Publications by authors named "Muhammad Rashid"

304 Publications

Efficacy and safety for the achievement of guideline-recommended lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2020 Nov 28. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 600 North Wolfe Street, Blalock 524-D1, Baltimore, MD 21287.

Aim: The 2018 American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology/Multi-Society Cholesterol Guidelines recommended the addition of non-statins to statin therapy for high-risk secondary prevention patients above a low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) threshold of ≥70 mg/dL (1.8 mmol/L). We compared effectiveness and safety of treatment to achieve lower (<70) vs. higher (≥70 mg/dL) LDL-C among patients receiving intensive lipid-lowering therapy (statins alone or plus ezetimibe or proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors).

Methods And Results: Eleven randomized controlled trials (130 070 patients), comparing intensive vs. less-intensive lipid-lowering therapy, with follow-up ≥6 months and sample size ≥1000 patients were selected. Meta-analysis was reported as random effects risk ratios (RRs) [95% confidence intervals] and absolute risk differences (ARDs) as incident cases per 1000 person-years. The median LDL-C levels achieved in lower LDL-C vs. higher LDL-C groups were 62 and 103 mg/dL, respectively. At median follow-up of 2 years, the lower LDL-C vs. higher LDL-C group was associated with significant reduction in all-cause mortality [ARD -1.56; RR 0.94 (0.89-1.00)], cardiovascular mortality [ARD -1.49; RR 0.90 (0.81-1.00)], and reduced risk of myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular events, revascularization, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). These benefits were achieved without increasing the risk of incident cancer, diabetes mellitus, or haemorrhagic stroke. All-cause mortality benefit in lower LDL-C group was limited to statin therapy and those with higher baseline LDL-C (≥100 mg/dL). However, the RR reduction in ischaemic and safety endpoints was independent of baseline LDL-C or drug therapy.

Conclusion: This meta-analysis showed that treatment to achieve LDL-C levels below 70 mg/dL using intensive lipid-lowering therapy can safely reduce the risk of mortality and MACE.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurjpc/zwaa093DOI Listing
November 2020

A case-only study to identify genetic modifiers of breast cancer risk for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers.

Authors:
Juliette Coignard Michael Lush Jonathan Beesley Tracy A O'Mara Joe Dennis Jonathan P Tyrer Daniel R Barnes Lesley McGuffog Goska Leslie Manjeet K Bolla Muriel A Adank Simona Agata Thomas Ahearn Kristiina Aittomäki Irene L Andrulis Hoda Anton-Culver Volker Arndt Norbert Arnold Kristan J Aronson Banu K Arun Annelie Augustinsson Jacopo Azzollini Daniel Barrowdale Caroline Baynes Heko Becher Marina Bermisheva Leslie Bernstein Katarzyna Białkowska Carl Blomqvist Stig E Bojesen Bernardo Bonanni Ake Borg Hiltrud Brauch Hermann Brenner Barbara Burwinkel Saundra S Buys Trinidad Caldés Maria A Caligo Daniele Campa Brian D Carter Jose E Castelao Jenny Chang-Claude Stephen J Chanock Wendy K Chung Kathleen B M Claes Christine L Clarke J Margriet Collée Don M Conroy Kamila Czene Mary B Daly Peter Devilee Orland Diez Yuan Chun Ding Susan M Domchek Thilo Dörk Isabel Dos-Santos-Silva Alison M Dunning Miriam Dwek Diana M Eccles A Heather Eliassen Christoph Engel Mikael Eriksson D Gareth Evans Peter A Fasching Henrik Flyger Florentia Fostira Eitan Friedman Lin Fritschi Debra Frost Manuela Gago-Dominguez Susan M Gapstur Judy Garber Vanesa Garcia-Barberan Montserrat García-Closas José A García-Sáenz Mia M Gaudet Simon A Gayther Andrea Gehrig Vassilios Georgoulias Graham G Giles Andrew K Godwin Mark S Goldberg David E Goldgar Anna González-Neira Mark H Greene Pascal Guénel Lothar Haeberle Eric Hahnen Christopher A Haiman Niclas Håkansson Per Hall Ute Hamann Patricia A Harrington Steven N Hart Wei He Frans B L Hogervorst Antoinette Hollestelle John L Hopper Darling J Horcasitas Peter J Hulick David J Hunter Evgeny N Imyanitov Agnes Jager Anna Jakubowska Paul A James Uffe Birk Jensen Esther M John Michael E Jones Rudolf Kaaks Pooja Middha Kapoor Beth Y Karlan Renske Keeman Elza Khusnutdinova Johanna I Kiiski Yon-Dschun Ko Veli-Matti Kosma Peter Kraft Allison W Kurian Yael Laitman Diether Lambrechts Loic Le Marchand Jenny Lester Fabienne Lesueur Tricia Lindstrom Adria Lopez-Fernández Jennifer T Loud Craig Luccarini Arto Mannermaa Siranoush Manoukian Sara Margolin John W M Martens Noura Mebirouk Alfons Meindl Austin Miller Roger L Milne Marco Montagna Katherine L Nathanson Susan L Neuhausen Heli Nevanlinna Finn C Nielsen Katie M O'Brien Olufunmilayo I Olopade Janet E Olson Håkan Olsson Ana Osorio Laura Ottini Tjoung-Won Park-Simon Michael T Parsons Inge Sokilde Pedersen Beth Peshkin Paolo Peterlongo Julian Peto Paul D P Pharoah Kelly-Anne Phillips Eric C Polley Bruce Poppe Nadege Presneau Miquel Angel Pujana Kevin Punie Paolo Radice Johanna Rantala Muhammad U Rashid Gad Rennert Hedy S Rennert Mark Robson Atocha Romero Maria Rossing Emmanouil Saloustros Dale P Sandler Regina Santella Maren T Scheuner Marjanka K Schmidt Gunnar Schmidt Christopher Scott Priyanka Sharma Penny Soucy Melissa C Southey John J Spinelli Zoe Steinsnyder Jennifer Stone Dominique Stoppa-Lyonnet Anthony Swerdlow Rulla M Tamimi William J Tapper Jack A Taylor Mary Beth Terry Alex Teulé Darcy L Thull Marc Tischkowitz Amanda E Toland Diana Torres Alison H Trainer Thérèse Truong Nadine Tung Celine M Vachon Ana Vega Joseph Vijai Qin Wang Barbara Wappenschmidt Clarice R Weinberg Jeffrey N Weitzel Camilla Wendt Alicja Wolk Siddhartha Yadav Xiaohong R Yang Drakoulis Yannoukakos Wei Zheng Argyrios Ziogas Kristin K Zorn Sue K Park Mads Thomassen Kenneth Offit Rita K Schmutzler Fergus J Couch Jacques Simard Georgia Chenevix-Trench Douglas F Easton Nadine Andrieu Antonis C Antoniou

Nat Commun 2021 02 17;12(1):1078. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Breast cancer (BC) risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers varies by genetic and familial factors. About 50 common variants have been shown to modify BC risk for mutation carriers. All but three, were identified in general population studies. Other mutation carrier-specific susceptibility variants may exist but studies of mutation carriers have so far been underpowered. We conduct a novel case-only genome-wide association study comparing genotype frequencies between 60,212 general population BC cases and 13,007 cases with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. We identify robust novel associations for 2 variants with BC for BRCA1 and 3 for BRCA2 mutation carriers, P < 10, at 5 loci, which are not associated with risk in the general population. They include rs60882887 at 11p11.2 where MADD, SP11 and EIF1, genes previously implicated in BC biology, are predicted as potential targets. These findings will contribute towards customising BC polygenic risk scores for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20496-3DOI Listing
February 2021

Effects of Sprinkler Flow Rate on Physiological, Behavioral and Production Responses of Nili Ravi Buffaloes during Subtropical Summer.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jan 29;11(2). Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Livestock Management, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54000, Pakistan.

