Publications by authors named "Muhammad Qasim"

241 Publications

Optical Gain in Solids after Ultrafast Strong-Field Excitation.

Phys Rev Lett 2021 Aug;127(8):087401

Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Straße 1, Garching 85748, Germany and Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Am Coulombwall 1, Garching 85748, Germany.

Multiphoton excitation of a solid by a few-cycle, intense laser pulse forms a very nonequilibrium distribution of charge carriers, where occupation probabilities do not necessarily decrease with energy. Within a fraction of the pulse, significant population inversion can emerge between pairs of valence-band states with a dipole-allowed transition between them. This population inversion leads to stimulated emission in a laser-excited solid at frequencies where the unperturbed solid is transparent. We establish the optimal conditions for observing this kind of strong-field-induced optical gain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.127.087401DOI Listing
August 2021

Developing neck circumference growth reference charts for Pakistani children and adolescents using the lambda-mu-sigma and quantile regression method.

Public Health Nutr 2021 Aug 25:1-9. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Medical College of Rzeszów University, University of Rzeszów, Rzeszów, Poland.

Objective: Neck circumference (NC) is currently used as an embryonic marker of obesity and its associated risks. But its use in clinical evaluations and other epidemiological purposes requires sex and age-specific standardised cut-offs which are still scarce for the Pakistani paediatric population. We therefore developed sex and age-specific growth reference charts for NC for Pakistani children and adolescents aged 2-18 years.

Design: Cross-sectional multi-ethnic anthropometric survey (MEAS) study.

Setting: Multan, Lahore, Rawalpindi and Islamabad.

Participants: The dataset of 10 668 healthy Pakistani children and adolescents aged 2-18 years collected in MEAS were used. Information related to age, sex and NC were taken as study variables. The lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) and quantile regression (QR) methods were applied to develop growth reference charts for NC.

Results: The 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th smoothed percentile values of NC were presented. The centile values showed that neck size increased with age in both boys and girls. During 8 and 14 years of age, girls were found to have larger NC than boys. A comparison of NC median (50th) percentile values with references from Iranian and Turkish populations reveals substantially lower NC percentiles in Pakistani children and adolescents compared to their peers in the reference population.

Conclusion: The comparative results suggest that the uses of NC references of developed countries are inadequate for Pakistani children. A small variability between empirical centiles and centiles obtained by QR procedure recommends that growth charts should be constructed by QR as an alternative method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980021003669DOI Listing
August 2021

Typhi from Northwest Pakistan: Molecular Strain Typing and Drug Resistance Signature.

Microb Drug Resist 2021 Aug 3. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Clinical Laboratories Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Taif University, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia.

To determine the molecular strain typing and drug resistance pattern of serovar Typhi prevalent in Northwest Pakistan. A total of 2,138 blood samples of suspected typhoid patients from Northwest Pakistan were collected followed by identification of Typhi through biochemical, serological, and species-specific gene amplification. These isolates were typed by variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) profiling and investigated for drug resistance. The overall prevalence of Typhi was found to be 8.8% ( = 189). Thirty different VNTR strain types of Typhi were detected and the most prevalent strain types were T1 and T4, whereas T27 was less prevalent strain. Among the 189 isolates 175 (92.5%) isolates were multidrug resistant, whereas 12 (5.8%) isolates were extensively drug resistant. Resistance to imipenem in Typhi was not observed. Most of the isolates have genes encoding for resistance to fluoroquinolones, including ( = 164), ( = 160), ( = 164), ( = 160), (6')-- ( = 163), ( = 15), and ( = 3). Similarly, chloramphinicol ( = 147), azithromycin ( = 3), and co-trimoxazole ( = 145 resistance genes were detected among Typhi isolates. In this study, T1 and T4 type Typhi strains were predominantly prevalent in Northwest Pakistan. Antibiotic resistance among Typhi isolates were observed. Findings of the study would be helpful to devise an appropriate antibiotic policy to control the emergence of drug-resistant Typhi in Pakistan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/mdr.2020.0304DOI Listing
August 2021

Insect-fungal-interactions: A detailed review on entomopathogenic fungi pathogenicity to combat insect pests.

Microb Pathog 2021 Oct 3;159:105122. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Agricultural Engineering, Khwaja Fareed University of Engineering and Information Technology, Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Global food security is threatened by insect pests of economically important crops. Chemical pesticides have been used frequently for the last few decades to manage insect pests throughout the world. However, these chemicals are hazardous for human health as well as the ecosystem. In addition, several pests have evolved resistance to many chemicals. Finding environment friendly alternatives lead the researchers to introduce biocontrol agents such as entomopathogenic fungi (EPF). These fungi include various genera that can infect and kill insects efficiently. Moreover, EPFs have considerable host specificity with a mild effect on non-target organisms and can be produced in bulk quantity quickly. However, insights into the biology of EPF and mechanism of action are of prime significance for their efficient utilization as a biocontrol agent. This review focuses on EPF-mediated insect management by explaining particular EPF strains and their general mode of action. We have comprehensively discussed which criteria should be used for the selection of pertinent EPF, and which aspects can impact the EPF efficiency. Finally, we have outlined various advantages of EPF and their limitations. The article summarizes the prospects related to EPF utilization as biocontrol agents. We hope that future strategies for the management of insects will be safer for our planet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.105122DOI Listing
October 2021

Mesenchymal Stem Cells: From Regeneration to Drug Delivery Systems.

Crit Rev Ther Drug Carrier Syst 2021 ;38(3):33-73

Department of Bioinformatics and Biotechnology, Government College University, Faisalabad (GCUF), Allama Iqbal Road, Faisalabad-38000, Pakistan.

