Publications by authors named "Muhammad Rauf"

53 Publications

Exploring biologically active hybrid pharmacophore N-substituted hydrazine-carbothioamides for urease inhibition: In vitro and in silico approach.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Apr 9;182:534-544. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Institute of Chemical Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 60800, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Urease is potential target for various human's health complications, such as peptic ulcer, gastric cancer and kidney stone formation. The present study was based on synthesis of new hybrid pharmacophore N-substituted hydrazine-carbothioamides as potential urease inhibitors. Presented method gave excellent yield in range of 85-95% for hydrazine-carbothioamides derivatives (3a-s) after reaction of mono- and disubstituted hydrazides (1a-k) and substituted isothiocyanates (2a-d). All newly derivatives were characterized by advanced spectroscopic techniques (FTIR, HNMR, CNMR, EMS) and were assessed for their urease inhibition potential. All analogs except for 3k, 3l and 3m demonstrated strong inhibitory potential for urease with IC values of 8.45 ± 0.14 to 25.72 ± 0.23 μM as compared to standard thiourea (IC 21.26 ± 0.35 μM). The structure-activity relationship and mode of interaction was established by molecular docking studies. It was revealed that the N-substituted hydrazine-carbothioamides interacted with nickel atoms present in the active site of urease and supported the correlations with the experimental findings. Therefore, the afforded hydrazine-carbothioamides derivatives are interesting hits for urease inhibition studies with future prospects of modification and optimization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.04.036DOI Listing
April 2021

Effect of Donor Transaminase Levels on Graft Survival Following Liver Transplant: An Analysis of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network Database.

Exp Clin Transplant 2021 Mar 17;19(3):250-258. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

From the Department of Surgery, Division of Hepatobiliary Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Objectives: Despite data showing equivalent outcomes between grafts from marginal versus standard criteria deceased liver donors, elevated donor transaminases constitute a frequent reason to decline potential livers. We assessed the effect of donor transaminase levels and other characteristics on graft survival.

Materials And Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of adult first deceased donor liver transplant recipients with available transaminase levels registered in the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network database (2008-2018). We used Cox proportional hazards regression to determine the effects of donor characteristics on graft survival.

Results: Of 53 913 liver transplants, 52 158 were allografts from donors with low transaminases (≤ 500 U/L; group A) and 1755 were from donors with elevated transaminases (> 500 U/L; group B). Group A recipients were more likely to be hospitalized (P = .01) or in intensive care (P < .001) or to have mechanical assistance (P < .001), portal vein thrombosis (P = .01), diabetes mellitus (P = .003), or dialysis the week before liver transplant (P = .004). Multivariable analysis (controlling for recipient characteristics) showed donor risk factors of graft failure included diabetes mellitus (P < .001), donation after cardiac death (P < .001), total bilirubin > 3.5 mg/dL (P < .001), serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL (P = .01), and cold ischemia time > 6 hours (P < .001). Regional organ sharing showed lower risk of graft failure (P = .02). Donor transaminases > 500 U/L were not associated with graft failure (relative risk, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.91-1.14; P = .74).

Conclusions: Donor transaminases > 500 U/L should not preclude the use of liver grafts. Instead, donor total bilirubin > 3.5 mg/dL and serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL appear to be associated with higher likelihood of graft failure after liver transplant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6002/ect.2020.0023DOI Listing
March 2021

Management of hepatoblastoma in the United States: Can we do better?

Surgery 2021 Jan 29. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Surgery, Division of Hepatobiliary Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN. Electronic address:

Background: Hepatoblastoma is the most common type of liver cancer in children. Refined therapeutic approaches combining risk-adapted chemotherapy along with complete tumor resection has led to improved survival. We aimed to evaluate the current state of management and outcomes for hepatoblastoma in the United States.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 794 children (<18 years) with hepatoblastoma from the National Cancer Database (2004-2015). We assessed overall survival by means of Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank tests, and multivariable Cox regression.

Results: Median age was 1 year (interquartile range: 0-2) and 170 (21.4%) presented with metastatic disease. Surgical resection was included in the treatment of 614 (77.3%) children (resection in 66.8% and liver transplantation in 10.6%). In the entire cohort, 95.1% of children received chemotherapy. In the surgical cohort, 575 (93.6%) received chemotherapy (34.5% neoadjuvant, 28.7% adjuvant, 30.5% both neoadjuvant and adjuvant). The 5-year overall survival was 76.6% for the entire cohort (no-surgery group: 55.3% vs surgery group: 82.8%). In multivariable analysis for all children, age ≥8 years (P = .009), metastasis (P < .001), surgery only (P = .009), and chemotherapy only (P < .001) were risk factors for mortality. In multivariable analysis for the surgical cohort, metastasis (P = .001), multifocality (P = .02), no chemotherapy (P = .03), and margin-positive resection (P = .02) were risk factors for mortality.

Conclusion: Excellent long-term overall survival is achievable with a combination of chemotherapy and surgical resection when a negative resection margin is achieved. However, nearly a quarter of children never received surgical treatment, representing a potential opportunity for improvement in care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2020.12.035DOI Listing
January 2021

Gas diffusion electrodes for HO production and their applications for electrochemical degradation of organic pollutants in water: A review.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Mar 9;759:143459. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Prevention and Control, Harbin Institute of Technology (Shenzhen), Shenzhen 518055, PR China.