Water buffaloes wallow in water to combat heat stress during summer. With the decreasing reservoirs for wallowing, the farmers use sprinklers to cool the buffaloes in Pakistan. These sprinklers use a large quantity of groundwater, which is becoming scarce. The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of different sprinkler flow rates on the physiological, behavioral, and production responses of Nili Ravi buffaloes during summer. Eighteen buffaloes were randomly subjected to three sprinkler flow rate treatments in a double replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design. The flow rates were 0.8, 1.25, and 2.0 L/min. During the study, the average afternoon temperature humidity index was 84.6. The 1.25 and 2.0 L/min groups had significantly lower rectal temperature and respiratory rates than the 0.8 L/min group. Water intake was significantly higher in the 0.8 L/min group. Daily milk yield was higher in the 1.25 and 2.0 L/min groups than in the 0.8 L/min group. These results suggested that the sprinkler flow rates > 0.8 L/min effectively cooled the buffaloes. The sprinkler flow rate of 1.25 L/min appeared to be more efficient, as it used 37.5% less water compared to the 2.0 L/min.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11020339DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7912036PMC
January 2021

Single step immobilization of CMCase within agarose gel matrix: Kinetics and thermodynamic studies.

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2021 Jan 16;200:111583. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Industrial Biotechnology Division, National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad, Pakistan.

In the current study, CMCase from Bacillus licheniformis KIBGE-IB2 was immobilized within the matrix of agarose gel through entrapment technique. Maximum immobilization yield (%) of the enzyme was obtained when 2.0 % agarose was used. The activation energy (E) of the enzyme increased from 16.38 to 44.08 kJ mol after immobilization. Thermodynamic parameters such as activation energy of deactivation (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) of deactivation, deactivation rate constant (K), half-life (t), D-value and z-value were calculated for native/free and immobilized CMCase. The maximum reaction rate (V) of the native enzyme was found to be 8319.47 U ml min, which reduced to 7218.1 U ml minafter immobilization process. However, the Michaelis-Menten constant (K) value of the enzyme increased from 1.236 to 2.769 mg ml min after immobilization. Immobilized enzyme within agarose gel matrix support can be reuse up to eight reaction cycles. Broad stability profile and improved catalytic properties of the immobilized CMCase indicated that this enzyme can be a plausible candidate to be used in various industrial processes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2021.111583DOI Listing
January 2021

Breast cancer risk factors and survival by tumor subtype: pooled analyses from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.

Authors:
Anna Morra Audrey Y Jung Sabine Behrens Renske Keeman Thomas U Ahearn Hoda Anton-Cluver Volker Arndt Annelie Augustinsson Päivi K Auvinen Laura E Beane Freeman Heiko Becher Matthias W Beckmann Carl Bloomqvist Stig E Bojesen Manjeet K Bolla Hermann Brenner Ignacio Briceno Sara Y Brucker Nicola J Camp Daniele Campa Federico Canzian Jose E Castelao Stephen J Chanock Ji-Yeob Choi Christine L Clarke Fergus J Couch Angela Cox Simon S Cross Kamila Czene Thilo Dӧrk Alison M Dunning Miriam Dwek Douglas F Easton Diana M Eccles Kathleen M Egan D Gareth Evans Peter A Fasching Henrik Flyger Manuela Gago-Dominguez Susan M Gapstur Jose A Garcia-Saenz Mia M Gaudet Graham G Giles Mervi Grip Pascal Guénel Christopher A Haiman Niclas Håkansson Per Hall Ute Hamann Sileny N Han Steven N Hart Mikael Hartman Jane S Heyworth Reiner Hoppe John L Hopper David J Hunter Hidemi Ito Agnes Jager Milena Jakimovska Anna Jakubowska Wolfgang Janni Rudolf Kaaks Daehee Kang Pooja Middha Kapoor Cari M Kitahara Stella Koutros Peter Kraft Vessela N Kristensen James V Lacey Diether Lambrechts Loic Le Marchand Jingmei Li Annika Lindblom Jan Lubiński Michael Lush Arto Mannermaa Mehdi Manoochehri Sara Margolin Shivaani Mariapun Keitaro Matsuo Dimitris Mavroudis Roger L Milne Taru A Muranen William G Newman Dong-Young Noh Børge Grønne Nordestgaard Nadia Obi Andrew F Olshan Håkan Olsson Tjoung-Won Park-Simon Christos Petridis Paul D P Pharoah Dijana Plaseska-Karanfilska Nadege Presneau Muhammad U Rashid Gad Rennert Hedy S Rennert Valerie Rhenius Atocha Romero Emmanouil Saloustros Elinor J Sawyer Andreas Schneeweiss Lukas Schwentner Christopher G Scott Mitul Shah Chen-Yang Shen Xiao-Ou Shu Melissa C Southey Daniel O Stram Rulla M Tamimi William Tapper Robert A E M Tollenaar Ian Tomlinson Diana Torres Melissa A Troester Therese Truong Celine M Vachon Qin Wang Sophia S Wang Justin A Williams Robert Winqvist Alicja Wolk Anna H Wu Keun-Young Yoo Jyh-Cherng Yu Wei Zheng Argyrios Ziogas Xiaohong R Yang A Heather Eliassen Michelle D Holmes Montserrat Garcia-Closas Soo Hwang Teo Marjanka K Schmidt Jenny Chang-Claude

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Jan 26. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center.

Background: It is not known if modifiable lifestyle factors that predict survival after invasive breast cancer differ by subtype.

Methods: We analyzed data for 121,435 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 67 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium with 16,890 deaths (8,554 breast cancer-specific) over 10 years. Cox regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and 10-year all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality overall, by estrogen receptor (ER) status, and by intrinsic-like subtype.

Results: There was no evidence of heterogeneous associations between risk factors and mortality by subtype (adjusted p>0.30). The strongest associations were between all-cause mortality and BMI {greater than or equal to}30 vs 18.5-25 kg/m2 (HR (95%CI): 1.19 (1.06,1.34)); current vs never smoking (1.37 (1.27,1.47)), high vs low physical activity (0.43 (0.21,0.86)), age {greater than or equal to}30 years vs <20 years at first pregnancy (0.79 (0.72,0.86)); >0 to <5 years vs {greater than or equal to}10 years since last full term birth (1.31 (1.11,1.55)); ever vs never use of oral contraceptives (0.91 (0.87,0.96)); ever vs never use of menopausal hormone therapy, including current estrogen-progestin therapy (0.61 (0.54,0.69)). Similar associations with breast cancer mortality were weaker; e.g. 1.11 (1.02,1.21) for current vs never smoking.

Conclusions: We confirm associations between modifiable lifestyle factors and 10-year all-cause mortality. There was no strong evidence that associations differed by ER status or intrinsic-like subtype.

Impact: Given the large dataset and lack of evidence that associations between modifiable risk factors and 10-year mortality differed by subtype, these associations could be cautiously used in prognostication models to inform patient-centered care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0924DOI Listing
January 2021

SARS-COV-2 infection and lung tumor microenvironment.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Feb 23;48(2):1925-1934. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Department of Basic Sciences Research, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre (SKMCH&RC), Lahore, Pakistan.

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an acute respiratory syndrome, reported at the end of 2019 in China originally and immediately spread affecting over ten million world population to date. This pandemic is more lethal for the older population and those who previously suffered from other ailments such as cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, and other immune system affecting abnormalities including cancers. Lung cancer is an important comorbidity of COVID-19. In this review, we emphasized the impact of lung tumor microenvironment (TME) on the possibility of enhanced severity of infection caused by the SARS-Co-V2. The compromised lung TME is further susceptible to the attack of viruses. The lung cells are also abundant in the virus entry receptors. Several SARS-Co-V2 proteins can modulate the lung TME by disrupting the fragile immune mechanisms contributing to cytokine storming and cellular metabolic variations. We also discussed the impact of medication used for lung cancer in the scenario of this infection. Since other respiratory infections can be a risk factor for lung cancer, COVID-19 recovered patients should be monitored for tumor development, especially if there is genetic susceptibility or it involves exposure to other risk factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06149-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7826145PMC
February 2021

Breast Cancer Risk Genes - Association Analysis in More than 113,000 Women.