Targeting drug delivery has been a focus of researchers in recent years for cancer and other diseases. Many approaches such as liposomes, exosomes, nanoparticles (magnetic), encapsulation etc. have been developed and investigated for their clinical applications. But disadvantages linked to these therapies limit them to be used in clinical settings. Cell based drug delivery systems has emerged as an alternative for these therapies. Among cell types, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) proved to a potential cell type for research due to its many characteristics including low immunogenicity, chemotaxis and homing to tumor sites which are considered mandatory for drug delivery. This chapter focuses on the challenges and opportunities in using MSCs as therapeutic carrier of drugs in different ailments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevTherDrugCarrierSyst.2021033916DOI Listing
January 2021

Updates on Clinical and Genetic Heterogeneity of in 12 Autosomal Recessive Primary Microcephaly Families in Pakistani Population.

Front Pediatr 2021 6;9:695133. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Biomimetic Materials and Cellular Immunomodulation, Institute of Biomedicine and Biotechnology, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China.

Microcephaly (MCPH) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by non-progressive intellectual disability, small head circumference, and small brain size compared with the age- and sex-matched population. MCPH manifests as an isolated condition or part of another clinical syndrome; so far, 25 genes have been linked with MCPH. Many of these genes are reported in Pakistani population, but due to a high rate of consanguinity, a significant proportion of MCPH cohort is yet to be explored. MCPH5 is the most frequently reported type, accounting for up to 68.75% alone in a genetically constrained population like Pakistan. In the current study, whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed on probands from 10 families sampled from South Waziristan and two families from rural areas of the Pakistani Punjab. Candidate variants were validated through Sanger sequencing in all available family members. Variant filtering and analysis identified three known mutations in , a MCPH5-associated gene. The founder mutation p.Trp1326 was segregating in 10 families, which further confirmed the evidence that it is the most prominent mutation in Pashtun ethnicity living in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Furthermore, the previously known mutations p.Arg3244 and p.Arg1019 were inherited in two families with Punjab ethnic profile. Collectively, this study added 12 more families to the mutational paradigm of and expanded the Pakistani MCPH cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2021.695133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290066PMC
July 2021

Engineered tyrosinases with broadened bio-catalysis scope: immobilization using nanocarriers and applications.

3 Biotech 2021 Aug 5;11(8):365. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Tecnologico de Monterrey, School of Engineering and Sciences, 64849 Monterrey, Mexico.

Enzyme immobilization is a widely used technology for creating more stable, active, and reusable biocatalysts. The immobilization process also improves the enzyme's operating efficiency in industrial applications. Various support matrices have been designed and developed to enhance the biocatalytic efficiency of immobilized enzymes. Given their unique physicochemical attributes, including substantial surface area, rigidity, semi-conductivity, high enzyme loading, hyper catalytic activity, and size-assisted optical properties, nanomaterials have emerged as fascinating matrices for enzyme immobilization. Tyrosinase is a copper-containing monooxygenase that catalyzes the o-hydroxylation of monophenols to catechols and o-quinones. This enzyme possesses a wide range of uses in the medical, biotechnological, and food sectors. This article summarizes an array of nanostructured materials as carrier matrices for tyrosinase immobilization. Following a detailed background overview, various nanomaterials, as immobilization support matrices, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon dots (CDs), carbon black (CB), nanofibers, Graphene nanocomposite, platinum nanoparticles, nano-sized magnetic particles, lignin nanoparticles, layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanomaterials, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and zinc oxide nanoparticles have been discussed. Next, applied perspectives have been spotlights with particular reference to environmental pollutant sensing, phenolic compounds detection, pharmaceutical, and food industry (e.g., cereal processing, dairy processing, and meat processing), along with other miscellaneous applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-021-02913-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257883PMC
August 2021

Characterization of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Sci Rep 2021 Jul 9;11(1):14194. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Institute of Basic Medical Science, Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is endemic in Pakistan. Resistance to both firstline rifampicin and isoniazid drugs (multidrug-resistant TB; MDR-TB) is hampering disease control. Rifampicin resistance is attributed to rpoB gene mutations, but rpoA and rpoC loci may also be involved. To characterise underlying rifampicin resistance mutations in the TB endemic province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, we sequenced 51 M. tuberculosis isolates collected between 2016 and 2019; predominantly, MDR-TB (n = 44; 86.3%) and lineage 3 (n = 30, 58.8%) strains. We found that known mutations in rpoB (e.g. S405L), katG (e.g. S315T), or inhA promoter loci explain the MDR-TB. There were 24 unique mutations in rpoA, rpoB, and rpoC genes, including four previously unreported. Five instances of within-host resistance diversity were observed, where two were a mixture of MDR-TB strains containing mutations in rpoB, katG, and the inhA promoter region, as well as compensatory mutations in rpoC. Heteroresistance was observed in two isolates with a single lineage. Such complexity may reflect the high transmission nature of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa setting. Our study reinforces the need to apply sequencing approaches to capture the full-extent of MDR-TB genetic diversity, to understand transmission, and to inform TB control activities in the highly endemic setting of Pakistan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-93501-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8270973PMC
July 2021

Green Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Using Leaf Extract and Their Characterization and Investigation of Antimicrobial Potential and Cytotoxic Activities.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 18;2021:5589703. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Natural Products and Alternative Medicines, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