Nowadays, it is a great challenge to minimize the negative impact of hazardous organic compounds in the environment. Highly efficient hydrogen peroxide (HO) production through electrochemical methods with gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) is greatly demand for degradation of organic pollutants that present in drinking water and industrial wastewater. The GDEs as cathodic electrocatalyst manifest more cost-effective, lower energy consumption and higher oxygen utilization efficiency for HO production as compared to other carbonaceous cathodes due to its worthy chemical and physical characteristics. In recent years, the crucial research and practical application of GDE for degradation of organic pollutants have been well developed. In this review, we focus on the novel design, fundamental aspects, influence factors, and electrochemical properties of GDEs. Furthermore, we investigate the generation of HO through electrocatalytic processes and degradation mechanisms of refractory organic pollutants on GDEs. We describe the advanced methodologies towards electrochemical kinetics, which include the enhancement of GDEs electrochemical catalytic activity and mass transfer process. More importantly, we also highlight the other technologies assisted electrochemical process with GDEs to enlarge the practical application for water treatment. In addition, the developmental prospective and the existing research challenges of GDE-based electrocatalytic materials for real applications in HO production and wastewater treatment are forecasted. According to our best knowledge, only few review articles have discussed GDEs in detail for HO production and their applications for degradation of organic pollutants in water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143459DOI Listing
March 2021

Hepatectomy for Breast Cancer Metastasis and Sarcoma are more likely to have Adverse Outcomes than Hepatectomy for Primary Hepatocellular Cancer or for Colorectal Metastasis.

Cancer Med J 2020 Nov 23;3(Suppl 1):6-12. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Surgery, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Introduction: Outcomes for hepatectomy for breast cancer metastasis and sarcomatous disease processes are not well defined in literature. We sought to use a national database to identify outcomes in these patients compared to subset of patients more well studied in literature - primary Hepatocellular cancer patients and patients with colorectal metastasis.

Methods: We identified patients undergoing major hepatectomy (≥ 3 segments) for primary hepatocellular cancer (HCC), sarcoma metastasis, breast cancer metastasis, and colorectal metastasis using NSQIP database. The Primary outcome measure was 30-day mortality. Secondary outcome measures were 30-day readmission and complication rates.

Results: A total of 5580 patients underwent major hepatectomy during the study period. Patients who underwent hepatectomy for breast cancer metastasis had higher incidence of in-hospital complications (37%) compared to sarcoma (29%), colon (26%), and HCC patients (24%) and 30-days readmission rate (37% 29% - sarcoma . 26% - colon . 25% HCC). There was no difference in 30-days mortality among the groups.

Conclusion: Patients undergoing major hepatectomies for breast cancer metastasis and sarcoma are more likely to have adverse outcomes than compared to their counterparts. This difference highlights the lack of experience in managing breast cancer and sarcoma with metastatic disease to the liver. This also highlights the difference in tumor biology among all the lesions we studied. An extensive discussion should take place when dealing with breast and sarcoma lesions in the liver because of these outcomes.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7664114PMC
November 2020

A Critical Review on Crystal Growth Techniques for Scalable Deposition of Photovoltaic Perovskite Thin Films.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Oct 29;13(21). Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Nanophotonics Research Center, Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Micro-scale Optical Information Technology, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China.

Although the efficiency of small-size perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has reached an incredible level of 25.25%, there is still a substantial loss in performance when switching from small size devices to large-scale solar modules. The large efficiency deficit is primarily associated with the big challenge of coating homogeneous, large-area, high-quality thin films via scalable processes. Here, we provide a comprehensive understanding of the nucleation and crystal growth kinetics, which are the key steps for perovskite film formation. Several thin-film crystallization techniques, including antisolvent, hot-casting, vacuum quenching, and gas blowing, are then summarized to distinguish their applications for scalable fabrication of perovskite thin films. In viewing the essential importance of the film morphology on device performance, several strategies including additive engineering, Lewis acid-based approach, solvent annealing, etc., which are capable of modulating the crystal morphology of perovskite film, are discussed. Finally, we summarize the recent progress in the scalable deposition of large-scale perovskite thin film for high-performance devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13214851DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7663244PMC
October 2020

Feasibility of Serial Ultrasound Measurements of the Rectus Femoris Muscle Area to Assess Muscle Loss in Patients Awaiting Liver Transplantation in the Intensive Care Unit.

Transplant Direct 2020 Nov 20;6(11):e618. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Surgery, Division of Hepatobiliary Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN.

End-stage liver disease (ESLD) patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) care before liver transplantation (LT) often experience significant muscle mass loss, which has been associated with mortality. In this exploratory study, we primarily aimed to assess the feasibility of serial ultrasound (US) rectus femoris muscle area (RFMA) measurements for the evaluation of progressive muscle loss in ICU-bound potential LT candidates and describe the rate of muscle loss as assessed by sequential US RFMA measurements. Secondarily, we sought to identify patient characteristics associated with muscle loss and determine how muscle loss is associated with survival.

Methods: We prospectively enrolled 50 ESLD adults (≥18 y old) undergoing evaluation for LT candidacy in the ICU. A baseline computed tomography measurement of psoas muscle area (PMA) and serial bedside US measurements of RFMA were obtained. The associations between patient characteristics, PMA, RFMA, ICU stay, and survival were analyzed.

Results: Rapid decline in muscle mass by RFMA measurements was ubiquitously present and correlated to baseline PMA and length of ICU stay. RFMA normalized by body surface area decreased by 0.013 cm/m (95% confidence interval, 0.010-0.016;  < 0.001) for each day in the ICU. Decreased RFMA normalized by body surface area was associated with poor overall survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.18-0.99;  = 0.047).

