains one of the principal challenges in the construction of tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs). Human pluripotent stem cells, therefore, represent an indispensable source to supply a large production of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) for cell-based therapy. In particular, human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) generated from the same individual have opened up new avenues of achieving patient specificity through the derivation of autologous and immunocompatible VSMCs. This book chapter will detail three representative methods of differentiating hiPSCs into VSMCs that are structurally and functionally mature for TEVG engineering. Luo et al. reported an embryoid body (EB)-based approach to generate a robust, large-scale production of mature, functional hiPSC-derived VSMCs as a cell replacement for vascular tissue engineering. EB formation has an advantage of resembling early embryonic development and allowing cellular interactions in three dimensions. Cheung et al. established a system to produce embryological origin-specific hiPSC-derived VSMCs from the neuroectoderm, lateral plate mesoderm, and paraxial mesoderm lineages in a chemically defined manner. This allows site-specific vascular disease modeling. Moreover, Eoh et al. followed Wanjare et al.'s method to construct hiPSC-derived VSMCs using monolayer cultures of extracellular matrix proteins, with the addition of a pulsatile flow for the secretion of mature, organized elastic fibers. The generation of TEVGs, powered by the unlimited supply of hiPSC-derived VSMCs, has begun a new era in cellular therapy for vascular bypass and defective vessel segment replacement, aimed at addressing millions of cases of cardiovascular diseases across the globe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-1708-3_3DOI Listing
January 2022

Optical Solitons with Beta and M-Truncated Derivatives in Nonlinear Negative-Index Materials with Bohm Potential.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Sep 16;14(18). Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Mathematics, Namal University, Talagang Road, Mianwali 42250, Pakistan.

In this article, we explore solitary wave structures in nonlinear negative-index materials with beta and M-truncated fractional derivatives with the existence of a Bohm potential. The consideration of Bohm potential produced quantum phase behavior in electromagnetic waves. The applied technique is the New extended algebraic method. By use of this approach, acquired solutions convey various types of new families containing dark, dark-singular, dark-bright, and singular solutions of Type 1 and 2. Moreover, the constraint conditions for the presence of the obtained solutions are a side-effect of this technique. Finally, graphical structures are depicted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14185335DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8465674PMC
September 2021

Occurrence and Health Risk Assessment of Aflatoxins through Intake of Eastern Herbal Medicines Collected from Four Districts of Southern Punjab-Pakistan.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 09 10;18(18). Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan.

Eastern herbal medicines (HMs) are plant-derived naturally occurring substances with minimum or no industrial processing that have long been used in traditional medicine. Aflatoxins are frequent contaminants of plants. Therefore, these mycotoxins are likely to contaminate HMs and pose a health risk to individuals using them on a regular basis as preventive or curative treatments of various diseases. The present study aimed to determine aflatoxin levels in the most popular Pakistani HM formulations and to assess the health risk associated with the intake of aflatoxins. A total of 400 samples of HM formulations collected from four districts of Punjab were analyzed for the quantification of aflatoxins, out of which 52.5% were found to be contaminated. The average daily dose (ADD) of AFB and AFs through the intake of HM formulations ranged between 0.00483 and 0.118 ng/kg bw/day and between 0.00579 and 1.714 ng/kg bw/day, respectively. The margin of exposure (MOE) and population cancer risk ranged from 99.49 to 29378.8 and from 0.00011 to 0.0325 liver cancer cases/10 individuals/year (0.0075-2.455 liver cancer cases/10 individuals/75 years), respectively. Despite the low exposure to aflatoxins from HM formulations in the four studied Punjab (Pakistan) districts, the frequent contamination of the analyzed samples suggests that official measures should be considered to manage the associated risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8466447PMC
September 2021

Long-Term Maintenance of Viable Adult Rat Sertoli Cells Able to Establish Testis Barrier Components and Function in Response to Androgens.

Cells 2021 09 13;10(9). Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Center of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Faculty of Medicine, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Feulgenstr. 10-12, D-35392 Giessen, Germany.