Authors:
Leila Dorling Sara Carvalho Jamie Allen Anna González-Neira Craig Luccarini Cecilia Wahlström Karen A Pooley Michael T Parsons Cristina Fortuno Qin Wang Manjeet K Bolla Joe Dennis Renske Keeman M Rosario Alonso Nuria Álvarez Belen Herraez Victoria Fernandez Rocio Núñez-Torres Ana Osorio Jeanette Valcich Minerva Li Therese Törngren Patricia A Harrington Caroline Baynes Don M Conroy Brennan Decker Laura Fachal Nasim Mavaddat Thomas Ahearn Kristiina Aittomäki Natalia N Antonenkova Norbert Arnold Patrick Arveux Margreet G E M Ausems Päivi Auvinen Heiko Becher Matthias W Beckmann Sabine Behrens Marina Bermisheva Katarzyna Białkowska Carl Blomqvist Natalia V Bogdanova Nadja Bogdanova-Markov Stig E Bojesen Bernardo Bonanni Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale Hiltrud Brauch Michael Bremer Ignacio Briceno Thomas Brüning Barbara Burwinkel David A Cameron Nicola J Camp Archie Campbell Angel Carracedo Jose E Castelao Melissa H Cessna Stephen J Chanock Hans Christiansen J Margriet Collée Emilie Cordina-Duverger Sten Cornelissen Kamila Czene Thilo Dörk Arif B Ekici Christoph Engel Mikael Eriksson Peter A Fasching Jonine Figueroa Henrik Flyger Asta Försti Marike Gabrielson Manuela Gago-Dominguez Vassilios Georgoulias Fabian Gil Graham G Giles Gord Glendon Encarna B Gómez Garcia Grethe I Grenaker Alnæs Pascal Guénel Andreas Hadjisavvas Lothar Haeberle Eric Hahnen Per Hall Ute Hamann Elaine F Harkness Jaana M Hartikainen Mikael Hartman Wei He Bernadette A M Heemskerk-Gerritsen Peter Hillemanns Frans B L Hogervorst Antoinette Hollestelle Weang Kee Ho Maartje J Hooning Anthony Howell Keith Humphreys Faiza Idris Anna Jakubowska Audrey Jung Pooja Middha Kapoor Michael J Kerin Elza Khusnutdinova Sung-Won Kim Yon-Dschun Ko Veli-Matti Kosma Vessela N Kristensen Kyriacos Kyriacou Inge M M Lakeman Jong Won Lee Min Hyuk Lee Jingmei Li Annika Lindblom Wing-Yee Lo Maria A Loizidou Artitaya Lophatananon Jan Lubiński Robert J MacInnis Michael J Madsen Arto Mannermaa Mehdi Manoochehri Siranoush Manoukian Sara Margolin Maria Elena Martinez Tabea Maurer Dimitrios Mavroudis Catriona McLean Alfons Meindl Arjen R Mensenkamp Kyriaki Michailidou Nicola Miller Nur Aishah Mohd Taib Kenneth Muir Anna Marie Mulligan Heli Nevanlinna William G Newman Børge G Nordestgaard Pei-Sze Ng Jan C Oosterwijk Sue K Park Tjoung-Won Park-Simon Jose I A Perez Paolo Peterlongo David J Porteous Karolina Prajzendanc Darya Prokofyeva Paolo Radice Muhammad U Rashid Valerie Rhenius Matti A Rookus Thomas Rüdiger Emmanouil Saloustros Elinor J Sawyer Rita K Schmutzler Andreas Schneeweiss Peter Schürmann Mitul Shah Christof Sohn Melissa C Southey Harald Surowy Maija Suvanto Somchai Thanasitthichai Ian Tomlinson Diana Torres Thérèse Truong Maria Tzardi Yana Valova Christi J van Asperen Rob M Van Dam Ans M W van den Ouweland Lizet E van der Kolk Elke M van Veen Camilla Wendt Justin A Williams Xiaohong R Yang Sook-Yee Yoon M Pilar Zamora D Gareth Evans Miguel de la Hoya Jacques Simard Antonis C Antoniou Åke Borg Irene L Andrulis Jenny Chang-Claude Montserrat García-Closas Georgia Chenevix-Trench Roger L Milne Paul D P Pharoah Marjanka K Schmidt Amanda B Spurdle Maaike P G Vreeswijk Javier Benitez Alison M Dunning Anders Kvist Soo H Teo Peter Devilee Douglas F Easton

N Engl J Med 2021 02 20;384(5):428-439. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