Conclusions: In this exploratory, prospective study, serial US RFMA measurements in ESLD patients in the ICU are feasible, demonstrate progressive time-dependent muscle loss, and are associated with mortality. Further large-scale assessment of this modality compared with static PMA or performance-based dynamic assessments should be performed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TXD.0000000000001067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7581147PMC
November 2020

Applicants' Interview Experience of Family Medicine Residency Match: Reflections from a Quality Improvement Initiative at a Community Hospital.

Cureus 2020 Oct 20;12(10):e11054. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Public Health Sciences, Penn State University College of Medicine, Hershey, USA.

Background and objective Both family medicine applicants and programs dedicate significant resources to the interview process, a time for both parties to make an impression on the other in an attempt to find their best match. Despite the importance of this process, little research has been completed to ensure the process efficiently addresses applicant preferences on interview day and the surrounding process. This study aimed to determine the factors influencing the family medicine applicant preferences regarding the pre-interview, interview, and post-interview ranking process.  Methods The study method was a cross-sectional electronic survey utilizing anonymous questionnaires that assessed demographics, pre-interview, interview, post-interview ranking preference, and applicants' experiences applying to a community-based family medicine residency program after their interview for the 2020 application cycle. Results Out of the 106 family medicine applicants, 48 responded; 52.08% were males, 52.5% were married, 58.33% applicants were from the osteopathic medical school, 33.33% were from the allopathic Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME) non accredited medical school/international medical graduates (IMG's), and 8.33% were from the allopathic LCME accredited medical schools. Free hotel accommodation was not offered from half of the programs to 27.8% of the applicants in the 2020 match cycle (pre-pandemic). Respondents favored electronic means of scheduling interviews with a positive experience with the online self-scheduling Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS) calendar. A significantly higher proportion of IMGs applied to a higher number of family medicine programs followed by the osteopathic applicants. There was no statistical difference found between osteopathic and allopathic applicants for the number of programs they got invited to; however, the difference was significant for osteopathic and allopathic LCME accredited applicants who interviewed and ranked programs in the range of 11-20 (62.96%, p=0.0013 and 66.67%, p=0.0018, respectively). The respondents' most important experiences were interviewing the program director, faculty members, and tour the hospital facility. When ranking programs, these family medicine applicants considered the strength of program training, the quality of current residents, and the program's geographic location as the top three most significant factors, with mean importance ratings of 5.08, 5.02, and 4.35, respectively. Applicants also considered how the current residents perceive the program director, prior teaching experience, and program diversity with mean importance ratings of 3.42, 2.89, and 2.09, respectively. Conclusion Although applicants' preferences for family medicine residency programs are similar to generally reported by The National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) surveys, some key differences do exist. The program leadership should consider these preferences from the candidates' perspective for a successful match in family medicine residency on both sides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.11054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7575312PMC
October 2020

Mortality Determinants in Children with Biliary Atresia Awaiting Liver Transplantation.

J Pediatr 2021 01 17;228:177-182. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Surgery, Division of Hepatobiliary Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN. Electronic address:

Objective: To determine risk factors for waitlist mortality in children with biliary atresia listed for liver transplantation.

Study Design: There were 2704 children with biliary atresia (<12 years of age) listed for a first liver transplant (2002-2018) in the United Network for Organ Sharing database. Fine-Gray regression models for competing risks analysis (main risk = waitlist mortality/delisting owing to too sick; competing risk = liver transplantation) were implemented to identify risk factors for waitlist mortality.

Results: The median waitlist time was 83 days (IQR, 34-191). The cumulative incidence of waitlist mortality was 5.2%. In multivariable analysis (n = 2253), increasing bilirubin level (P < .001), portal vein thrombosis (P = .03), and ventilator dependence (P < .001) at listing were associated with a higher risk, whereas weight ≥10 kg at listing (P = .009) was associated with a lower risk of waitlist mortality. When ascites at listing was included in multivariable analysis (n = 1376), it was associated with a higher risk for the composite outcome (P = .03). Encephalopathy at listing was not associated with waitlist mortality (n = 1376; P = .15).

Conclusions: These parameters can be used to more objectively prioritize children with biliary atresia awaiting liver transplantation and identify children with biliary atresia-related end-stage liver disease at high-risk of mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.09.005DOI Listing
January 2021

The role of imaging and other diagnostic approaches in COVID-19.

Acta Biomed 2020 09 7;91(3):e2020019. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Array.

As the COVID 19 pandemic develops across the globe, a large amount of literature has been written about the different ways in which we can diagnose and investigate someone suspected of being infected with the new coronavirus. Many approaches highlight the importance of using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) used in conjunction with computed tomography (CT) scans. Whilst CT scans have been shown to be useful, there are multiple risks associated with them, for example radiation exposure and the transmission risk associated with repeated use of a CT suite. Therefore, it is important to analyse their diagnostic ability and limitations and to consider other methods of diagnosing COVID 19. Additionally, RT-PCR testing can have significant rates of false negatives, indicating the importance of taking a more comprehensive diagnostic approach. Here, we aim to review and analyse this literature to compare RT-PCR, serum inflammatory biomarkers, chest radiographs, ultrasound and chest CT scanning as methods of diagnosing COVID 19, particularly in asymptomatic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23750/abm.v91i3.9822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7716965PMC
September 2020

Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Pediatric Liver Transplantation: A Multi-Center Linked Database Analysis and Systematic Review of the Literature.