The development of green technology is creating great interest for researchers towards low-cost and environmentally friendly methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) attracted many researchers due to their electric, catalytic, optical, textile, photonic, monofluid, and pharmacological activities that depend on the shape and size of the nanoparticles. This investigation aims copper oxide nanoparticles synthesis using plant leaf extract. Characterization of copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized by green route was performed by three different techniques: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals the crystalline morphology of CuO-NPs and the average crystal size obtained is 15 nm. SEM images showed the spherical nature of the particles and size is lying in the 15-23 nm range. FTIR analysis confirms the functional groups of active components present in the extract which are responsible for reducing and capping agents for the synthesis of CuO-NPs. The synthesized CuO-NPs were studied for their antimicrobial potential against different bacterial as well as fungal pathogens. The results indicated that CuO-NPs show maximum antimicrobial activities against all the selected bacterial and fungal pathogens. Antimicrobial activities of copper oxide nanoparticles were compared with standard drugs Norfloxacin and amphotericin B antibiotics. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of copper oxide nanoparticles were 128 g/mL against all selected bacterial pathogens. MIC of fungus and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of CuO-NPs were 160 g/mL. Thus, CuO-NPs can be utilized as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent. The cytotoxic activity of the synthesized CuO-NPs suggested that toxicity was negligible at concentrations below 60 g/mL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5589703DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8235967PMC
June 2021

Nanotechnology, a tool for diagnostics and treatment of cancer.

Curr Top Med Chem 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Anatomy, Division of Health Sciences, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand.

Nanotechnology has shown promising advancements in the field of drug development and its delivery. In particular, the applications of nanoparticles for treatment and diagnostics of cancer reached such a precision that it can detect a single cancer cell and can target it to deliver a payload for the treatment of that cancerous cell. Conventional cancer therapy methods have side effects, and diagnostics techniques are time-consuming and expensive. Nanoparticles (NPs) such as polymeric nanoparticles (nanogels, nanofibers, liposomes), metallic nanoparticles such as gold NP (GNPs), sliver NP (AgNP), calcium nanoparticles (CaNPs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, and quantum dots (QDs) have revolutionized cancer diagnostics and treatments due to their high surface charge, size and morphology. Functionalization of these nanoparticles with different biological molecules, such as antibodies, helps them to targeted the delivery and early detection of cancer cells through their plasmon resonance properties. While some of the magnetic properties of nanoparticles such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and carbon NT were also evaluated for detection and treatments of cancer cells. An advanced type of nanoparticles, such as nanobubbles and oxygen-releasing polymers, are helping to address the hypoxia conditions in the cancer microenvironment, while others are employed in photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) due to their intrinsic theranostic properties. The green synthesis of nanoparticles has further increased biocompatibility and broadened their applications. In this review paper, we discussed the advancement in nanotechnology and its applications for cancer treatment and diagnostics and highlighted challenges for translation of these advanced nano-based techniques for clinical applications and their green synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1568026621666210701144124DOI Listing
July 2021

Integrated Core Proteomics, Subtractive Proteomics, and Immunoinformatics Investigation to Unveil a Potential Multi-Epitope Vaccine against Schistosomiasis.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Jun 16;9(6). Epub 2021 Jun 16.

College of Life Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China.

Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection that causes considerable morbidity and mortality in the world. Infections of parasitic blood flukes, known as schistosomes, cause the disease. No vaccine is available yet and thus there is a need to design an effective vaccine against schistosomiasis. , , and are the main pathogenic species that infect humans. In this research, core proteomics was combined with a subtractive proteomics pipeline to identify suitable antigenic proteins for the construction of a multi-epitope vaccine (MEV) against human-infecting species. The pipeline revealed two antigenic proteins-calcium binding and mycosubtilin synthase subunit C-as promising vaccine targets. T and B cell epitopes from the targeted proteins were predicted using multiple bioinformatics and immunoinformatics databases. Seven cytotoxic T cell lymphocytes (CTL), three helper T cell lymphocytes (HTL), and four linear B cell lymphocytes (LBL) epitopes were fused with a suitable adjuvant and linkers to design a 217 amino-acid-long MEV. The vaccine was coupled with a TLR-4 agonist (RS-09; Sequence: APPHALS) adjuvant to enhance the immune responses. The designed MEV was stable, highly antigenic, and non-allergenic to human use. Molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and molecular mechanics/generalized Born surface area (MMGBSA) analysis were performed to study the binding affinity and molecular interactions of the MEV with human immune receptors (TLR2 and TLR4) and MHC molecules (MHC I and MHC II). The MEV expression capability was tested in an (strain-K12) plasmid vector pET-28a(+). Findings of these computer assays proved the MEV as highly promising in establishing protective immunity against the pathogens; nevertheless, additional validation by in vivo and in vitro experiments is required to discuss its real immune-protective efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060658DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8235758PMC
June 2021

Regression analysis of hydro-meteorological variables for climate change prediction: A case study of Chitral Basin, Hindukush region.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Nov 21;793:148595. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Global Change Impact Studies Centre (GCISC), Ministry of Climate Change, Islamabad, Pakistan.