The authors' affiliations are as follows: the Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Departments of Public Health and Primary Care (L.D., S. Carvalho, J.A., K.A.P., Q.W., M.K.B., J.D., B.D., N. Mavaddat, K. Michailidou, A.C.A., P.D.P.P., D.F.E.) and Oncology (C.L., P.A.H., C. Baynes, D.M.C., L.F., V.R., M. Shah, P.D.P.P., A.M.D., D.F.E.), University of Cambridge, Cambridge, the Centre for Genomic and Experimental Medicine, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine (A. Campbell, D.J.P.), and the Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology (D.J.P.), University of Edinburgh, the Cancer Research UK Edinburgh Centre (D.A.C., J.F.), and the Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences and Informatics, University of Edinburgh Medical School (A. Campbell, J.F.), Edinburgh, the Divisions of Informatics, Imaging, and Data Sciences (E.F.H.), Cancer Sciences (A. Howell), Population Health, Health Services Research, and Primary Care (A. Lophatananon, K. Muir), and Evolution and Genomic Sciences, School of Biological Sciences (W.G.N., E.M.V., D.G.E.), University of Manchester, the NIHR Manchester Biomedical Research Unit (E.F.H.) and the Nightingale Breast Screening Centre, Wythenshawe Hospital (E.F.H., H.I.), Academic Health Science Centre and North West Genomics Laboratory Hub, and the Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, St. Mary's Hospital, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust (W.G.N., E.M.V., D.G.E.), Manchester, the School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Comprehensive Cancer Centre, Guy's Campus, King's College London, London (E.J.S.), the Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (I.T.), and the Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics and Oxford NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford (I.T.) - all in the United Kingdom; the Human Genotyping-CEGEN Unit, Human Cancer Genetic Program (A.G.-N., M.R.A., N.Á., B.H., R.N.-T.), and the Human Genetics Group (V.F., A.O., J.B.), Spanish National Cancer Research Center, Centro de Investigación en Red de Enfermedades Raras (A.O., J.B.), Servicio de Oncología Médica, Hospital Universitario La Paz (M.P.Z.), and Molecular Oncology Laboratory, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico San Carlos (M. de la Hoya), Madrid, the Genomic Medicine Group, Galician Foundation of Genomic Medicine, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Santiago de Compostela, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (A. Carracedo, M.G.-D.), and Centro de Investigación en Red de Enfermedades Raras y Centro Nacional de Genotipado, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (A. Carracedo), Santiago de Compostela, the Oncology and Genetics Unit, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria Galicia Sur, Xerencia de Xestion Integrada de Vigo-Servizo Galeo de Saúde, Vigo (J.E.C.), and Servicio de Cirugía General y Especialidades, Hospital Monte Naranco, Oviedo (J.I.A.P.) - all in Spain; the Division of Oncology and Pathology, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund (C. Wahlström, J.V., M.L., T. Törngren, Å.B., A.K.), the Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro (C. Blomqvist), and the Departments of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (K.C., M.E., M.G., P. Hall, W.H., K.H.), Oncology, Södersjukhuset (P. Hall, S. Margolin), Molecular Medicine and Surgery (A. Lindblom), and Clinical Science and Education, Södersjukhuset (S. Margolin, C. Wendt), Karolinska Institutet, and the Department of Clinical Genetics, Karolinska University Hospital (A. Lindblom), Stockholm - all in Sweden; the Department of Genetics and Computational Biology, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD (M.T.P., C.F., G.C.-T., A.B.S.), the Cancer Epidemiology Division, Cancer Council Victoria (G.G.G., R.J.M., R.L.M.), the Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health (G.G.G., R.J.M., R.L.M.), and the Department of Clinical Pathology (M.C.S.), University of Melbourne, Anatomical Pathology, Alfred Hospital (C.M.), and the Cancer Epidemiology Division, Cancer Council Victoria (M.C.S.), Melbourne, VIC, and Precision Medicine, School of Clinical Sciences at Monash Health, Monash University, Clayton, VIC (G.G.G., M.C.S., R.L.M.) - all in Australia; the Division of Molecular Pathology (R.K., S. Cornelissen, M.K.S.), Family Cancer Clinic (F.B.L.H., L.E.K.), Department of Epidemiology (M.A.R.), and Division of Psychosocial Research and Epidemiology (M.K.S.), the Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam, Division Laboratories, Pharmacy and Biomedical Genetics, Department of Genetics, University Medical Center, Utrecht (M.G.E.M.A.), the Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Center (J.M.C., A.M.W.O.), and the Department of Medical Oncology, Family Cancer Clinic, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute (B.A.M.H.-G., A. Hollestelle, M.J.H.), Rotterdam, the Department of Clinical Genetics, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (E.B.G.G.), the Departments of Human Genetics (I.M.M.L., M.P.G.V., P.D.), Clinical Genetics (C.J.A.), and Pathology (P.D.), Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen (A.R.M.), and the Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen (J.C.O.) - all in the Netherlands; the Cancer Genetics and Comparative Genomics Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute (B.D.), and the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute (T.A., S.J.C., X.R.Y., M.G.-C.), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD; the Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School (B.D.), and the Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (R.M.V.D.), Boston; the Departments of Clinical Genetics (K.A.), Oncology (C. Blomqvist), and Obstetrics and Gynecology (H.N., M. Suvanto), Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, and the Unit of Clinical Oncology, Kuopio University Hospital (P. Auvinen), the Institute of Clinical Medicine, Oncology (P. Auvinen), the Translational Cancer Research Area (J.M.H., V.-M.K., A. Mannermaa), and the Institute of Clinical Medicine, Pathology, and Forensic Medicine (J.M.H., V.-M.K., A. Mannermaa), University of Eastern Finland, and the Biobank of Eastern Finland, Kuopio University Hospital (V.-M.K., A. Mannermaa), Kuopio - both in Finland; the N.N. Alexandrov Research Institute of Oncology and Medical Radiology, Minsk, Belarus (N.N.A., N.V.B.); the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics and Institute of Clinical Molecular Biology, University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Christian-Albrechts University Kiel, Kiel (N.A.), the Institute of Medical Biometry and Epidemiology (H. Becher) and Cancer Epidemiology Group (T.M., J.C.-C.), University Cancer Center Hamburg, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics (M.W.B., P.A.F., L.H.) and Institute of Human Genetics (A.B.E.), University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Comprehensive Cancer Center Erlangen-European Metropolitan Region of Nuremberg, Erlangen, the Division of Cancer Epidemiology (S.B., A. Jung, P.M.K., J.C.-C.), Molecular Epidemiology Group, C080 (B. Burwinkel, H.S.), Division of Pediatric Neurooncology (A.F.), and Molecular Genetics of Breast Cancer (U.H., M.M., M.U.R., D.T.), German Cancer Research Center, Molecular Biology of Breast Cancer, University Women's Clinic Heidelberg, University of Heidelberg (B. Burwinkel, A.S., H.S.), Hopp Children's Cancer Center (A.F.), Faculty of Medicine, University of Heidelberg (P.M.K.), and National Center for Tumor Diseases, University Hospital and German Cancer Research Center (A.S., C.S.), Heidelberg, the Department of Radiation Oncology (N.V.B., M. Bremer, H.C.) and the Gynecology Research Unit (N.V.B., T.D., P. Hillemanns, T.-W.P.-S., P.S.), Hannover Medical School, Hannover, the Institute of Human Genetics, University of Münster, Münster (N.B.-M.), Dr. Margarete Fischer-Bosch-Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Stuttgart (H. Brauch, W.-Y.L.), iFIT-Cluster of Excellence, University of Tübingen, and the German Cancer Consortium, German Cancer Research Center, Partner Site Tübingen (H. Brauch), and the University of Tübingen (W.-Y.L.), Tübingen, Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr University Bochum, Bochum (T.B.), Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics, and Epidemiology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig (C.E.), Center for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer (E.H., R.K.S.) and Center for Integrated Oncology (E.H., R.K.S.), Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, University of Cologne, Cologne, the Department of Internal Medicine, Evangelische Kliniken Bonn, Johanniter Krankenhaus, Bonn (Y.-D.K.), the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Munich, Campus Großhadern, Munich (A. Meindl), and the Institute of Pathology, Städtisches Klinikum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (T.R.) - all in Germany; the Gynecological Cancer Registry, Centre Georges-François Leclerc, Dijon (P. Arveux), and the Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, Team Exposome and Heredity, INSERM, University Paris-Saclay, Villejuif (E.C.-D., P.G., T. Truong) - both in France; the Institute of Biochemistry and Genetics, Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (M. Bermisheva, E.K.), the Department of Genetics and Fundamental Medicine, Bashkir State University (E.K., D.P., Y.V.), and the Ufa Research Institute of Occupational Health and Human Ecology (Y.V.), Ufa, Russia; the Department of Genetics and Pathology (K.B., A. Jakubowska, J. Lubiński, K.P.) and the Independent Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Genetic Diagnostics (A. Jakubowska), Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin, Poland; the Copenhagen General Population Study, the Department of Clinical Biochemistry (S.E.B., B.G.N.), and the Department of Breast Surgery (H.F.), Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, and the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (S.E.B., B.G.N.) - both in Denmark; the Division of Cancer Prevention and Genetics, European Institute of Oncology Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS) (B. Bonanni), the Unit of Medical Genetics, Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori di Milano (S. Manoukian), the Genome Diagnostics Program, FIRC Institute of Molecular Oncology (P.P.), and the Unit of Molecular Bases of Genetic Risk and Genetic Testing, Department of Research, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori (P.R.), Milan; the Department of Cancer Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital-Radiumhospitalet (A.-L.B.-D., G.I.G.A., V.N.K.), and the Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo (A.-L.B.-D., V.N.K.), Oslo; Medical Faculty, Universidad de La Sabana (I.B.), and the Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Department (F.G.) and Institute of Human Genetics (D.T.), Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogota, Colombia; the Department of Internal Medicine and Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah (N.J.C., M.J.M., J.A.W.), and the Intermountain Healthcare Biorepository and Department of Pathology, Intermountain Healthcare (M.H.C.), Salt Lake City; the David Geffen School of Medicine, Department of Medicine Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles (P.A.F.), and Moores Cancer Center (M.G.-D., M.E.M.) and the Department of Family Medicine and Public Health (M.E.M.), University of California San Diego, La Jolla; the Departments of Medical Oncology (V.G., D.M.) and Pathology (M.T.), University Hospital of Heraklion, Heraklion, and the Department of Oncology, University Hospital of Larissa, Larissa (E.S.) - both in Greece; the Fred A. Litwin Center for Cancer Genetics, Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute of Mount Sinai Hospital (G.G., I.L.A.), the Departments of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology (A.M.M.) and Molecular Genetics (I.L.A.), University of Toronto, and the Laboratory Medicine Program, University Health Network (A.M.M.), Toronto, and the Genomics Center, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec-Université Laval Research Center, Québec City, QC (J.S.) - both in Canada; the Department of Electron Microscopy and Molecular Pathology (A. Hadjisavvas, K.K., M.A.L.), the Cyprus School of Molecular Medicine (A. Hadjisavvas, K.K., M.A.L., K. Michailidou), and the Biostatistics Unit (K. Michailidou), Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Nicosia, Cyprus; the Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health (M. Hartman, R.M.V.D.) and the Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine (R.M.V.D.), National University of Singapore, the Department of Surgery, National University Health System (M. Hartman, J. Li), and the Human Genetics Division, Genome Institute of Singapore (J. Li), Singapore; the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia (W.K.H.), and the Breast Cancer Research Programme, Cancer Research Malaysia (W.K.H., P.S.N., S.-Y.Y., S.H.T.), Selangor, and the Breast Cancer Research Unit, Cancer Research Institute (N.A.M.T.), and the Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine (N.A.M.T., P.S.N., S.H.T.), University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur - both in Malaysia; Surgery, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (M.J.K., N. Miller); the Department of Surgery, Daerim Saint Mary's Hospital (S.-W.K.), the Department of Surgery, Ulsan University College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center (J.W.L.), the Department of Surgery, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine and Soonchunhyang University Hospital (M.H.L.), Integrated Major in Innovative Medical Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine (S.K.P.), and the Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University (S.K.P.), Seoul, South Korea; the Department of Basic Sciences, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Center, Lahore, Pakistan (M.U.R.); and the National Cancer Institute, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand (S.T.).

Background: Genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility is widely used, but for many genes, evidence of an association with breast cancer is weak, underlying risk estimates are imprecise, and reliable subtype-specific risk estimates are lacking.

Methods: We used a panel of 34 putative susceptibility genes to perform sequencing on samples from 60,466 women with breast cancer and 53,461 controls. In separate analyses for protein-truncating variants and rare missense variants in these genes, we estimated odds ratios for breast cancer overall and tumor subtypes. We evaluated missense-variant associations according to domain and classification of pathogenicity.