Transplantation 2020 Aug 13. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Department of Surgery, Division of Hepatobiliary Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used to maintain oxygen delivery and provide hemodynamic support in case of circulatory and/or respiratory failure. Although the role of ECMO has emerged in the setting of adult liver transplantation (LT), data in children are limited. We aimed to describe the characteristics and outcomes of children receiving ECMO support at the time of or following LT.

Methods: All pediatric LT recipients (≤ 20 years) requiring ECMO support peri-/post-LT were identified from a linked Pediatric Health Information System/Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients dataset (2002-2018). The Kaplan Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used to assess post-ECMO survival. A systematic literature review was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA statement.

Results: Thirty-four children required ECMO peri-/post-LT. The median time from LT to ECMO was 5 days (IQR:0.0-12.3) and the median ECMO duration was 1 day (IQR:1.0-6.3). Children started on ECMO within one day of LT exhibited superior survival compared to those started on ECMO later (P=0.03). When adjusting for recipient weight, increasing time from LT to ECMO initiation was associated with increased risk of mortality (HR: 1.03, 95%CI: 1.00-1.06, P=0.049). Overall, 55.9% (n=19/34) of the patients survived. Twenty-two children receiving ECMO in the peri-/post-LT period were systematically reviewed, and 15 of them survived (68.2%).

Conclusion: With an encouraging >55% patient survival at 6 months, ECMO should be considered as a viable option in pediatric LT recipients with potentially reversible severe respiratory or cardiovascular failure refractory to conventional treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000003414DOI Listing
August 2020

A Revolution toward Gene-Editing Technology and Its Application to Crop Improvement.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Aug 7;21(16). Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Graduate School of Biotechnology & Crop Biotech Institute, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea.

Genome editing is a relevant, versatile, and preferred tool for crop improvement, as well as for functional genomics. In this review, we summarize the advances in gene-editing techniques, such as zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like (TAL) effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) associated with the Cas9 and Cpf1 proteins. These tools support great opportunities for the future development of plant science and rapid remodeling of crops. Furthermore, we discuss the brief history of each tool and provide their comparison and different applications. Among the various genome-editing tools, CRISPR has become the most popular; hence, it is discussed in the greatest detail. CRISPR has helped clarify the genomic structure and its role in plants: For example, the transcriptional control of Cas9 and Cpf1, genetic locus monitoring, the mechanism and control of promoter activity, and the alteration and detection of epigenetic behavior between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) investigated based on genetic traits and related genome-wide studies. The present review describes how CRISPR/Cas9 systems can play a valuable role in the characterization of the genomic rearrangement and plant gene functions, as well as the improvement of the important traits of field crops with the greatest precision. In addition, the speed editing strategy of gene-family members was introduced to accelerate the applications of gene-editing systems to crop improvement. For this, the CRISPR technology has a valuable advantage that particularly holds the scientist's mind, as it allows genome editing in multiple biological systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7461041PMC
August 2020

Surgical management of pediatric hepatocellular carcinoma: An analysis of the National Cancer Database.

J Pediatr Surg 2020 Jun 18. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Surgery, Division of Hepatobiliary Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: This study evaluates overall survival (OS) between liver transplantation (LT) and liver resection (LR), while assessing the effect of margin status, in children with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Methods: The National Cancer Database was queried (2004-2015) for children (<18 years) with non-metastatic HCC undergoing surgery.

Results: One hundred six children with HCC treated surgically (LT 34, LR 72) were identified. For T1 stage, no difference in OS was observed for LT vs. margin-negative liver resection [LR(-)] (log-rank, p = 0.47). For T2/T3/T4 stage, no difference in OS was observed for LT vs. LR(-) (log-rank, p = 0.08); both subgroups exhibited superior OS vs. margin-positive liver resection [LR(+)] (log-rank, LT vs. LR(+): p = 0.001 and LR(-) vs. LR(+): p = 0.04). On multivariable Cox regression: (i) histology (fibrolamellar vs. not) and T stage (T1 vs. T2/T3/T4) were not associated with OS (both p = 0.06), (ii) chemotherapy and size >5 cm were not associated with OS (both p ≥ 0.42), (iii) when compared to LT, both LR(-) (p = 0.03) and LR(+) (p = 0.001) were associated with increased likelihood of mortality.

Conclusion: Although margin-negative resection may be obtained with LT or LR, early LT consultation is warranted for children at high risk of LR(+) regardless of Milan criteria due to the negative impact of LR(+) on OS.

Type Of Study: Retrospective cohort study.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2020.06.013DOI Listing
June 2020

Hazards of nitrogen fertilizers and ways to reduce nitrate accumulation in crop plants.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 May 16;27(15):17661-17670. Epub 2020 Mar 16.

Agricultural Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), P.O. Box No. 577, Jhang Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

In modern agriculture, farm produce accumulates a lot of nitrates that can reach toxic levels owing to the unfair use of nitrogen fertilizers, cultural methods, farming policies in multiple areas of the world, thereby increasing concerns about the availability of hygienic food supply and environmental hazards. Over the past few decades, global interest in achieving greater output through intensive fertilization has been a growing trend. The fertilizer based on urea or ammonium mainly yields ammonium, which is then transformed to nitrate through the oxidation process that is biologically mediated. Nitrate tends to accumulate differently in distinct crop plants and distinct components of agricultural commodities based on species, crop variety, genetic history, environmental circumstances, harvest phase, post-harvest storage conditions, agronomic variables, nature, and fertilizer application rate. The current article highlights various factors that could directly or indirectly contribute to the accumulation of nitrates in different parts of crop plants and discusses strategies to minimize the accumulation of nitrates in farm produce, thus ensuring healthy food supply and protecting the environment from the accumulation of nitrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08236-yDOI Listing
May 2020

Novel Heteroatom-Doped Fe/N/C Electrocatalysts With Superior Activities for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Both Acid and Alkaline Solutions.