In the present study, hydro-meteorological variables of Chitral Basin in Hindukush region of Pakistan were studied to predict the changes in climatic components such as temperature, precipitation, humidity and river flow based on observed data from 1990 to 2019. Uncertainties in climate change projection were studied using various statistical methods, such as trend variability analysis via stationarity test and validation of regression assumptions prior to fitting of regression estimates. Also, multiple regression models were estimated for each hydro-meteorological variables for the given 30 years of observed data. Results demonstrated that temperature and, precipitation were inversely related with one another. It was observed from the regression model that temperature is decreases by 0.309 °C on the average increases in precipitation by one unit. Temperature also decreases for the increase in humidity by average 0.086 °C. Since, precipitation is negatively related with temperature, thus for increases in temperature the annual precipitation decreases by 0.278 mm annually. Humidity on the other hand, increases by 0.207% by increasing in precipitation and the temperature that causes humidity to decrease by 0.99%. Thus, it demonstrated that the flow in Chitral river increases due to precipitation by 0.306 m/s for the change in precipitation by one unit. Findings from the present study negated the general perceptions that flow in the Chitral river has increased due to recession of glaciers with increase in the intensity of temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148595DOI Listing
November 2021

Host-pathogen interaction between Asian citrus psyllid and entomopathogenic fungus (Cordyceps fumosorosea) is regulated by modulations in gene expression, enzymatic activity and HLB-bacterial population of the host.

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Oct 18;248:109112. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Ministry of Agriculture Key Lab of Molecular Biology of Crop Pathogens and Insects, Institute of Insect Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, PR China. Electronic address:

The host-pathogen interaction has been explored by several investigations, but the impact of fungal pathogens against insect resistance is still ambiguous. Therefore, we assessed the enzymatic activity and defense-related gene expression of Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) nymphal and adult populations on Huanglongbing-diseased citrus plants under the attack of Cordyceps fumosorosea. Overall, five enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), carboxylesterase (CarE), and four genes, namely SOD, 16S, CYP4C68, CYP4BD1, were selected for respective observations from ACP populations. Enzymatic activity of four enzymes (SOD, POD, GST, CarE) was significantly decreased after 5-days post-treatment (dpt) and 3-dpt fungal exposure in fungal treated ACP adult and nymphal populations, respectively, whereas the activity of CAT was boosted substantially post-treatment time schedule. Besides, we recorded drastic fluctuations in the expression of CYP4 genes among fungal treated ACP populations. After 24 hours post-treatment (hpt), expression of both CYP4 genes was boosted in fungal treated populations than controlled populations (adult and nymph). After 3-dpt, however, the expression of CYP4 genes was declined in the given populations. Likewise, fungal attack deteriorated the resistance of adult and nymphal of ACP population, as SOD expression was down-regulated in fungal-treated adult and nymphs after 5-dpt and 3-dpt exposure, respectively. Moreover, bacterial expression via the 16S gene was significantly increased in fungal-treated adult and nymphal ACP populations with increasing post-treatment time. Overall, our data illustrate that the fungal application disrupted the insect defense system. The expression of these genes and enzymes suppress the immune function of adult and nymphal ACP populations. As it is reported first time that the applications of C. fumosorosea against ACP reduce insect resistance by interfering with the CYP4 and SOD system. Therefore, we propose new strategies to discover the role of certain toxic compounds from fungus, which can reduce insect resistance, focusing on resistance-related genes and enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpc.2021.109112DOI Listing
October 2021

Almond protects the liver in coronary artery disease: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Mar;71(3):791-795

The University of Haripur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Objective: To compare the effect of Pakistani and American almonds on serum concentration of liver enzymes in coronary artery disease patients.

Methods: The randomised controlled trial was conducted at the Cardiology Clinics of Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from February to July, 2012, and comprised patients who were randomised into intervention PA and AA groups and the control NI groups. Subjects in the intervention groups were provided Pakistani and American varieties of almonds 10g/day respectively with instructions to soak them overnight, remove the skin and eat them before breakfast for 12 weeks. The control group underwent no intervention. Serum concentrations of aspartate transaminase, Alanine transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transferase were analysed and compared.

Results: Of the 150 subjects, 110(73.3%) completed the study. Of them, there were 38(34.5%) in PA group, 41(37.3%) in AA, and 31(28.2%) in the NI group. Dietary almonds significantly reduced serum concentrations of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and gamma-glutamyl transferase in the two intervention groups compared to the controls group (p<0.05) at 12-week follow-up.

Conclusions: A low dose of almonds was found to be an effective strategy to protect the liver.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.47391/JPMA.198DOI Listing
March 2021

Prevalence and associated risk factors of Shigella flexneri isolated from drinking water and retail raw foods in Peshawar, Pakistan.

J Food Sci 2021 Jun 30;86(6):2579-2589. Epub 2021 May 30.

Department of Microbiology, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Pakistan.

This study was designed to investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors of Shigella flexneri isolated from drinking water and retail raw food samples in Peshawar, Pakistan. A total of 1,020 different samples were collected from various areas of Peshawar between January 2016 and May 2017, followed by identification of S. flexneri through biochemical, serological, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Potential risk factors associated with the development and spreading of S. flexneri infection were also investigated. Overall, 45 (4.41%) samples were positive for Shigella species. Among these samples, the predominant species was S. flexneri (n = 44) followed by S. boydii (n = 1). Interestingly, S. sonnei and S. dysenteriae isolates were not found in any sample. The isolation rate of S. flexneri in drinking water samples, market raw milk, and fruits/vegetables from Peshawar were 6.47%, 3.5%, and 2.9%, respectively. The phylogenetic reconstruction showed genetic diversity among three clades, as clades I and II have isolates of S. flexneri that were circulating within the drinking water, milk, fruits/vegetables, while clade III isolates were recovered from milk samples. Most of S. flexneri were detected in June to September. Potential risk factors of S. flexneri were water sources contaminated by toilet wastes (p = 0.04), surface water drainage (p = 0.0002), hospital wastes (p = 0.01), unhygienic handling (p < 0.05), and transportation of raw food (p = 0.04). In conclusion, S. flexneri isolates of closely related lineage originating from non-clinical samples might be associated with an increased human risk to shigellosis in Pakistan, as significant numbers of S. flexneri were observed in the drinking water and retail raw food samples. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: This study demonstrated the presence of S. flexneri in drinking water and retail raw food samples which seem to possess a serious threat to public health. Potential sources of food and water contamination should properly be monitored by public health authorities to reduce cases of shigellosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.15777DOI Listing
June 2021