Results: Protein-truncating variants in 5 genes (, , , , and ) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.0001. Protein-truncating variants in 4 other genes (, , , and ) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.05 and a Bayesian false-discovery probability of less than 0.05. For protein-truncating variants in 19 of the remaining 25 genes, the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the odds ratio for breast cancer overall was less than 2.0. For protein-truncating variants in and , odds ratios were higher for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease than for ER-negative disease; for protein-truncating variants in , , , , , and , odds ratios were higher for ER-negative disease than for ER-positive disease. Rare missense variants (in aggregate) in , , and were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.001. For , , and , missense variants (in aggregate) that would be classified as pathogenic according to standard criteria were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall, with the risk being similar to that of protein-truncating variants.

Conclusions: The results of this study define the genes that are most clinically useful for inclusion on panels for the prediction of breast cancer risk, as well as provide estimates of the risks associated with protein-truncating variants, to guide genetic counseling. (Funded by European Union Horizon 2020 programs and others.).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1913948DOI Listing
February 2021

Outcomes of COVID-19 Positive Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients; a multisource Electronic Healthcare Records Study from England.

J Intern Med 2021 Jan 19. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Keele Cardiovascular Research Group, Institute for Prognosis Research, School of Primary Care, Keele University, Stoke On Trent, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Background: Patients with underlying cardiovascular disease and Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality.

Objectives: This study was designed to characterise the presenting profile and outcomes of patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and COVID-19 infection.

Methods: This observational cohort study was conducted using multisource data from all acute NHS hospitals in England. All consecutive patients hospitalized with diagnosis of ACS with or without COVID-19 infection between 1 March- 31 May 2020 were included. The primary outcome was in-hospital and 30-day mortality.

Results: A total of 12,958 patients were hospitalized with ACS during the study period, of which 517 (4.0%) were COVID-19 positive and were more likely to present with non-ST elevation acute myocardial infarction. COVID-19 ACS group were generally older, Black Asian and Minority ethnicity, more comorbid and had unfavourable presenting clinical characteristics such as elevated cardiac troponin, pulmonary oedema, cardiogenic shock and poor left ventricular systolic function compared with non-COVID-19 ACS group. They were less likely to receive an invasive coronary angiography (67.7% vs 81.0%), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (30.2% vs 53.9%) and dual antiplatelet medication (76.3% vs 88.0%). After adjusting for all the baseline differences, patients with COVID-19 ACS had higher in-hospital (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.27 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.41-4.42) and 30-day mortality (aOR 6.53 95%CI 5.1-8.36) compared to the non COVID-19 ACS group.

Conclusion: COVID-19 infection was present in 4% of patients hospitalized with an ACS in England and is associated with lower rates of guideline recommended treatment and significant mortality hazard.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joim.13246DOI Listing
January 2021

Molecular identification of genus from Punjab, Pakistan.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Aug 26;5(3):3218-3220. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Wildlife and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.

The Indus valley toad and common Asian toad are widely distributed toads in Pakistan. There is doubt in the taxonomic position of species within the genus in Pakistan as most of the species identified on morphology. Previously, identified on morphology but during the present study, it is confirmed as based COI sequences (MK941836). The interspecific divergence between and was 16%. The intraspecific divergence of (MK947909.1) was ranging from 0% to 1% while the intraspecific divergence of (MK941836) was high ranging from 10% to 11%. Overall, genetic variation between the species of genus based on p-distance was 14%. In our recommendation, a large-scale molecular identification of amphibians should take into consideration for exact species identification to report any new species from Pakistan.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1810143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7782984PMC
August 2020

Forkhead box P3 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase co-expression in Pakistani triple negative breast cancer patients.

World J Clin Oncol 2020 Dec;11(12):1018-1028

Department of Basic Science Research, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, Punjab 54000, Pakistan.

Background: Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) is a specific marker for immunosuppressive regulatory T (T-reg) cells. T-regs and an immunosuppressive enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), are associated with advanced disease in cancer.

Aim: To evaluate the co-expression of FOXP3 and IDO in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) with respect to hormone-positive breast cancer patients from Pakistan.

Methods: Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyze the expression of FOXP3, IDO, estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor on tissues of breast cancer patients ( = 100): Hormone-positive breast cancer ( = 51) and TNBC ( = 49). A total of 100 patients were characterized as FOXP3 negative positive and further categorized based on low, medium, and high IDO expression score. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used.

Results: Out of 100 breast tumors, 25% expressed FOXP3 positive T-regs. A significant co-expression of FOXP3 and IDO was observed among patients with TNBC ( = 0.01) compared to those with hormone-positive breast cancer. Two variables were identified as significant independent risk factors for FOXP3 positive: IDO expression high (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 5.90; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22-28.64; = 0.03) and TNBC (AOR 2.80; 95%CI: 0.96-7.95; = 0.05).

Conclusion: Our data showed that FOXP3 positive cells might be associated with high expression of IDO in TNBC patients. FOXP3 and IDO co-expression may also suggest its involvement in disease, and evaluation of FOXP3 and IDO expression in TNBC patients may offer a new therapeutic option.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5306/wjco.v11.i12.1018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7769718PMC
December 2020

Enzyme Inhibitory Kinetics and Molecular Docking Studies of Halo-Substituted Mixed Ester/Amide-Based Derivatives as Jack Bean Urease Inhibitors.

Biomed Res Int 2020 24;2020:8867407. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Pharmacy, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad Campus, Pakistan.

A series of halo-substituted mixed ester/amide-based analogues have been prepared as jack bean urease inhibitor, which showed good to excellent inhibition of enzyme activity. The role of halo-substituted benzoyl moieties and alkyl substituted anilines in urease inhibitory kinetics was also investigated. The alkyl-substituted anilines reacted with chloroacetyl chloride to afford intermediates , which were then reacted with different halo-substituted benzoic acids to prepare the title compounds . The chemical structures of final products were ascertained by FTIR, H NMR, C NMR, and mass spectra. The compound showed remarkable activity with IC1.6 ± 0.2 nM, better than the standard thiourea having IC472.1 ± 135.1 nM. The 2-chloro-substituted phenyl ring on one side of compound and 4-isopropyl-substituted benzene on the other side play an essential role in inhibition of urease activity. Lineweaver-Burk plots (kinetics study) indicated about derivative as a mixed type of inhibitor. The virtual screening performed against urease enzyme (PDBID 4H9M) showed that compounds and have binding energies of -7.8 and -7.9 Kcal/mol, respectively. Based upon our results, it was found that derivative is a highly potent urease inhibitor, better than the standard thiourea.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8867407DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775144PMC
December 2020

Clinical Characteristics, Management Strategies and Outcomes of Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients With Prior Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

Mayo Clin Proc 2021 01;96(1):120-131

Keele Cardiovascular Research Group, Centre for Prognosis Research, Keele University, Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom; Department of Medicine (Cardiology), Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the management strategies, temporal trends, and clinical outcomes of patients with a history of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and presenting with acute myocardial infarction (MI).

Patients And Methods: We undertook a retrospective cohort study using the National Inpatient Sample database from the United States (January 2004-September 2015), identified all inpatient MI admissions (7,250,768 records) and stratified according to history of CABG (group 1, CABG-naive [94%]; group 2, prior CABG [6%]).

Results: Patients in group 2 were older, less likely to be female, had more comorbidities, and were more likely to present with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction compared with group 1. More patients underwent coronary angiography (68% vs 48%) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (44% vs 26%) in group 1 compared with group 2. Following multivariable logistic regression analyses, the adjusted odd ratio (OR) of in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (OR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.95 to 1.005; P=.11), all-cause mortality (OR, 1; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.04; P=.6) and major bleeding (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.03; P=.54) were similar to group 1. Lower adjusted odds of in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.72; P<.001), all-cause mortality (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.53; P<.001), and acute ischemic stroke (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.86; P<.001) were observed in group 2 patients who underwent PCI compared with those managed medically without any increased risk of major bleeding (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.23; P=.26).

Conclusions: In this national cohort, MI patients with prior-CABG had a higher risk profile, but similar in-hospital adverse outcomes compared with CABG-naive patients. Prior-CABG patients who received PCI had better in-hospital clinical outcomes compared to those who received medical management.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.05.047DOI Listing
January 2021

Correction to: Prevalence of RECQL germline variants in Pakistani early-onset and familial breast cancer patients.