A protocol for the isolation and long-term propagation of adult rat Sertoli cells (SCs) using conditional reprogramming (CR) was developed and the formation of tight junctions as an in vitro model for the blood testis barrier (BTB) was studied. Three pure primary SC lines were isolated successfully and maintained for several months without significant changes in expression levels of SC-typical markers such as SRY-box transcription factor 9 (SOX9), transferrin, clusterin, androgen receptor (AR), and GATA binding protein 1 (GATA1). In addition to AR expression, the tight junction proteins, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and the junctional adhesion molecule-3 (JAM-3), were upregulated and the SC barrier integrity was enhanced by testosterone. Peritubular/myoid cells did not increase the tightness of the SC. The cytokines, interleukin-6 (IL-6), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2), and transforming growth factor beta-3 (TGF-β3), negatively affected the tightness of the SC barrier. We have established a protocol for the isolation and long-term propagation of highly pure primary adult rat SCs, which are able to respond to androgen treatments, to form tight junctions and to maintain the mRNA expression of SC-specific genes. By applying this new method, adult SCs can now be analyzed in more detail and might serve as an in vitro model for the study of many SC functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10092405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8467871PMC
September 2021

Foliar application of silica sol alleviates boron toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings.

J Hazard Mater 2022 Feb 12;423(Pt B):127175. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, Root Biology Center, College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, Guangdong, PR China. Electronic address:

Boron (B) toxicity is one of the limiting factors affecting plant growth. Previous studies showed that silicon (Si) application could alleviate B toxicity. However, there is limited information on how Si alleviates B toxicity in rice, particularly nano-silicon (SiNP). Therefore, the current study aimed to explore the foliar function of SiNP in the reduction of B toxicity in rice. The results showed that B toxicity significantly hampered root and shoot development. However, SiNP application increased root and shoot lengths by 14.29% and 29.67%, respectively, compared to B toxicity treatment. Moreover, SiNP increased fresh weight (FW) of root (28.02%) and shoot (34%) and enhanced dry weight (DW) of root (65.13%), and shoot (26.87%), compared to B toxicity treatment. The application of SiNP decreased the translocation of B to leaves and promoted B adsorption to leaf cell wall. In roots, SiNP triggered high B accumulation and Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) also suggested higher peak values of functional groups (pectin), indicating that cell wall polysaccharides can adsorb high concentration of B. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) investigations showed that SiNP treated roots had a well-arranged structure of alkali-soluble pectin (ASP), and ultrastructure of root was well organized. Cell wall adsorbed more than 80% of total B. All of these results suggest that SiNP can alleviate B toxicity in rice seedlings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127175DOI Listing
February 2022

Substituted Benzimidazole Analogues as Potential α-Amylase Inhibitors and Radical Scavengers.

ACS Omega 2021 Sep 26;6(35):22726-22739. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Karachi, Shahrah-e-Dr. Salimuzzaman Siddiqui, Karachi 75280, Pakistan.

Benzimidazole scaffolds are known to have a diverse range of biological activities and found to be antidiabetic and antioxidant. In this study, a variety of arylated benzimidazoles - were synthesized. Except for compounds , , , and , all are new derivatives. All compounds were screened for α-amylase inhibitory, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities. screening results revealed that all molecules demonstrated significant α-amylase inhibition with IC values of 1.86 ± 0.08 to 3.16 ± 0.31 μM as compared to standard acarbose (IC = 1.46 ± 0.26 μM). However, compounds showed significant ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging potentials with IC values in the range of 1.37 ± 0.21 to 4.00 ± 0.10 μM for ABTS and 1.36 ± 0.09 to 3.60 ± 0.20 μM for DPPH radical scavenging activities when compared to ascorbic acid with IC values of 0.72 ± 0.21 and 0.73 ± 0.05 μM for ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging potentials, respectively. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) was established after critical analysis of varying substitution effects on α-amylase inhibitory and radical scavenging (ABTS and DPPH) potentials. However, molecular docking was also performed to figure out the active participation of different groups of synthetic molecules during binding with the active pocket of the α-amylase enzyme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c03056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8427641PMC
September 2021

Genome-wide identification and characterization of bZIP transcription factors and their expression profile under abiotic stresses in Chinese pear (Pyrus bretschneideri).