Front Chem 2020 18;8:78. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.

The exploration of noble metal-free catalysts with efficient electrochemical performance toward oxygen reduction reaction in the acid electrolyte is very important for the development of fuel cells technology. Novel pyrolyzed heteroatom-doped Fe/N/C catalysts have been regarded as the most efficient electrocatalytic materials for ORR due to their tunable electronic structure, and distinctive chemical and physical properties. Herein, nitrogen- and sulfur-doped (Fe/N/C and Fe/N/C-S) electrocatalysts were synthesized using ferric chloride hexahydrate as the Fe precursor, N-rich polymer as N precursor, and Ketjen Black EC-600 (KJ600) as the carbon supports. Among these electrocatalysts, the as prepared S and N-doped Fe/N/C-S reveals the paramount ORR activity with a positive half-wave potential value () 0.82 at 0.80 V vs. RHE in 0.1 mol/L HSO solution, which is comparable to the commercial Pt/C (Pt 20 wt%) electrocatalyst. The mass activity of the Fe/N/C-S catalyst can reach 45% (12.7 A g at 0.8 V) and 70% (5.3 A g at 0.95 V) of the Pt/C electrocatalyst in acidic and alkaline solutions. As result, ORR activity of PGM-free electrocatalysts measured by the rotating-ring disk electrode method increases in the following order: Fe/N/C
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2020.00078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7040484PMC
February 2020

Facile Synthesis of Mayenite Electride Nanoparticles Encapsulated in Graphitic Shells Like Carbon Nano Onions: Non-noble-metal Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR).

Front Chem 2019 22;7:934. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

School of Electrical Engineering & Intelligentization, Dongguan University of Technology (DGUT), Dongguan, China.

This manuscript presented a large scale synthesis of Graphitic Shells like carbon nano onions (GS-CNOs) by direct solution method using mayenite electride as a catalyst for synthesis of CNOs. Thermal characterization, microstructural analysis, and high resolution electron microscopy have confirmed the graphitization and revealed the resulting GS-CNOs with particle size about 15 nm, maximum BET surface area of 214 m.g, and moderate conductivity of 250 S.cm, thus providing a new approach to synthesize GS-CNOs. The reported GS-CNOs, which acts as more active but less expensive electrocatalysts with onset potential of 1.03 V, half wave potential of 0.88 V vs. the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), and limited current density of 5.9 mA.cm, higher than that of benchmark 20% Pt/C (1.02 eV, 0.82 V, 5.2 mA.cm). The synthesized nano-powder acts as an origin of ORR activity via a four electron (4e) pathway, along with significantly enhanced stability, in alkaline media. The high ORR activity is ascribed to GS-CNOs embedded sufficient metallic C12A7:e particles, which favor faster electron movement and better adsorption of oxygen molecules on catalyst surface. Hence, we explored first time large scale synthesis of GS-CNOs with gram level and provide efficient approach to prepare novel, lowest cost, potential non-noble metals catalyst for fuel cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fchem.2019.00934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6987263PMC
January 2020

N-Doped porous tremella-like FeC/C electrocatalysts derived from metal-organic frameworks for oxygen reduction reaction.

Dalton Trans 2020 Jan;49(3):797-807

College of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518060, P.R. China.

N-Doped porous tremella-like Fe3C/C electrocatalysts derived from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were fabricated via a facile approach. The simply designed catalytic materials have unique fluffy multilayer interconnected porous morphology, which provides a large specific surface area and effectively prevents the agglomeration of nanoparticles. These special features create more active sites (Fe-Nx) on the surface of the electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the presence of the Fe-Nx active sites was verified via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effect of Fe intake through pyrolysis of MOFs materials was also studied and the composite with 0.04 g Fe source exhibited excellent ORR performance, a very small hydrogen peroxide yield, and followed the four-electron transfer pathway. The ORR activity of the electrocatalyst is comparable to that of commercial Pt/C, while the stability is even better than the latter in an alkaline solution. The facile method of preparing a multilayer porous N-doped tremella-like Fe3C/C electrocatalyst is a promising electrode material for a wide range of applications in fuel cells and metal-air batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9dt03923fDOI Listing
January 2020

Structure-activity relationships of new Organotin(IV) anticancer agents and their cytotoxicity profile on HL-60, MCF-7 and HeLa human cancer cell lines.

Eur J Med Chem 2019 Nov 16;181:111544. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

School of Chemistry, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, 152-160 Pearse Street, Dublin 2, Ireland. Electronic address:

There is a growing interest in the cancer cell growth inhibitory effects of organotin (IV) compounds and, accordingly, a new series of dimethyl-, di-(n-butyl)-, diphenyl- and chloro-phenyl tin(IV) complexes with a Schiff base core were prepared. Their binding to DNA was assessed by UV thermal denaturation showing no interaction and by UV-vis titration exhibiting moderate interaction by intercalation. Complexes having n-butyl substituents were more potent and cytotoxic against human leukemia, breast and cervical cancer cell lines than other organotin(IV) complexes tested. Unfortunately, some of these compounds showed similar cytotoxicity in a non-cancerous cell line. We may conclude that cytotoxic activity was dependent on the nature (lipophilicity and size, according to the structure-activity relationship studies) and substitution pattern on the different structures. These results may aid in the rational design of metallodrugs, expanding the scope of organotin complexes in formulating new metal based drugs with dibutyl moieties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2019.07.047DOI Listing
November 2019

Subclinical Hypothyroidism among local adult obese population.