Hered Cancer Clin Pract 2021 Jan 7;19(1). Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Molecular Genetics of Breast Cancer, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13053-020-00163-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7792338PMC
January 2021

Phylogenetic analysis suggests single and multiple origins of dihydrofolate reductase mutations in Plasmodium vivax.

Acta Trop 2021 Mar 3;215:105821. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

University of Edinburgh, UK; University of Surrey, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Pyrimethamine was first introduced for the treatment of malaria in Asia and Africa during the early 1980s, replacing chloroquine, and has become the first line of drugs in many countries. In recent years, development of pyrimethamine resistance in Plasmodium vivax has become a barrier to effective malaria control strategies. Here, we describe the use of meta-barcoded deep amplicon sequencing technology to assess the evolutionary origin of pyrimethamine resistance by analysing the flanking region of dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) locus. The genetic modelling suggests that 58R and 173L single mutants and 58R/117N double mutants are present on a single lineage; suggesting a single origin of these mutations. The triple mutants (57L/58R/117N, 58R/61M/117N and 58R/117N/173L) share the lineage of 58R/117N, suggesting a common origin. In contrast, the 117N mutant is present on two separate lineages suggesting that there are multiple origins of this mutation. We characterised the allele frequency of the P. vivax dhfr locus. Our results support the view that the single mutation of 117N and double mutations of 58R/117N arise commonly, whereas the single mutation of 173L and triple mutations of 57L/58R/117N, 58R/61M/117N and 58R/117N/173L are less common. Our work will help to inform mitigation strategies for pyrimethamine resistance in P. vivax.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2020.105821DOI Listing
March 2021

Sex differences in distribution, management and outcomes of combined ischemic-bleeding risk following acute coronary syndrome.

Int J Cardiol 2020 Dec 31. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Keele Cardiovascular Research Group, Institutes of Applied Clinical Science and Primary Care and Health Sciences, Keele University, Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom; Department of Cardiology, Royal Stoke Hospital, University Hospital North Midlands, Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom.

Background: Risk factors for further bleeding and ischemic events after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) often overlap. Little is known about sex-based differences in the management and outcomes of ACS patients according to their combined bleeding-ischemic risk.

Methods: All ACS hospitalizations in the United Kingdom (2010-2017) were retrospectively analyzed, stratified by sex and bleeding-ischemic risk combination (using CRUSADE and GRACE scores). Multivariable logistic regression was performed to examine association between risk-groups and 1) receipt of guideline-recommended management and 2) in-hospital outcomes.

Results: Of 584,360 patients, a third of males (32.3%) and females (32.6%) were in the dual high-risk group (High CRUSADE- High GRACE). In comparison to the dual low-risk group (Low CRUSADE-Low GRACE), the dual high-risk patients of both sexes were 59-83% less likely to receive inpatient revascularisation (PCI or CABG) and 50% less likely to receive dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) on discharge, with a significant increase in odds of MACE (~8 to 9-fold), all-cause and cardiac mortality (25 to 35-fold), and bleeding (78-91%). The greatest difference in management and clinical outcomes between sexes was found in the dual-high risk group where females were less likely to receive guideline-recommended therapy (revascularisation and DAPT), compared to males, and were more likely to experience MACE, all-cause and cardiac mortality.

Conclusion: ACS patients with dual high-risk for bleeding and recurrent ischemia, especially females, are less likely to receive guideline-recommended therapy and experience significantly worse outcomes. Novel strategies are needed to effectively manage this highly prevalent, complex patient group and address the under-treatment of females.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.12.063DOI Listing
December 2020

Outcomes Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Renal Transplant Recipients: A Binational Collaborative Analysis.

Mayo Clin Proc 2021 02 25;96(2):363-376. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Keele Cardiovascular Research Group, Centre for Prognosis Research, Institute of Primary Care and Health Sciences, Keele University, Keele, UK, and Academic Department of Cardiology, Royal Stoke Hospital, University Hospitals of North Midlands, Stoke-on-Trent, UK; Department of Cardiology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate the clinical and procedural characteristics in patients with a history of renal transplant (RT) and compare the outcomes with patients without RT in 2 national cohorts of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Patients And Methods: Data from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) and British Cardiovascular Intervention Society (BCIS) were used to compare the clinical and procedural characteristics and outcomes of patients undergoing PCI who had RT with those who did not have RT. The primary outcome of interest was in-hospital mortality.

Results: Of the PCI procedures performed in 2004-2014 (NIS) and 2007-2014 (BCIS), 12,529 of 6,601,526 (0.2%) and 1521 of 512,356 (0.3%), respectively, were undertaken in patients with a history of RT. Patients with RT were younger and had a higher prevalence of congestive cardiac failure, hypertension, and diabetes but similar use of drug-eluting stents, intracoronary imaging, and pressure wire studies compared with patients who did not have RT. In the adjusted analysis, patients with RT had increased odds of in-hospital mortality (NIS: odds ratio [OR], 1.90; 95% CI, 1.41-2.57; BCIS: OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.05-2.46) compared with patients who did not have RT but no difference in vascular or bleeding events. Meta-analysis of the 2 data sets suggested an increase in in-hospital mortality (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.40-2.29) but no difference in vascular (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.77-2.00) or bleeding (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.86-1.68) events.

Conclusion: This large collaborative analysis of 2 national databases revealed that patients with RT undergoing PCI are younger, have more comorbidities, and have increased mortality risk compared with the general population undergoing PCI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2020.04.045DOI Listing
February 2021

In-Hospital and 30-Day Mortality After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in England in the Pre-COVID and COVID Eras.

J Invasive Cardiol 2021 Mar 22;33(3):E206-E219. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Keele Cardiovascular Research Group, Centre for Prognosis Research, Institute for Primary Care and Health Sciences, Keele University, UK.

Background: Public reporting of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) outcomes is a performance metric and a requirement in many healthcare systems. There are inconsistent data on the causes of death after PCI, and the proportion of these deaths that are attributable to cardiac causes.

Methods: All patients undergoing PCI in England between January 1, 2017 and May 10, 2020 (n = 273,141) were retrospectively analyzed according to their outcome from the date of PCI: no death, in-hospital death, postdischarge death, and total 30-day death. The present study examined short-term primary causes of death after PCI in a national cohort before and during COVID-19.

Results: The overall rates of in-hospital and 30-day death were 1.9% and 2.8%, respectively. The rate of 30-day death declined between 2017 (2.9%) and February 2020 (2.5%), mainly due to lower in-hospital death (2.1% vs 1.5%), before rising again from March 1, 2020 (3.2%) due to higher rates of postdischarge mortality. Only 59.6% of 30-day deaths were due to cardiac causes, with the most common causes being acute coronary syndrome, cardiogenic shock, and heart failure, and this persisted throughout the study period. In the 30-day death group, 10.4% after March 1, 2020 were due to confirmed COVID-19.

Conclusions: In this nationwide study, we show that 40% of 30-day deaths are due to non-cardiac causes. Non-cardiac deaths have increased even more from the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, with 1 in 10 deaths from March 2020 being COVID-19 related. These findings raise a question of whether public reporting of PCI outcomes should be cause specific.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
March 2021

Prevalence of RECQL germline variants in Pakistani early-onset and familial breast cancer patients.

Hered Cancer Clin Pract 2020 Dec 20;18(1):25. Epub 2020 Dec 20.

Molecular Genetics of Breast Cancer, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 580, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: The RecQ Like Helicase (RECQL) gene has previously been shown to predispose to breast cancer mainly in European populations, in particular to estrogen receptor (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR) positive tumor. Here, we investigated the contribution of pathogenic RECQL germline variants to hereditary breast cancer in early-onset and familial breast cancer patients from Pakistan.

Methods: Comprehensive RECQL variant analysis was performed in 302 BRCA1 and BRCA2 negative patients with ER and/or PR positive breast tumors using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography followed by DNA sequencing. Novel variants were classified using Sherloc guidelines.