BMC Plant Biol 2021 Sep 9;21(1):413. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

School of Life Sciences, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, 230036, China.

Background: In plants, basic leucine zipper transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in multiple biological processes such as anthesis, fruit growth & development and stress responses. However, systematic investigation and characterization of bZIP-TFs remain unclear in Chinese white pear. Chinese white pear is a fruit crop that has important nutritional and medicinal values.

Results: In this study, 62 bZIP genes were comprehensively identified from Chinese Pear, and 54 genes were distributed among 17 chromosomes. Frequent whole-genome duplication (WGD) and dispersed duplication (DSD) were the major driving forces underlying the bZIP gene family in Chinese white pear. bZIP-TFs are classified into 13 subfamilies according to the phylogenetic tree. Subsequently, purifying selection plays an important role in the evolution process of PbbZIPs. Synteny analysis of bZIP genes revealed that 196 orthologous gene pairs were identified between Pyrus bretschneideri, Fragaria vesca, Prunus mume, and Prunus persica. Moreover, cis-elements that respond to various stresses and hormones were found on the promoter regions of PbbZIP, which were induced by stimuli. Gene structure (intron/exon) and different compositions of motifs revealed that functional divergence among subfamilies. Expression pattern of PbbZIP genes differential expressed under hormonal treatment abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate  in pear fruits by real-time qRT-PCR.

Conclusions: Collectively, a systematic analysis of gene structure, motif composition, subcellular localization, synteny analysis, and calculation of synonymous (Ks) and non-synonymous (Ka) was performed in Chinese white pear. Sixty-two bZIP-TFs in Chinese pear were identified, and their expression profiles were comprehensively analyzed under ABA, SA, and MeJa hormones, which respond to multiple abiotic stresses and fruit growth and development. PbbZIP gene occurred through Whole-genome duplication and dispersed duplication events. These results provide a basic framework for further elucidating the biological function characterizations under multiple developmental stages and abiotic stress responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-021-03191-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8427902PMC
September 2021

Fomesafen drift affects morphophysiology of sugar beet.

Chemosphere 2022 Jan 30;287(Pt 1):132073. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, Root Biology Center, College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, Guangdong, PR China. Electronic address:

Fomesafen is an herbicide used in soybean production, and sugar beet is a sensitive crop to fomesafen. When the herbicide is sprayed in the field, it is easy to cause floating and depositing on non-target crops, resulting in crop poisoning and reducing yield. There are few on the phenomenon and mechanism of fomesafen herbicide drift on sugar beet. There are few reports on the phenomenon and mechanism of ether herbicide migration on phytotoxicity of sugar beet. Therefore, in this experiment, indoor potted plants were used to simulate the dose of fomesafen drift deposited on sugar beet in the field to study the effects of fomesafen on the growth, photosynthetic system, and physiological indexes of seedlings for sugar beet were studied. The results showed that fomesafen at the dose of 225 g a.i. ha significantly inhibited the plant height, root length, and biomass of sugar beet. Compared with the control, the net photosynthetic rate, stoma conductance, transpiration rate, and total chlorophyll pigment content of leaves were reduced by 77.16%, 83.84%, 64.00%, and 28.13%, respectively. Treatment with a dose of 225 g a.i. ha also damaged the photosynthetic system II of the leaves, lowering the performance index on absorption energy, maximum quantum yield and, the energy of electron transfer, causing photoinhibition and photodamage. In addition, fomesafen significantly increased the content of malondialdehyde and the activity of peroxidase in leaves of sugar beet, reducing the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Overall, this study is helpful to understand the drift and deposition of fomesafen on sugar beet and to discuss the phytotoxicity risk and dose of fomesafen on the beet, as a result of controlling the dose of fomesafen sprayed in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.132073DOI Listing
January 2022

Seasonal Variations in Litter Layers' Characteristics Control Microbial Respiration and Microbial Carbon Utilization Under Mature Pine, Cedar, and Beech Forest Stands in the Eastern Mediterranean Karstic Ecosystems.