Pak J Med Sci 2018 Jul-Aug;34(4):980-983

Dr. Akhter Sher, FCPS, Department of Cardiology, District Headquarter Hospital, Swabi, Pakistan.

Objective: To determine the frequency of subclinical hypothyroidism in local adult obese population.

Methods: The study was conducted at Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar, from March, 2017 to August, 2017. All patients aged between 18 and 60 years with BMI of more than 29kg/m were included in the study. Patients on lipid lowering drugs, with renal failure, hepatic failure and already diagnosed cases of thyroid dysfunction were excluded from the study. Thyroid functions were measured for all patients.

Results: A total of 127 adults were included in the study in a consecutive manner. Mean age was 34.5 + 7.9 years of which 46.5% were male and 53.5% were female. Mean BMI was 32.05±2.06 kg/m. The mean serum TSH was 3.13±1.10 mIU/L and mean serum thyroxine level was 1.08±0.25ng/dl. Subclinical hypothyroidism was recorded in 15% of the study population.

Conclusion: Subclinical hypothyroidism is highly prevalent in our population with BMI of more than 29kg/m. Further studies are recommended on relationship between thyroid functions and BMI and its effect on cardiovascular functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12669/pjms.344.14127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6115588PMC
September 2018

Oxidoreductases for the remediation of organic pollutants in water - a critical review.

Crit Rev Biotechnol 2018 Nov 31;38(7):971-988. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

b Department of Chemistry , College of Science, UAE University , Al-Ain , UAE.

Water contamination by various recalcitrant organic aromatic compounds is an emerging environmental issue that is increasingly attracting the attention of environmental scientists. A great majority of these recalcitrant pollutants are industrial wastes, textile dyes, pharmaceuticals, hormones, and personal care products that are discharged into wastewater. Not surprisingly, various chemical, physical, and biological strategies have been proposed and developed to remove and/or degrade these pollutants from contaminated water bodies. Biological approaches, specifically using oxidoreductase enzymes (such as peroxidases and laccases) for pollutant degradation are a relatively new and a promising research area that has potential advantages over other methods due to their higher efficiency and the ease of handling. This review focuses on the application of different classes of oxidoreductase enzymes to degrade various classes of organic pollutants. In addition to classifying these enzymes based on structural differences, the major factors that can affect their remediation ability, such as the class of peroxidases employed, pH, molecular structure of the pollutant, temperature, and the presence of redox mediators are also examined and discussed. Interestingly, a literature survey combined with our unpublished data suggests that "peroxidases" are a very heterogeneous and diverse family of enzymes and have different pH profiles, temperature optima, thermal stabilities, requirements for redox mediators, and substrate specificities as well as varying detoxification abilities. Additionally, remediation of real-life polluted samples by oxidoreductases is also highlighted as well as a critical look at current challenges and future perspectives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07388551.2017.1423275DOI Listing
November 2018

Excessive use of nitrogenous fertilizers: an unawareness causing serious threats to environment and human health.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Dec 14;24(35):26983-26987. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

Agricultural Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), P.O. Box No. 577, Jhang Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Farmers occasionally need to add nitrogen fertilizer to their farms and gardens to make available just the precise nutrients for their plants' growth. The applications of inorganic nitrogen fertilizers to various crops have been continuously increasing since last many decades globally. Although nitrogen fertilizer contributes substantially to yield enhancement, but excessive use of this manure has posed serious threats to environment and human health. Rate of nitrogen fertilizers application has a close relationship with nitrate accumulation in surrounding environment, groundwater, as well as leafy and root vegetables. Consumption of diets having high nitrate contents has contributed to endogenous nitrosation, which could lead to thyroid condition, various kinds of human cancers, neural tube defects (during fetus development), and diabetes. In this short review, the authors have tried to create awareness among general public, farming community, health practitioners, and agricultural scientists for the risk involved with excessive use of nitrogen fertilizers to human health. Carcinogenic activity and other adverse effects of N-nitroso compounds might be prevented by consuming vitamin C and antioxidants containing fruits and vegetables.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0589-7DOI Listing
December 2017

Clinical diagnostic tools for vitamin D assessment.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2018 06 6;180:105-117. Epub 2017 Oct 6.

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, UAE University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates.

Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in a plethora of diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and osteoporosis. Deficiency of this vitamin is a global epidemic affecting both developing and developed nations. Within a clinical context, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of vitamin D is therefore vital. The main metabolic markers for assessing vitamin D status in humans are the hydroxylated forms of vitamin D, 25OHD and 25OHD on account of their long half-lives within the body and excellent stability. An adequate level for healthy individuals of these hydroxylated forms is estimated to be around 20-40ng/ml of blood. There are three main analytical techniques for determining the levels of 25OHD and 25OHD. The first technique is immunoassay-based and can be performed in a rapid, high throughput, automated manner, allowing as many as 240 tests per hour with the duration of each assay as little as 18min. Furthermore, it offers excellent sensitivity with a detection range of 3.4-156ng/ml. A major downside of immunoassays is that they are unable to distinguish between the various forms of vitamin D. While HPLC is a highthroughput low cost instrument it is not a very sensitive technique and cannot quantify the down stream metabolites of vitamin D. The third technique, namely liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/), provides excellent sensitivity with a wide dynamic range from 0.068pg/ml to 100ng/ml. Additionally, it offers a high level of separation and permits identification of vitamin D-related metabolites. However, a huge limitation with LC/MS/MS is their poor throughput for sample analyses. As yet, there is no analytical technique which combines the fine detection capabilities of LC/MS/MS and the rapid, automated format of immunoassay, for vitamin D analyses. Future attention therefore needs to be given to this area if the current clinical diagnostic tools for vitamin D analysis are to be further improved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2017.10.003DOI Listing
June 2018

Comparative Degradation of a Thiazole Pollutant by an Advanced Oxidation Process and an Enzymatic Approach.