Biogenesis, Membrane Trafficking, Functions, and Next Generation Nanotherapeutics Medicine of Extracellular Vesicles.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 18;16:3357-3383. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, 05029, Korea.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogeneous group of membrane-limited vesicles and multi-signal messengers loaded with biomolecules. Exosomes and ectosomes are two different types of EVs generated by all cell types. Their formation depends on local microdomains assembled in endocytic membranes for exosomes and in the plasma membrane for ectosomes. Further, EV release is a fundamental process required for intercellular communication in both normal physiology and pathological conditions to transmit/exchange bioactive molecules to recipient cells and the extracellular environment. The unique structure and composition of EVs enable them to serve as natural nanocarriers, and their physicochemical properties and biological functions can be used to develop next-generation nano and precision medicine. Knowledge of the cellular processes that govern EVs biology and membrane trafficking is essential for their clinical applications. However, in this rapidly expanding field, much remains unknown regarding EV origin, biogenesis, cargo sorting, and secretion, as well as EV-based theranostic platform generation. Hence, we present a comprehensive overview of the recent advances in biogenesis, membrane trafficking, and functions of EVs, highlighting the impact of nanoparticles and oxidative stress on EVs biogenesis and release and finally emphasizing the role of EVs as nanotherapeutic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S310357DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8140893PMC
June 2021

Validation of ROS1 by immunohistochemistry against fluorescent in situ hybridisation on cytology and small biopsy samples in a large teaching hospital.

Cytopathology 2021 Sep 15;32(5):621-630. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Manchester Cytology Centre, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK.

Objective: Rearranged ROS1, present in 1%-2% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, usually young, never or light smokers, is assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to determine eligibility for tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the protein product of ROS1 rearrangement, a cost-effective alternative, is validated on cytology and small biopsy samples.

Methods: From 1 March to 31 December 2019, cytology cell blocks and small biopsy samples from a selected cohort of NSCLC patients were concurrently tested for ROS1 gene rearrangement by Vysis 6q22 Break Apart FISH probe and IHC using Cell Signalling D4D6 antibody. Mismatch cases were tested by an RNA fusion next generation sequencing (NGS) panel.

Results: In a prospective population of 95 cases, 91 were negative and two were positive by both FISH and IHC. Both dual positive cases were female never smokers and benefited from TKI treatment. Another two cases were positive by FISH but negative by IHC and repeat by NGS showed one to be negative but one failed. Turnaround time for IHC was 0 to 8 days from request to authorisation, whilst that of FISH was 9 to 42 days at a cost of £51 and £159 respectively.

Conclusion: IHC to assess for the protein product of ROS1 gene rearrangement on cytology cell blocks and small biopsy samples in a routine setting is a promising screening method to assess eligibility for TKI treatment with positive and indeterminate cases confirmed by FISH or NGS as it has good negative predictive value, faster turnaround time and is cost effective, with proven technical and clinical validation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cyt.12994DOI Listing
September 2021

Virulence profiling of Shigella flexneri and emergence of serotype 2b as a highly virulent shigellosis causing strain in Pakistan.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 09 15;93:104922. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Microbiology, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Pakistan.

Bacillary diarrhea caused by Shigella flexneri is mediated by various virulence factors which make it the leading agent of diarrhea in developing countries. Previously, a high prevalence of S. flexneri, associated with diarrhea has been reported in Pakistan but no data is available on their virulence profile. The present study reports for the first time analysis of various virulence factors among S. flexneri serotypes isolated from clinical (diarrheal stool) and non-clinical (retail raw foods and drinking water) sources. A total of 199 S. flexneri (clinical: 155, raw foods: 22, water: 22) belonging to various serotypes were subjected to virulence genes detection and virulence profiling. The most frequent virulence gene was found to be ipaH (100%), followed by sat (98%), ial (71.3%), set1B (65.8%) and set1A (38.7%). A high level of virulence was detected in serotype 2b as compared to other serotypes as 32.3% of all serotype 2b have the entire set of five virulence genes including ipaH (100%), ial (100%), sat (37.7%), set1A (89.3%), and set1B (100%). Seven different virulence gene profiles (V1 - V7) were detected and the most frequently observed to be V1 (ipaH+, ial+, sat+, set1A+, set1B+) followed by V3 (ipaH+, ial+, sat+, set1B+). The predominant virulence gene pattern in serotype 2b isolated from clinical and non-clinical samples were V1 and V3. Furthermore, about 32% strains belonging to serotype 2b contain the complete set of five virulence genes isolated from patients with high disease severity. In conclusion, the current finding revealed for the first times that serotype 2b was the most virulent strains in both clinical and non-clinical samples in Pakistan. In addition, the virulence of serotype 2b was well correlated with high disease severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2021.104922DOI Listing
September 2021

Tick-borne Diseases in Sheep and Goats in Pakistan: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Acta Parasitol 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Infectious Diseases Division, Department of Biosciences, COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI), Islamabad, Pakistan.

Background: Ticks are blood-sucking ectoparasites and transmit various types of protozoal, bacterial, and viral diseases in a wild as well as domestic animals and humans globally. Only a few  published reports are avaliable on the prevalence of tick-borne diseases in sheep and goats in Pakistan.

Aim And Objective: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the prevalence (2000-2020) of tick-borne disease (theileriosis, babesiosis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever infection, and anaplasmosis) in sheep and goats in Pakistan.