Microb Ecol 2021 Aug 25. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Field Crops, Faculty of Agriculture, Kahramanmaraş Sütçü İmam University, Kahramanmaraş, Turkey.

The forest floor is hotspot of several functions integral to the stability of forest ecosystems. However, seasonal variations in litter decomposition rate contribute to biochemical and structural heterogeneity in the forest floor carbon (C) and nutrient cycling. We investigated the influence of seasonal variations in litter layers' micro-climate (temperature and moisture content) and chemical characteristics such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total organic C (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), and C/N ratio on microbial respiration, biomass, and C use efficiency under mature (> 80 years stage age) pine, beech, and cedar forests in eastern Mediterranean Karstic ecosystems. In contrast to significantly higher microbial respiration in fall, winter, and spring under pine, beech, and cedar forests, the significantly lowest microbial biomass C (MBC) and microbial biomass N (MBN) were observed in winter under each forest. Microbial C use efficiency, measured as the metabolic quotient (qCO = CO/MBC), varied strongly between forest stands and seasons but was generally higher in winter. The significant positive correlations between litter layer and microbial biomass C/N ratios, under beech and cedar forests, suggested strong CN stoichiometric coupling and microbial adaptation to substrate resource stoichiometry. qCO correlated significantly negatively with litter layers' temperature, positively with moisture content and EC. However, qCO had significant negative relationships with pH in pine and beech forests but significant positive under cedar forest. qCO showed significant positive relationships with C/N ratios under all forests but much stronger in beech and cedar forests suggesting higher C respired per unit MBC with an increase in C/N ratio. Despite variations between forest species, the highest MBC/TOC and MBN/TN ratios in fall indicated greater C and N incorporation into microbial biomass. Changes in MBC/MBN ratios under pine (9.62-10.6), beech (8.63-15.6), and cedar (7.32-16.2) forests indicated the shift in microbial communities as fungi have a higher C/N ratio than bacteria. Stepwise regression analysis further revealed that microbial respiration and biomass were controlled differently by litter layer characteristics in each forest. This study suggested that qCO independently or with other microbial indices can show litter layers' controls on organic matter turnover in Karst ecosystems and, taking into account the strong seasonal variations, can enhance the predictive potential of decomposition models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-021-01842-4DOI Listing
August 2021

Proline metabolism and biosynthesis behave differently in response to boron-deficiency and toxicity in Brassica napus.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Oct 20;167:529-540. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Microelement Research Center, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430070, PR China; The Key Laboratory of Oasis Eco-agriculture, Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, Shihezi University, Shihezi, PR China. Electronic address:

Proline biosynthesis and accumulation is a common response to unfavorable environment in many plants. This work aimed to elucidate the effects of boron (B)-deficiency and toxicity on proline metabolism and biosynthesis in Brassica napus in a hydroponic experiment. The results showed that B-deficiency and toxicity exert injurious impact on plant growth, accumulated high malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and caused the destruction of subcellular structure. Proline accumulated in both B deprivation and B toxicity plants, except B toxicity-treated root. In roots, B-deficiency increased ornithine content and pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase (P5CR) activity, with the higher expression of BnaC03.P5CR, whilst decreased glutamate, glutamate-1-semialdehyde (GSA), pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C) contents and ornithine-δ-aminotransferase (δ-OAT), pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) activities in terms of down-regulated the BnaC04.P5CS2, BnaA04.P5CS2, and BnaAnn.ProDH expression. The glutamate and GSA contents were decreased while P5C, arginine, and ornithine contents were enhanced in leaves under B-deficient and toxicity conditions. Lower glutamate pathway-related substance contents, P5CR, and δ-OAT activities while higher ProDH activity along with the same trend of related-gene expression were observed in B-toxicity-treated roots. Importantly, principal component analysis (PCA) in conjunction with correlation analysis indicated that ornithine pathway-related substances and enzymes contributed more to proline accumulation in B-deficient plant and B toxicity-treated leaves. Collectively, proline accumulation is caused by increased synthesis and decreased decomposition, and positively contributed, at least partly, by regulated ornithine pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.08.029DOI Listing
October 2021

Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) an edible mushroom; a comprehensive and critical review of its nutritional, cosmeceutical, mycochemical, pharmacological, clinical, and toxicological properties.