Results: One novel pathogenic protein-truncating variant (p.W75*) was identified in a 37-year-old familial breast cancer patient. The pathogenic variant frequencies were 0.3% (1/302) in early-onset and familial breast cancer patients and 0.8% (1/133) in familial patients. Further, three novel variants of unknown significance, p.I141F, p.S182S, and p.C475C, were identified in familial breast cancer patients at the age of 47, 68, and 47 respectively. All variants were absent in 250 controls.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that the RECQL gene plays a negligible role in breast cancer predisposition in Pakistan.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13053-020-00159-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7749988PMC
December 2020

Comparative growth potential of thermophilic amylolytic sp. on unconventional media food wastes and its industrial application.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Dec 29;27(12):3499-3504. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Zoology, Government College University Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Amylases take part with vital role in industries such as food, fermentation; starch processing, textile and paper etc. Increasing amylases demand, high nutrient expenditure and environmental pollution have forced to utilize agro-industrial residues as a low-cost feedstock for enzyme production. In present study, three soil samples were collected from agro-industrial waste dumping areas in District Faisalabad. Ten thermophilic bacterial isolates were separated at 55 °C on the basis of colonial morphology, three isolates (F6, F11, F17) showed prominent zone of clearance applying iodine test on starch agar plates. Bacterial isolate F-11 showed highest amylase activity with DNS method and molecularly identified through 16S RNA sequencing as sp. with Accession number MH917294. Four unconventional food wastes (banana, lemon, mango and potato) pretreated with 0.8% sulphuric acid concentrations taking 1000 g/L weight released the highest sugars contents and phenolic components. Maximum amylase activity i.e. 29.23 mg/ml was achieved in mango waste at, 40 °C, with pH 6.0 and 0.17% nitrogenous source adding 8% inoculum size (2 days old) using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for optimization. Crude amylase confirmed its efficiency in starch hydrolysis that suggested it as potential candidate for application in starch industries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.09.045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7715428PMC
December 2020

Immunoinformatics Driven Prediction of Multiepitopic Vaccine Against and Coinfection and Its Validation via In Silico Expression.

Int J Pept Res Ther 2020 Nov 30:1-13. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Atta ur Rahman School of Applied Biosciences (ASAB), National University of Sciences & Technology (NUST), Islamabad, Pakistan.

e and coinfection is one of the most lethal combinations that has been becoming frequent yet, not diagnosed and reported properly. Due to the simultaneous occurrence of both infections, diagnosis is delayed leading to inadequate treatments and mortality. With the rise of MDR and , a prophylactic and an immunotherapeutic vaccine has to be entailed for preemptive and adroit therapeutic approach. In this study, we aim to implement reverse vaccinology approach that encompasses a comprehensive evaluation of vital aspects of the pathogens to explore immunogenic epitopes against Omp A of Klebsiella and Rv1698, Rv1973 of Mtb that may help in vaccine development. The designed multi-epitopic vaccine was assessed for antigenicity, allergenicity and various physiochemical parameters. Molecular docking and simulations were executed to assess the immunogenicity and complex stability of the vaccine. The final multi-epitopic vaccine is validated to be highly immunogenic and can serve as a valuable proactive remedy for subject pathogens.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10989-020-10144-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7703501PMC
November 2020

Distinct nucleotide patterns among three subgenomes of bread wheat and their potential origins during domestication after allopolyploidization.

BMC Biol 2020 12 2;18(1):188. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Agronomy, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, 271018, Shandong, People's Republic of China.

Background: The speciation and fast global domestication of bread wheat have made a great impact on three subgenomes of bread wheat. DNA base composition is an essential genome feature, which follows the individual-strand base equality rule and [AT]-increase pattern at the genome, chromosome, and polymorphic site levels among thousands of species. Systematic analyses on base compositions of bread wheat and its wild progenitors could facilitate further understanding of the evolutionary pattern of genome/subgenome-wide base composition of allopolyploid species and its potential causes.

Results: Genome/subgenome-wide base-composition patterns were investigated by using the data of polymorphic site in 93 accessions from worldwide populations of bread wheat, its diploid and tetraploid progenitors, and their corresponding reference genome sequences. Individual-strand base equality rule and [AT]-increase pattern remain in recently formed hexaploid species bread wheat at the genome, subgenome, chromosome, and polymorphic site levels. However, D subgenome showed the fastest [AT]-increase across polymorphic site from Aegilops tauschii to bread wheat than that on A and B subgenomes from wild emmer to bread wheat. The fastest [AT]-increase could be detected almost all chromosome windows on D subgenome, suggesting different mechanisms between D and other two subgenomes. Interestingly, the [AT]-increase is mainly contributed by intergenic regions at non-selective sweeps, especially the fastest [AT]-increase of D subgenome. Further transition frequency and sequence context analysis indicated that three subgenomes shared same mutation type, but D subgenome owns the highest mutation rate on high-frequency mutation type. The highest mutation rate on D subgenome was further confirmed by using a bread-wheat-private SNP set. The exploration of loci/genes related to the [AT] value of D subgenome suggests the fastest [AT]-increase of D subgenome could be involved in DNA repair systems distributed on three subgenomes of bread wheat.

Conclusions: The highest mutation rate is detected on D subgenome of bread wheat during domestication after allopolyploidization, leading to the fastest [AT]-increase pattern of D subgenome. The phenomenon may come from the joint action of multiple repair systems inherited from its wild progenitors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-020-00917-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7713161PMC
December 2020

Littré's Hernia: A Rare Intraoperative Finding.

Cureus 2020 Oct 20;12(10):e11065. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

General Surgery, Nishtar Medical University and Hospital, Multan, PAK.

Littré's hernia (LH) is a rare clinical entity defined by the presence of Meckel's diverticulum (MD) within a hernial sac. Although MD is the most common congenital abnormality of the intestinal tract, most of its cases remain asymptomatic. It may, however, manifest itself in the form of multiple complications. One of its rare complications is LH, which is reported occurring in a mere 1% of all MD cases. The anamneses of LH are like any other hernia containing the gut, making its preoperative diagnosis unlikely. We present herein a case of a 16-year-old boy with an incarcerated LH at the inguinal region, which was successfully treated by wedge resection of the diverticulum followed by hernia repair.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.11065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7676821PMC
October 2020

Morpho-chemical characterization and source apportionment of potentially toxic metal(oid)s from school dust of second largest populous city of Pakistan.

Environ Res 2020 Nov 19:110427. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Advanced Laboratory for Functional Agriculture, Suzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Science and Technology of China, Suzhou, 215123, Jiangsu, China. Electronic address:

Interior settled dust is one of the greatest threats of potentially toxic metal(oid)s (PTMs) exposure to the children, especially in the school environment. Therefore, it is more worthy of having in-depth knowledge of compositional characteristics of school dust. Forty schools were selected of Lahore city for dust sampling. The school dust was analyzed to determine the PTMs (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ge, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, Sr, V, and Zn) concentrations using ICP-MS. The morphological characteristics, PTMs speciation, and mineralogy of school dust were examined using SEM with EDS, XPS, and XRD, respectively. Moreover, the geo-accumulation index (I), potential ecological risk index (PERI), and multivariate statistical analysis were employed to assess the pollution levels, ecological risk, and source identification of PTMs, respectively. The I indicated a heavily-extreme pollution level of Cd (I = 4.92), moderate-heavy pollution of Zn (I = 3.22), and Pb (I = 2.78), and slight-moderate pollution of Cr (I = 1.62), and Cu (I = 1.53). The ecological risk has been found extremely high for Cd and moderately high for Pb and As, while potential ecological risk found extremely high posed by cumulatively all selected PTMs. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that sources of PTMs comprise of natural processes as well as several anthropogenic processes like vehicular emissions, agricultural and industrial activities. The SEM, XRD, and XPS analyses demonstrated the presence of airborne particles and PTMs containing minerals with several toxic chemical species in school dust. This study can help to develop strategies to reduce school indoor pollution and hence to establish an eco-friendly learning environment for children.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.110427DOI Listing
November 2020

A Case of Premature Triple Vessel Coronary Artery Disease and Valvular Degeneration: A Rare Presentation of Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

Cureus 2020 Oct 19;12(10):e11037. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Medicine, Qamar Hospital Bagh AJK, Bagh AJK, PAK.