Methods: A systematic review of articles published in English language (since 2000-2020) was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar. Diagnostic methods used in the original reference articles were PCR, PCR-RLB, microscopy, and ELISA.

Results: The overall prevalence of theileriosis, babesiosis, anaplasmosis, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) infections was 15.40%, 21.18%, 26.78%, and 11.62%, respectively. The prevalence of anaplasmosis was 22.06% (90/408) in sheep, 21.11% (76/360) in goats, and 40% (120/300) in both sheep and goats with substantial differences (P < 0.001). The prevalence of babesiosis among sheep was 29.88% (104/348) with highly significant differences (P < 0.001), in goats was 29.88% (25/60) with slightly significant differences (P < 0.031%), and in both sheep and goats were 7% (21/300) with highly significant differences (P < 0.001) according to subgroup analysis. The percentage of prevalence of theileriosis was 17.70% (207/1169) in sheep with highly substantial differences (P < 0.001), 4.51% (31/687) in goats with significant differences (P < 0.133), and 25% (125/500) in both sheep and goats with a significant difference among them (P < 0.001). The prevalence of CCHF among sheep was 18.63% (149/800) and 4.63% (37/800) in goats, respectively. The widely used detection method was microscopy (45.56%) followed by ELISA (38.38%), PCR (12.56%), and PCR-RLB (3.48%) test, respectively. This is a comprehensive report on the status of tick-borne disease in sheep and goats in Pakistan.

Conclusion: Based on our results, among tick-borne diseases anaplasmosis had the highest prevalence rate in sheep and goats. Due to its high prevalence, control measures should be taken to diagnose and prevent it.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11686-021-00396-2DOI Listing
May 2021

Diversity, abundance and expression of the antibiotic resistance genes in a Chinese landfill: Effect of deposit age.

J Hazard Mater 2021 09 5;417:126027. Epub 2021 May 5.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Chemical Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094, China. Electronic address:

Landfills are the hotspots for the occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment. However, limited information is available on the profile of ARGs in response to the varying age of refuse in landfills. In this study, the diversity, abundance and expression of ARGs in a Chinese landfill were assessed by high-throughput quantitative PCR. A total of 154 ARGs were detected and 66% of them were transcriptionally active. The total abundance of ARG transcripts was one magnitude lower than that of ARGs. The ermT-01, tetX, sul2, aadA-02 and aadA2-03 genes were found to be the most abundant ARGs (ARG transcripts) and their sum abundance showed a linear relation with the total abundance of ARGs (ARG transcripts). The total abundance of ARGs (ARG transcripts) in young refuse was significantly higher than that in old refuse (p < 0.01) and the profile of ARGs (ARG transcripts) between the old and young refuse was distinct as revealed by the principal coordinates analysis. The variation partitioning analysis showed heavy metals (mainly Cr and Zn) were the major drivers that affect the profile of ARGs (ARG transcripts). These findings provided new insights into the ARGs in landfills and indicated their potential threats should not be neglected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126027DOI Listing
September 2021

Computational Modeling of Immune Response Triggering Immunogenic Peptide Vaccine Against the Human Papillomaviruses to Induce Immunity Against Cervical Cancer.

Viral Immunol 2021 May 10. Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Bioinformatics and Biological Statistics, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, P.R. China.

Papillomaviruses are placed within the family Papillomaviride, and the members of this family have a double-stranded circular DNA genome. Every year, ∼30% of cancers are reported to be human papillomavirus (HPV) related, which represents 63,000 cancers of all infectious agent-induced cancers. HPV16 and HPV18 are reported to be associated with 70% of cervical cancers. The quest for an effective drug or vaccine candidate still continues. In this study, we aim to design B cell and T cell epitope-based vaccine using the two structural major capsid protein L1 and L2 as well as other three important proteins (E1, E2, and E6) against HPV strain 16 (HPV16). We used a computational pipeline to design a multiepitope subunit vaccine and tested its efficacy using computational modeling approaches. Our analysis revealed that the multiepitope subunit vaccine possesses antigenic properties, and using cloning method revealed proper expression and downstream processing of the vaccine construct. Besides this, we also performed immune simulation to check the immune response upon the injection. Our results strongly suggest that this vaccine candidate should be tested immediately for the immune response against the cervical cancer-causing agent. The safety, efficacy, expression, and immune response profiling makes it the first choice for experimental and setup.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vim.2020.0306DOI Listing
May 2021

Biogenic copper nanoparticles produced by using the Klebsiella pneumoniae strain NST2 curtailed salt stress effects in maize by modulating the cellular oxidative repair mechanisms.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jul 27;217:112264. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Bioscience and Technology, Khwaja Farid University of Engineering and Information Technology, Rahim Yar Khan, Pakistan.