Phytother Res 2021 Nov 19;35(11):6030-6062. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Pharmacy College, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.

Reishi owes an exceptional value in nutritional, cosmeceutical, and medical treatments; however, none of the studies has provided its future-driven critical assessment. This study documents an up-to-date review (2015-2020, wherever applicable) and provide valuable insights (preclinical and clinical evidence-based) with comprehensive and critical assessments. Various databases 'Google scholar', 'Web of Science', 'ScienceDirect', 'PubMed', 'Springer Link', books, theses, and library resources were used. The taxonomic chaos of G. lucidum and its related species was discussed in detail with solution-oriented emphasis. Reishi contains polysaccharides (α/β-D-glucans), alkaloids, triterpenoids (ganoderic acids, ganoderenic acids, ganoderol, ganoderiol, lucidenic acids), sterols/ergosterol, proteins (LZ-8, LZ-9), nucleosides (adenosine, inosine, uridine), and nucleotides (guanine, adenine). Some active drugs are explored at an optimum level to make them potential drug candidates. The pharmacological potential was observed in diabetes, inflammation, epilepsy, neurodegeneration, cancer, anxiety, sedation, cardiac diseases, depression, hepatic diseases, and immune disorders; however, most of the studies are preclinical with a number of drawbacks. In particular, quality clinical data are intensely needed to support pharmacological activities for human use. The presence of numerous micro-, macro, and trace elements imparts an essential nutritional and cosmeceutical value to Reishi, and various marketed products are available already, but the clinical studies regarding safety and efficacy, interactions with foods/drinks, chronic use, teratogenicity, mutagenicity, and genotoxicity are missing for Reishi. Reishi possesses many valuable pharmacological activities, and the number of patents and clinical trials is increasing for Reishi. Yet, a gap in research exists for Reishi, which is discussed in detail in the forthcoming sections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.7215DOI Listing
November 2021

Genome-Wide Identification of Xylanase Inhibitor Gene Family and Inhibitory Effects of Subfamily Proteins on GH11 Xylanase.

Front Plant Sci 2021 26;12:665501. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

College of Agronomy, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei, China.

xylanase inhibitor () gene plays an important role in plant defense. Recently, inhibitor has been shown to play a dual role in wheat resistance to infection. Thus, identifying the members of the gene family and clarifying its role in wheat resistance to stresses are essential for wheat resistance breeding. However, to date, no comprehensive research on in wheat () has been conducted. In this study, a total of 277 genes, including six genes that we cloned, were identified from the recently released wheat genome database (IWGSC RefSeq v1.1), which were unevenly located on 21 chromosomes of wheat. Phylogenetic analysis divided these genes into six subfamilies, all the six genes we cloned belonged to subfamily. The exon/intron structure of most genes and the conserved motifs of proteins in the same subfamily are similar. The gene family contains 92 homologous gene pairs or clusters, 63 and 193 genes were identified as tandem replication and segmentally duplicated genes, respectively. Analysis of the acting elements in the promoter of genes showed that they are involved in wheat growth, hormone-mediated signal transduction, and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. RNA-seq data analysis revealed that genes exhibited expression preference or specificity in different organs and developmental stages, as well as in diverse stress responses, which can be regulated or induced by a variety of plant hormones and stresses. In addition, the qRT-PCR data and heterologous expression analysis of six genes revealed that the genes of subfamily have double inhibitory effect on GH11 xylanase of , suggesting their potential important roles in wheat resistance to infection. The outcomes of this study not only enhance our understanding of the gene family in wheat, but also help us to screen more candidate genes for further exploring resistance mechanism in wheat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.665501DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8350787PMC
July 2021