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is one of the inherited causes of coronary artery disease (CAD) and causes calcific valvular degeneration in rare cases. A 13-year-old boy with multiple xanthomas presented with severe chest pain, shortness of breath, and sweating. He was diagnosed with premature CAD leading to non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, secondary to early-onset FH [severely raised low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides (TG) on lipid profile]. CT angiogram showed triple vessel disease, and echocardiogram revealed tight aortic stenosis. Percutaneous coronary angioplasty was done, and valvuloplasty was planned on the follow-up assessment. Early diagnosis and prompt management could have prevented these complications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.11037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7673273PMC
October 2020

Evaluation of Pyocyanin induced systemic pathogenicity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2020 May;33(3):915-922

Atta ur Rahman School of Applied Biosciences, National University of Sciences and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is one of the most clinically significant nosocomial infectious agents. Clinical significance of this bacterium is intensified due to the phenomenon of its natural tendency for acquiring drug resistance mechanisms. PA produces pyocyanin (PCN), an important redox-active virulence factor. PCN has been detected in higher quantities in sputum samples of PA infected Cystic Fibrosis patients. PCN producing PA strains were isolated and characterized. Genomic 16s rRNA gene segment was amplified and sequenced (GenBank accession # jx280426). PCN was extracted and purified. In silico analysis yielded permeability and cytotoxic potential of PCN in modeled cell lines. PCN has high intestinal absorption, plasma protein binding potential, and permeability across biological membranes. Oral toxicity study in in silico rodent model classified PCN in class IV 'harmful if swallowed' (ld50 0.3-2g/kg). Cytotoxicity was assessed by oxidative stress levels in different organs in balb/c mice induced by intra peritoneal PCN injection. Significant alterations in oxidative stress levels in different organs of balb/c mice were observed. Increased levels of oxidative stress were observed in lungs, and heart, lower in liver and spleen while muscle tissues showed no significant difference in comparison to control.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
May 2020

Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immune Response Validation in Calves after a Live Attenuated Vaccine of .

Pathogens 2020 Nov 11;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Parasitology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 54000, Pakistan.

The current vaccines to control bovine () infection are not fully protective and vaccination failures incur heavy losses to the cattle industry around the world. Using modified micro-aerophilous stationary phase, we developed a culture-derived attenuated live vaccine against and tested a single subcutaneous inoculation of 2 × 10 infected erythrocytes in calves. The protection was measured after a lethal intravenous challenge with 5 × 10 virulent calf-derived . Our results demonstrated that a single shot of attenuated vaccine was capable of inducing robust humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in calves. We found a significant increase in the IgG antibody titers post-challenge and a strong proliferation of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells contributing towards the protection. Our vaccine provided complete protection and parasitic clearance, which was followed for more than 100 days post-challenge. This immunity against babesiosis was directly linked to strong humoral responses; however, the parasitic clearance was attributed to significant T cells effector responses in vaccinated calves as compared to the infected control calves. We anticipate that these results will be helpful in the development of more efficient culture-derived vaccines against infections, thus reducing significant global economic losses to farmers and the cattle industry.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9110936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7698288PMC
November 2020

Detection of Human Adenovirus, Rotavirus, and Enterovirus in Tap Water and Their Association with the Overall Quality of Water in Karachi, Pakistan.

Food Environ Virol 2021 Mar 12;13(1):44-52. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR) Laboratories Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

Drinking water supplies in the developing world often serve as a biosphere for various organisms. Viral gastroenteritis is a neglected area of research in Pakistan, there are no data for the prevalence of enteric viruses in drinking water of the largest city of Karachi. The present study aimed to provide a survey of the existence of enteric viruses: human adenovirus (HAdV), human enteroviruses (hEV), and genotype A rotavirus (GARV) in tap water. Using a simple PCR approach, we detected 20%, 43%, and 23% of HAdV, hEV, and GARV in tap water samples, respectively. We have also shown an overall quality deficit of tap water at the pumping station and consumer tap. We have found no sample free from bacterial contaminations. The ranges for a total number of the heterotrophic plate count and coliform were found 8.7 × 10-4.5 × 10 CFU/mL and 210 to uncountable coliforms/100 mL, respectively. Moreover, we assessed the efficiency of small-scale water treatment methods for the removal of viruses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-020-09448-8DOI Listing
March 2021

Arsenic and lead in the indoor residential settings of different socio-economic status; assessment of human health risk via dust exposure.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Nov 11. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Family and Community Medicine Department, College of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

In the present study, occurrence of arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) is reported in rural and urban household dust (floor and AC filter dust) of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Several studies have found concerning concentrations of these toxic metals in indoor dust from different countries, but data from this region is missing. The association between studied toxic metals and different socioeconomic parameters was investigated. Furthermore, health risk associated with these toxic metals via dust exposure was evaluated for the Saudi population. Mean concentration of Pb was several times higher than As in both types of dust samples. AC filter dust was more contaminated with these metals than floor dust. Levels of Pb were up to 775 ppm in AC filter dust from urban areas, while 167 ppm in rural AC filter dust. Different socioeconomic parameters did not influence much on the presence of studied metals in both AC and floor dust. To estimate health risk from contaminated dust hazardous index (HI), hazardous quotient (HQ), and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) via dust ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact was calculate using USEPA equations. The ILCR range for both toxic metals was within the tolerable range of reference values of USEPA (1 × 10 to 5 × 10). Nonetheless, HI was close to 1 for Pb via dust exposure for young urban children, which signifies the risk of non-carcinogenic health problems in studied area. Graphical abstract.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11546-wDOI Listing
November 2020

Biodegradable Polymer Coated Granular Urea Slows Down N Release Kinetics and Improves Spinach Productivity.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Nov 7;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Centre of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.

Low nitrogen (N) utilization efficiency due to environmental N losses from fertilizers results in high-cost on-farm production. Urea coating with biodegradable polymers can prevent these losses by controlling the N release of fertilizers. We calculated N release kinetics of coated granular with various biodegradable polymeric materials and its impact on spinach yield and N uptake. Different formulations were used, (i) G-1: 10% starch + 5% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) + 5% molasses; (ii) G-2: 10% starch + 5% PVA + 5% paraffin wax (PW); (iii) G-3: 5% gelatin + 10% gum arabic + 5% PW; (iv) G-4: 5% molasses + 5% gelatin + 10% gum arabic, to coat urea using a fluidized bed coater. The morphological and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicated that a uniform coating layer with no new phase formation occurred. In the G-2 treatment, maximum crushing strength (72.9 N) was achieved with a slowed-down N release rate and increased efficiency of 31%. This resulted in increased spinach dry foliage yield (47%), N uptake (60%) and apparent N recovery (ANR: 130%) from G-2 compared to uncoated urea (G-0). Therefore, coating granular urea with biodegradable polymers is a good choice to slower down the N release rate and enhances the crop yield and N utilization efficiency from urea.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12112623DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7695163PMC
November 2020

Genome-wide investigation and expression analysis of APETALA-2 transcription factor subfamily reveals its evolution, expansion and regulatory role in abiotic stress responses in Indica Rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica).

Genomics 2021 Jan 4;113(1 Pt 2):1029-1043. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan; Center for Advanced Studies in Agriculture and Food Security (CAS-AFS), University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad-38040 Pakistan. Electronic address:

Rice is an important cereal crop that serves as staple food for more than half of the world population. Abiotic stresses resulting from changing climatic conditions are continuously threating its yield and production. Genes in APETALA-2 (AP2) family encode transcriptional regulators implicated during regulation of developmental processes and abiotic stress responses but their identification and characterization in indica rice was still missing. In this context, twenty-six genes distributed among eleven chromosomes in Indica rice encoding AP2 transcription-factor subfamily were identified and their diverse haplotypes were studied. Phylogenetic analysis of OsAP2 TF family-members grouped them into three clades indicating conservation of clades among cereals. Segmental duplications were observed to be principal route of evolution, supporting the higher positive selection-pressure, which were estimated to be originated about 10.57 to 56.72 million years ago (MYA). Conserved domain analysis and intron-exon distribution pattern of identified OsAP2s revealed their exclusive distribution among the specific clades of the phylogenetic tree. Moreover, the members of osa-miR172 family were also identified potentially targeting four OsAP2 genes. The real-time quantitative expression profiling of OsAP2s under heat stress conditions in contrasting indica rice genotypes revealed the differential expression pattern of OsAP2s (6 genes up-regulated and 4 genes down-regulated) in stress- and genotype-dependent manner. These findings unveiled the evolutionary pathways of AP2-TF in rice, and can help the functional characterization under developmental and stress responses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygeno.2020.10.037DOI Listing
January 2021