The negative effects of salinity on plant growth and physiology are well-established, which is one of the major threats to food security in semi-arid and arid regions of the world. The current research focuses on biosynthesis of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) from a bacterial strain NST2, which was genetically identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae based on taxonomic identity of 16S rRNA gene. The strain was selected for bioprospecting of CuNPs owing to its Cu tolerance potential. The biologically-synthesized CuNPs were confirmed in culture by using ultraviolet visible spectroscopy. The material characteristics of green CuNPs were further investigated by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, where crystallite size was ranged from 22.44 nm to 44.26 nm and particles were stabilized by various functional groups, such as carbonyl and amine groups. When 100 mg kg of green CuNPs were mixed in saline soil in a pot experiment, the maize plants showed increased root and shoot length (43.52% and 44.06%, respectively), fresh weight (46.05% and 51.82%, respectively) and dry weight (47.69% and 30.63%, respectively) in comparison to control maize plants without CuNPs application. Moreover, green CuNPs at their highest treatment level (100 mg kg of soil) counteracted the lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage in maize plants by promoting the activities of antioxidants and demoting the cellular levels of reactive oxygen species and ionic contents of Na and Cl. Conclusively, biogenic CuNPs is an emerging and promising technique, which could replace traditional methods of salinity management in agricultural soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112264DOI Listing
July 2021

A study on risk assessment of effect of hematoxylin dye on cytotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in freshwater fish: Food and water security prospective research.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Apr 20;28(4):2267-2271. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Zoology, College of Science. King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The cytotoxicity in freshwater fishes due to different industrial dyes in industrial effluents is a major worldwide issue. Hematoxylin dye has a wide range of uses in textile industries and laboratories. This study was aimed to evaluate the toxic effects of hematoxylin's sublethal effect in vitro in . The fish was exposed to different grading concentrations of dye in the aquarium. Fish were sacrificed and dissected to remove the kidney after exposure to hematoxylin dye for specific time intervals. Nephrotoxicity and cytotoxicity induced by this dye were detected through histopathology by using the paraffin wax method. Immediate mortality of fish was noticed against the exposure to 0.08 g/L (LC) concentration of dye, but at 0.008 mg/L and 0.018 mg/L, it showed tremendous tissue damage in the kidneys, significant reduction in fish growth. This dye induced many alterations in the kidney such as tubular degeneration, vacuolation, shrinkage of a glomerulus, reduced lumen, congestion in the kidney, glomerulonephritis, absence of Bowmen space, necrosis of the hematopoietic interstitial tissues, clogging of tubules, necrosis in the glomerulus and increased space between glomerulus and bowmen's capsule. Although this dye has a wide range of biological and industrial applications, a minute amount of hematoxylin released in effluents is quite toxic to aquatic fauna.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.01.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071821PMC
April 2021

Dysregulation of circulating miRNAs promotes the pathogenesis of diabetes-induced cardiomyopathy.

PLoS One 2021 28;16(4):e0250773. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.

Diabetic Cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by myocardial dysfunction caused by diabetes mellitus. After-effects of diabetic cardiomyopathy are far more lethal than non-diabetic cardiomyopathy. More than 300 million people suffer from diabetes and cardiovascular disorder which is expected to be elevated to an alarming figure of 450 million by 2030. Recent studies suggested that miRNA plays important role in the onset of diabetic cardiomyopathy. This study was designed to identify the miRNA that is responsible for the onset of diabetic cardiomyopathy using in silico and in vitro approaches. In this study, to identify the miRNA responsible for the onset of diabetic cardiomyopathy, in silico analysis was done to predict the role of these circulating miRNAs in type 2 diabetic cardiomyopathy. Shared miRNAs that are present in both diseases were selected for further analysis. Total RNA and miRNA were extracted from blood samples taken from type 2 diabetic patients as well as healthy controls to analyze the expression of important genes like AKT, VEGF, IGF, FGF1, ANGPT2 using Real-time PCR. The expression of ANGPT2 was up-regulated and AKT, VEGF, IGF, FGF1 were down-regulated in DCM patients as compared to healthy controls. The miRNA expression of miR-17 was up-regulated and miR-24, miR-150, miR-199a, miR-214, and miR-320a were down-regulated in the DCM patients as compared to healthy controls. This shows that dysregulation of target genes and miRNA may contribute towards the pathogenesis of DCM and more studies should be conducted to elucidate the role of circulating miRNAs to use them as therapeutic and diagnostic options.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250773PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8081166PMC
April 2021

Calotropis procera (root) escalates functions rehabilitation and attenuates oxidative stress in a mouse model of peripheral nerve injury.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2020 Nov;33(6(Supplementary)):2801-2807

Neurochemicalbiology and Genetics Laboratory (NGL), Department of Physiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Peripheral nerve injuries result in sensorimotor functional loss, leading to permanent disability and physical dependency with immense cost and reduced quality of life. These injuries are among those complicated medical situations which still are waiting for their first-line treatment. This study was designed to investigate the role of Calotropis procera (crude roots) in accelerating functional retrieval following mechanically induced sciatic nerve injury in healthy albino male mice. Following acclimatization, mice were grouped equally as "Control" fed on normal chow and "Root" fed on C. procera root (100mg/kg/day) mixed chow. A mechanical crush was induced in right sciatic nerve of animals. Behavioral analyses (grip strength, SFI, pinprick and hot plate tests) were conducted for assessing sensorimotor function reclamation and blood was collected for oxidative stress assessment. Significantly earlier retrieval of sensorimotor activities (p<0.05), reduced total oxidant status, increased total antioxidant capacity with prominently enhanced arylesterase and paraoxonase activities (p<0.001) in treatment group suggested positive impact of C. procera roots on quickening functional recovery and combating oxidative stress following nerve injury. Thus C. procera root can be considered as potential candidate drug for further investigation to seek bioactive compound/s that may actually responsible for ameliorative functional recovery following nerve injury.
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November 2020

Insects-plants-pathogens: Toxicity, dependence and defense dynamics.

Toxicon 2021 Jul 10;197:87-98. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

College of Agriculture and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat. Sultanate of Oman, Oman.