Foliar application of ascorbic acid enhances salinity stress tolerance in barley ( L.) through modulation of morpho-physio-biochemical attributes, ions uptake, osmo-protectants and stress response genes expression.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Aug 21;28(8):4276-4290. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, 11451-Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Barley ( L.) is a major cereal grain and is known as a halophyte (a halophyte is a salt-tolerant plant that grows in soil or waters of high salinity). We therefore conducted a pot experiment to explore plant growth and biomass, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange attributes, stomatal properties, oxidative stress and antioxidant response and their associated gene expression and absorption of ions in . The soil used for this analysis was artificially spiked at different salinity concentrations (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM) and different levels of ascorbic acid (AsA) were supplied to plants (0, 30 and 60 mM) shortly after germination of the seed. The results of the present study showed that plant growth and biomass, photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange parameters, stomatal properties and ion uptake were significantly ( < 0.05) reduced by salinity stress, whereas oxidative stress was induced in plants by generating the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plant cells/tissues compared to plants grown in the control treatment. Initially, the activity of antioxidant enzymes and relative gene expression increased to a saline level of 100 mM, and then decreased significantly ( < 0.05) by increasing the saline level (150 mM) in the soil compared to plants grown at 0 mM of salinity. We also elucidated that negative impact of salt stress in plants can overcome by the exogenous application of AsA, which not only increased morpho-physiological traits but decreased oxidative stress in the plants by increasing activities of enzymatic antioxidants. We have also explained the negative effect of salt stress on can decrease by exogenous application of AsA, which not only improved morpho-physiological characteristics, ions accumulation in the roots and shoots of the plants, but decreased oxidative stress in plants by increasing antioxidant compounds (enzymatic and non-enzymatic). Taken together, recognizing AsA's role in nutrient uptake introduces new possibilities for agricultural use of this compound and provides a valuable basis for improving plant tolerance and adaptability to potential salinity stress adjustment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.03.045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8324950PMC
August 2021

Biochar-N fertilizer interaction increases N utilization efficiency by modifying soil C/N component under N fertilizer deep placement modes.

Chemosphere 2022 Jan 20;286(Pt 1):131594. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Microelement Research Center, College of Resources and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, Hubei, 430070, PR China; The Key Laboratory of Oasis Ecoagriculture, Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, Shihezi University, Shihezi, Xinjiang, 832000, PR China. Electronic address:

The situation of imbalance application of nitrogenous fertilizers in maize production is a serious issue in China, and excessive nitrogen (N) application is hazardous to sustainable agricultural production and environment. In this experiment, two biochar levels (C0: 0, C1: 2 %), three different N rates (N1: 50, N2: 100, and N3: 200 mg kg), and two fertilization methods (T: traditional N fertilizer application mode and D: deep N fertilizer placement mode) were set up to study the response of different treatments on maize yield, N uptake, and N use efficiency. Herein, we found that fresh and dry biomasses were increased by 292 % and 283 % under C1N3 treatment with the deep application of N fertilizer compared to the control treatment (without nitrogen fertilizers and biochar). According to structural equation modeling (SEM), soil physical and chemical properties, N component and C component in different soil layers were associated with biochar and N fertilizer treatment, especially at 20-40 depth. The combination of N fertilizer and biochar application promoted the effects of biochar on the improving NUE of plants. The biochar alleviated the loss of soil nitrogen (from 52.00 to 25.94 %) under traditional N fertilizer application. Overall, excessive input of N fertilizer not only promotes the growth of crops but also causes a waste of resources and environmental pollution. We suggest that combined application of biochar and N fertilizer could significantly reduce N loss, and improve root growth and N uptake, resulting in improving NUE by improving soil environment (pH, SOM, EC) and adjusting soil C/N component.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131594DOI Listing
January 2022

Ameliorative mechanisms of turmeric-extracted curcumin on arsenic (As)-induced biochemical alterations, oxidative damage, and impaired organ functions in rats.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresource, College of Tropical Crops, Hainan University, Haikou, Hainan, 570228, People's Republic of China.