Biomolecules 2017 08 24;7(3). Epub 2017 Aug 24.

Department of Chemistry, UAE University, P.O. Box 15551, Al-Ain, UAE.

Organic pollutants, especially those found in water bodies, pose a direct threat to various aquatic organisms as well as humans. A variety of different remediation approaches, including chemical and biological methods, have been developed for the degradation of various organic pollutants. However, comparative mechanistic studies of pollutant degradation by these different systems are almost non-existent. In this study, the degradation of a model thiazole pollutant, thioflavin T (ThT), was carried out in the presence of either an advanced oxidation process (ultraviolet (UV) + H₂O₂) or a chloroperoxidase enzyme system (CPO + H₂O₂). The degradation was followed both spectrophotometrically and using liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS), and the products formed were identified using tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The results show that the two remediation approaches produced different sets of intermediates, with only one common species (a demethylated form of ThT). This suggests that different degradation schemes were operating in the two systems. Interestingly, one of the major intermediates produced by the CPO + H₂O₂ system was a chlorinated form of thioflavin. Phytotoxicity studies showed that the CPO + H₂O₂-treated ThT solution was significantly ( <0.05) less toxic than the UV + H₂O₂-treated ThT solution. This is the first time that a comparative mechanistic study showing in detail the intermediates generated in chemical and biological remediation methods has been presented. Furthermore, the results show that different remediation systems have very different degradation schemes and result in products having different toxicities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom7030064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5618245PMC
August 2017

Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Pakistan: Five Years Bibliometric Analysis.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2016 Nov;26(11):920-923

Department of Cardiology, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar.

To conduct the bibliometric analysis of the Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan (JCPSP) from 2012 to 2014. The prime objectives of this report were to determine the number and percentage of articles by year, authorship pattern, gender and geographical affiliation, ranking by subject and citation analysis. A data collection instrument was developed as bibliometric form. The data was analysed using the Microsoft Excel spread sheet. Editorials and letters to editors were excluded. There were 1106 total research documents, including 721 original articles and 385 case reports. A rapid increase in number of articles per year was noticed, more original papers than case reports. Majority of the authors were male. The contribution of Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa was less than the other provinces. JCPSP was the most cited document in the reference list of the research documents. The scholars of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan and female researchers should give more attention in writing quality articles eligible for consideration at this Journal. It is also suggested that writers should be compelled to address such fields of medical sciences as neurology, nephrology, anatomy and pharmacology, while writing original articles and case reports.
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http://dx.doi.org/2478DOI Listing
November 2016

Solution-phase microwave assisted parallel synthesis, biological evaluation and in silico docking studies of N,N'-disubstituted thioureas derived from 3-chlorobenzoic acid.

Bioorg Med Chem 2016 09 21;24(18):4452-4463. Epub 2016 Jul 21.

Centre for Advanced Drug Research, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan. Electronic address:

A facile and robust microwave-assisted solution phase parallel synthesis protocol was exercised for the development of a 38-member library of N,N'-disubstituted thiourea analogues (1-38) by using an identical set of conditions. The reaction time for synthesis of N,N'-disubstituted thiourea analogues was drastically reduced from a reported duration of 8-12h for conventional methods to only 1.5-2.0min. All the derivatives (1-38) were characterized by physico-analytical techniques such as elemental analysis in combination with FT-IR, (1)H, (13)C NMR and by single crystal XRD analysis have also been performed. These compounds were screened for their in vitro urease inhibition activities. Majority of compounds exhibited potent urease inhibition activities, however, the most significant activity was found for 16, with an IC50 value of 1.23±0.1μM. Furthermore, the synthesized compounds were screened for their cytotoxic potential against lungs cancer cell lines. Cell culture studies demonstrated significant toxicity of the compounds on the cell lines, and the levels of toxicity were altered in the presence of various side groups. The molecular docking studies of the most potent inhibitors were performed to identify the probable binding modes in the active site of the urease enzymes. These compounds have a great potential and significance for further investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2016.07.042DOI Listing
September 2016

Antileishmanial, DNA Interaction, and Docking Studies of Some Ferrocene-Based Heteroleptic Pentavalent Antimonials.

Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 2016 Jan 2;349(1):50-62. Epub 2015 Dec 2.