In a natural ecosystem, the pathogen-plant-insect relationship has diverse implications for each other. The pathogens as well as insect-pests consume plant tissues as their feed that mostly results in damage. In turn, plant species have evolved specialized defense system to not only protect themselves but reduce the damage also. Such tripartite interactions involve toxicity, metabolic modulations, resistance etc. among all participants of interaction. These attributes result in selection pressure among participants. Coevolution of such traits reveals need to focus and unravel multiple hidden aspects of insect-plant-pathogen interactions. The definite modulations during plant responses to biotic stress and the operating defense network against herbivores are vital to research areas. Different types of plant pathogens and herbivores are tackled with various changes in plants, e.g. changes in genes expression, glucosinolate metabolism detoxification, signal transduction, cell wall modifications, Cadependent signaling. It is essential to clarify which chemical in plants can work as a defense signal or weapon in plant-pathogen-herbivore interactions. In spite of increased knowledge regarding signal transduction pathways regulating growth-defense balance, much more is needed to unveil the coordination of growth rate with metabolic modulations in bi-trophic interactions. Here, we addressed plant-pathogen-insect interaction for toxicity as well as dependnce along with plant defense dynamics against pathogens and insects with broad range effects at the physio-biochemical and molecular level. We have reviewed interfaces in plant-pathogen-insect research to show pulsating regulation of plant immunity for attuning survival and ecological equilibrium. An improved understanding of the systematic foundation of growth-defense stability has vital repercussions for enhancing crop yield, including insights into uncoupling of host-parasite tradeoffs for ecological and environmental sustainability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2021.04.004DOI Listing
July 2021

Engineering and polymeric composition of drug-eluting suture: A review.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2021 Oct 8;109(10):2065-2081. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Centre for Bioengineering and Nanomedicine (Dunedin), Faculty of Dentistry, Division of Health Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Sutures are the most popular surgical implants in the global surgical equipment market. They are used for holding tissues together to achieve wound closure. However, controlling the body's immune response to these "foreign bodies" at site of infection is challenging. Natural polymers such as collagen, silk, nylon, and cotton, and synthetic polymers such as polycaprolactone, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), poly(p-dioxanone) and so forth, contribute the robust foundation for the engineering of drug-eluting sutures. The incorporation of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) with polymeric composition of suture materials is an efficient way to reduce inflammatory reaction in the wound site as well as to control bacterial growth, while allowing wound healing. The incorporation of polymeric composition in surgical sutures has been found to add high flexibility as well as excellent physical and mechanical properties. Fabrication processes and polymer materials allow control over drug-eluting profiles to effectively address wound healing requirements. This review outlines and discusses (a) polymer materials and APIs used in suture applications, including absorbable and nonabsorbable sutures; (b) suture structures, such as monofilament, multifilament, barded and smart sutures; and (c) the existing manufacturing techniques for drug-eluting suture production, including electrospinning, melt-extrusion and coating.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.37194DOI Listing
October 2021

Role and Therapeutic Potential of Melatonin in Various Type of Cancers.

Onco Targets Ther 2021 18;14:2019-2052. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Seoul, 05029, Korea.

Cancer is a large group of diseases and the second leading cause of death worldwide. Lung, prostate, colorectal, stomach, and liver cancers are the most common types of cancer in men, whereas breast, colorectal, lung, cervical, and thyroid cancers are the most common among women. Presently, various treatment strategies, including surgical resection combined with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, nanotherapy, and immunotherapy, have been used as conventional treatments for patients with cancer. However, the clinical outcomes of advanced-stage disease remain relatively unfavorable owing to the emergence of chemoresistance, toxicity, and other undesired detrimental side effects. Therefore, new therapies to overcome these limitations are indispensable. Recently, there has been considerable evidence from experimental and clinical studies suggesting that melatonin can be used to prevent and treat cancer. Studies have confirmed that melatonin mitigates the pathogenesis of cancer by directly affecting carcinogenesis and indirectly disrupting the circadian cycle. Melatonin (MLT) is nontoxic and exhibits a range of beneficial effects against cancer via apoptotic, antiangiogenic, antiproliferative, and metastasis-inhibitory pathways. The combination of melatonin with conventional drugs improves the drug sensitivity of cancers, including solid and liquid tumors. In this manuscript, we will comprehensively review some of the cellular, animal, and human studies from the literature that provide evidence that melatonin has oncostatic and anticancer properties. Further, this comprehensive review compiles the available experimental and clinical data analyzing the history, epidemiology, risk factors, therapeutic effect, clinical significance, of melatonin alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic agents or radiotherapy, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms of its anticancer effect against lung, breast, prostate, colorectal, skin, liver, cervical, and ovarian cancers. Nonetheless, in the interest of readership clarity and ease of reading, we have discussed the overall mechanism of the anticancer activity of melatonin against different types of cancer. We have ended this report with general conclusions and future perspectives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S298512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7987311PMC
March 2021

Integration of OMICS Technologies for Crop Improvement.

Protein Pept Lett 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Centre of Agricultural Biochemistry and Biotechnology (CABB), University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Pakistan.

Sustainable crop improvement can help to feed the exploding human population in an era of shrinking cultivable lands and dwindling water resources. In this scenario, crop improvement using OMICS technologies may help to ensure food security and alleviate the rural poverty in poor countries. Additionally, the improved crops may help to cope with the problem of malnutrition in the different parts of the world, especially Africa. OMICS technologies are based on the knowledge gained through genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, interactomics and phenomics. This expert review article congregates recent knowledge of the emerging OMICS technologies and evaluates how their integrated application is improving important crops and the potential of these technologies in bringing a revolution in agriculture. Moreover, we have provided an analysis of various technical challenges and difficulties arising during application of OMICS technologies to crop plants which pose major restrictions to the implementation of these strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929866528666210310161207DOI Listing
March 2021
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