Arsenic (As) is known for its carcinogenic and hepatorenal toxic effects causing serious health problems in human beings. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) extracted curcumin (Cur) is a polyphenolic antioxidant which has ability to combat hazardous environmental toxicants. This study (28 days) was carried out to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of different doses of Cur (Cur: 80, 160, 240 mg kg) against the oxidative damage in the liver and kidney of male rats caused by sodium arsenate (NaAsO) (10 mg L). As exposure significantly elevated the values of organ index, markers of hepatic injury (i.e., alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)) and renal functions (i.e., total bilirubin, urea and creatinine, total cholesterol, total triglycerides, and lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA)). Moreover, different antioxidant markers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in the liver and kidney tissues were reduced after As-induced toxicity. However, NaAsO induced histopathological changes in various organs were minimized after the treatment with Cur. The alleviation effect of Cur was dosage dependent with an order of 240>160>80 mg kg. The oral administration of Cur prominently alleviated the As-induced toxicity in liver and kidney tissues by reducing lipid peroxidation, ALT, AST, ALP, total bilirubin, urea, creatinine, total cholesterol, total triglycerides, and low-density lipoproteins (LDL). In addition, Cur being an antioxidant improved defense system by enhancing activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, and GR. Overall, the findings explain the capability of Cur to counteract the oxidative alterations as well as hepatorenal injuries due to As intoxication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15695-4DOI Listing
July 2021

Boron application mitigates Cd toxicity in leaves of rice by subcellular distribution, cell wall adsorption and antioxidant system.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Oct 23;222:112540. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, Root Biology Center, College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, Guangdong, PR China. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) is a hazardous heavy metal and some of its negative effects include inhibition of rice growth, while also accumulates in the rice grains. Boron (B) has been implicated in mitigating Cd toxicity. Nevertheless, a few studies have been performed up to now to evaluate whether B could encourage Cd tolerance in rice by regulating Cd adsorption on cell walls (CW) in leaves of rice. The current experiment used different concentrations of B (0, 20, and 30 µM) along with 50 µM Cd to rice seedlings. The results indicate that single treatment of Cd significantly inhibited root and shoot growth and caused leaf chlorosis. However, B application at 20, and 30 µM reduced Cd concentrations in the roots by 66% and 77%, and in shoots by 72% and 83%, respectively, and increased plant development. Boron supply at 30 µM increased Cd in leaf CW fraction by 79% and decreased Cd by 64% in the organelle fraction. Moreover, B addition regulated the antioxidant system and decreased malonaldehyde contents (45%) in rice leaves. The present study demonstrates that B reduces Cd translocation and facilitates Cd adsorption on CW and regulates an efficient antioxidant system in rice leaves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112540DOI Listing
October 2021

Prior Statin Use and Risk of Mortality and Severe Disease From Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2021 Jul 28;8(7):ofab284. Epub 2021 May 28.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

Background: Statins up-regulate angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, the receptor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), while also exhibiting pleiotropic antiviral, antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory properties. Uncertainties exist about their effect on the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We sought to systematically review the literature and perform a meta-analysis to examine the association between prior statin use and outcomes of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Methods: We searched Ovid Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, and the preprint server medRxiv from inception to December 2020. We assessed the quality of eligible studies with the Newcastle-Ottawa quality scale. We pooled adjusted relative risk (aRRs) of the association between prior statin use and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 using the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model and assessed heterogeneity using the index.

Results: Overall, 19 (16 cohorts and 3 case-control) studies were eligible, with a total of 395 513 patients. Sixteen of 19 studies had low or moderate risk of bias. Among 109 080 patients enrolled in 13 separate studies, prior statin use was associated with a lower risk of mortality (pooled aRR, 0.65 [95% confidence interval {CI}, .56-.77], = 84.1%) and a reduced risk of severe COVID-19 was also observed in 48 110 patients enrolled in 9 studies (pooled aRR, 0.73 [95% CI, .57-.94], = 82.8%), with no evidence of publication bias.