National Center for Bioinformatics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

A series of ferrocenyl pentavalent antimonials (1-8) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, and multinuclear ((1) H and (13) C) NMR spectroscopy. These antimonials were evaluated for their antileishmanial potential against Leishmania tropica KWH23, and by biocompatibility and membrane permeability assays. Moreover, mechanistic studies were carried out, mediated by DNA targeting followed by computational docking of ferrocenyl antimonials against the leishmanial trypanothione reductase enzyme. It was observed that the antimonials 1-8 were 390-fold more efficacious (IC50 ) as compared with the standard antimonial drug used. Cytotoxicity results showed that these antimonials are highly active even at low concentrations and are biocompatible with human macrophages. Antimonials 1-8 exhibited extensive intercalation with DNA and, furthermore, docking interactions highlighted the potential interactive binding of the anitimonials within the trypanothione reductase active site, with van der Waals interactions contributing significantly to the process. Hence, it is suggested that the reported antimonials demonstrate high efficacy, less toxicity, and target multiple sites of the Leishmania parasite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ardp.201500312DOI Listing
January 2016

Solid state perovskite solar modules by vacuum-vapor assisted sequential deposition on Nd:YVO₄ laser patterned rutile TiO₂ nanorods.

Nanotechnology 2015 Dec 17;26(49):494002. Epub 2015 Nov 17.

Nanostructured Renewable Energy Materials Laboratory, Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology (FIST), Universiti Malaysia Pahang, 26300 Kuantan, Malaysia. C.H.O.S.E. (Centre for Hybrid and Organic Solar Energy), Department of Electronic Engineering, University of Rome 'Tor Vergata', via del Politecnico 1, Rome, 00133 Italy.

The past few years have witnessed remarkable progress in solution-processed methylammonium lead halide (CH3NH3PbX3, X = halide) perovskite solar cells (PSCs) with reported photoconversion efficiency (η) exceeding 20% in laboratory-scale devices and reaching up to 13% in their large area perovskite solar modules (PSMs). These devices mostly employ mesoporous TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) as an electron transport layer (ETL) which provides a scaffold on which the perovskite semiconductor can grow. However, limitations exist which are due to trap-limited electron transport and non-complete pore filling. Herein, we have employed TiO2 nanorods (NRs), a material offering a two-fold higher electronic mobility and higher pore-filing compared to their particle analogues, as an ETL. A crucial issue in NRs' patterning over substrates is resolved by using precise Nd:YVO4 laser ablation, and a champion device with η ∼ 8.1% is reported via a simple and low cost vacuum-vapor assisted sequential processing (V-VASP) of a CH3NH3PbI3 film. Our experiments showed a successful demonstration of NRs-based PSMs via the V-VASP technique which can be applied to fabricate large area modules with a pin-hole free, smooth and dense perovskite layer which is required to build high efficiency devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/26/49/494002DOI Listing
December 2015

Aminothiazole-derived N,S,Fe-doped graphene nanosheets as high performance electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2015 Dec;51(96):17092-5

State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005, China.

N,S,Fe-doped graphene nanosheets were directly synthesized from aminothiazole, a precursor molecule that contains N and S atoms, through Fe catalysis under heat treatment. The graphene nanosheets exhibited high electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction in both acidic and alkaline media during rotating disk electrode half-cell and fuel cell tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5cc06562cDOI Listing
December 2015

S-Doping of an Fe/N/C ORR Catalyst for Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells with High Power Density.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2015 Aug 3;54(34):9907-10. Epub 2015 Jul 3.

State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, Collaborative innovation center of Chemistry for Energy Materials, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 (China).

Fe/N/C is a promising non-Pt electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), but its catalytic activity is considerably inferior to that of Pt in acidic medium, the environment of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). An improved Fe/N/C catalyst (denoted as Fe/N/C-SCN) derived from Fe(SCN)3, poly-m-phenylenediamine, and carbon black is presented. The advantage of using Fe(SCN)3 as iron source is that the obtained catalyst has a high level of S doping and high surface area, and thus exhibits excellent ORR activity (23 A g(-1) at 0.80 V) in 0.1 M H2SO4 solution. When the Fe/N/C-SCN was applied in a PEMFC as cathode catalyst, the maximal power density could exceed 1 W cm(-2).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201503159DOI Listing
August 2015

Changing trends of adult lymphoma in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia - comparison of data sources.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015 ;16(5):2069-72

King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Oncology Centre, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia E-mail : mrauf@ kfshrc.edu.sa.

Background: Lymphoma is one of the most common malignancies affecting the young Saudi population. This disease has diversified pathologies and clinical stages that necessitate well optimized clinical management. Regular updates of epidemiological behavior of lymphoma from various parts of the world are available but studies from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in this field are not consistent.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the current trends in presentation and distribution of lymphoma with special reference to incidence and mortality, gender, age, histopathological subtypes, and clinical stages at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre (KFSH and RC).

Materials And Methods: Our study included lymphoma data from Saudi Cancer Registry, and relative comparison against KFSH and RC tumor registry data, Gulf country data and International Agency for Research on Cancer data.

Results: Common tumors in the West (lung, colon, and prostate) were found to be much less frequent in KSA while leukemia, lymphoma and thyroid cancers were more common. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) ranked 3rd most common cancer with age-adjusted incidence of 6/100,000. Estimated age adjusted mortality was 4/100,000 in KSA. There was a peak rise in incidence of lymphoma in 1997-2007. Most common NHL was diffuse large B cell lymphoma at KFSH and RC. A total of 434 cases were diagnosed in 5 years with 55% of them at advanced stage and 35% demonstrating bulky disease and high risk. KFSH and RC registered 35% of Hodgkins and 21% of total NHL identified in entire Saudi Cancer Registry, 2009.

Conclusions: Results of this study are very unique, and reveal diverse trends. The findings provide valuable insights in the understanding of current epidemiological features of lymphoma in this part of the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2015.16.5.2069DOI Listing
December 2015