Conclusions: Cumulative evidence suggests that prior statin use is associated with lower risks of mortality or severe disease in patients with COVID-19. These data support the continued use of statins medications in patients with an indication for lipid-lowering therapy during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofab284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8244756PMC
July 2021

Effects of nanoparticles on trace element uptake and toxicity in plants: A review.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Sep 18;221:112437. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

University of Wuppertal, School of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Institute of Foundation Engineering, Water and Waste Management, Laboratory of Soil and Groundwater Management, Pauluskirchstraße 7, 42285 Wuppertal, Germany; Department of Environment, Energy and Geoinformatics, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Guangjin-Gu, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Agricultural soils are receiving higher inputs of trace elements (TEs) from anthropogenic activities. Application of nanoparticles (NPs) in agriculture as nano-pesticides and nano-fertilizers has gained rapid momentum worldwide. The NPs-based fertilizers can facilitate controlled-release of nutrients which may be absorbed by plants more efficiently than conventional fertilizers. Due to their large surface area with high sorption capacity, NPs can be used to reduce excess TEs uptake by plants. The present review summarizes the effects of NPs on plant growth, photosynthesis, mineral nutrients uptake and TEs concentrations. It also highlights the possible mechanisms underlying NPs-mediated reduction of TEs toxicity at the soil and plant interphase. Nanoparticles are effective in immobilization of TEs in soil through alteration of their speciation and improving soil physical, chemical, and biological properties. At the plant level, NPs reduce TEs translocation from roots to shoots by promoting structural alterations, modifying gene expression, and improving antioxidant defense systems. However, the mechanisms underlying NPs-mediated TEs uptake and toxicity reduction vary with NPs type, mode of application, time of NPs exposure, and plant conditions (e.g., species, cultivars, and growth rate). The review emphasizes that NPs may provide new perspectives to resolve the problem of TEs toxicity in crop plants which may also reduce the food security risks. However, the potential of NPs in metal-contaminated soils is only just starting to be realized, and additional studies are required to explore the mechanisms of NPs-mediated TEs immobilization in soil and uptake by plants. Such future knowledge gap has been highlighted and discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112437DOI Listing
September 2021

Synthesis, biological activity and docking calculations of bis-naphthoquinone derivatives from Lawsone.

Bioorg Chem 2021 09 8;114:105069. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey.

Some metabolic enzyme inhibitors can be used as Multi-target-Directed-Ligands (MTDL) in Medicinal chemistry therefore, synthesis and determination of alternative inhibitors are essential. In this study, novel bis-napthoquinone derivatives (5a-o) were synthesized through a multi-component cascade reaction of two molecules of 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone with an aromatic aldehyde in basic media using triethylamine as a catalyst. This novel heterocyclic derivatives (5a-o) are applied to inhibit the carbonic anhydrase (hCA I and hCA II) isoform in low levels of nano molecules with Ki values exist between 4.62 ± 1.01 to 70.45 ± 9.03 nM for hCA I and for hCA II which is physiologically dominant Ks values are in the range of 5.61 ± 1.04 to 73.26 ± 10.25 nM. Further these novel derivatives (5a-o) efficiently inhibit AChE with Ki values in the range of 0.13 ± 0.02 to 3.16 ± 0.56 nM. The compounds are also applied for BChE with Ki values varying between 0.50 ± 0.10 to 9.23 ± 1.15 nM. For α-glycosidase, the most efficient Ki values of 5e and 5f are 76.14 ± 9.60 and 95.27 ± 12.55 nM respectively. Finally, molecular docking calculations against enzymes (acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and the human carbonic anhydrase I and II) are compared using biological activities of heterocyclic derivatives. After these calculations, an ADME/T analysis is performed to study the future medicinal use of heterocyclic derivatives from lawsone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.105069DOI Listing
September 2021
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