Publications by authors named "Muhammad Qaisar"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The genus Cassia L.: Ethnopharmacological and phytochemical overview.

Phytother Res 2020 Dec 4. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

School of Pharmacy, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

Nature gifts medicinal plants with the untapped and boundless treasure of active chemical constituents with significant therapeutic potential that makes these plants a beneficial source in the development of phytomedicines. Genus Cassia, with approximately 500 species, is a large group of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae. Cassia species are widely distributed throughout different regions mainly tropical Asia, North America, and East Africa. In the folk medicinal history, these plants are used as laxative and purgative agents. In the Ayurveda system of medicine, they are used to cure headache and fever. Cassia plants exhibit pharmacological activities at large scales such as antimicrobial, anticancer, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, hyperglycemic, antimutagenic, and antivirals. The phytochemical investigations of genus Cassia demonstrate the presence of more than 200 chemical compounds, including piperidine alkaloids, anthracene derivatives (anthraquinones), flavonoids, pentacyclic triterpenoids, sterols, phenylpropanoids, and γ-naphthopyrones. The literature illustrated anthraquinones and flavonoids as major secondary metabolites from this genus. However, some Cassia plants, with rich contents of anthraquinones, still show toxicology properties. As Cassia plants are used extensively in the herbal system of medicine, but only senna dosage forms have achieved the status of the pharmaceutical market as standard laxative agents. In conclusion, further investigations on isolating newer biologically active constituents, unknown underlying mechanisms, toxicology profiles, and clinical studies of Cassia species are needed to be explored. This review article specifies the systematic breach existing between the current scientific knowledge and the fundamentals for the marketization of genus Cassia products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6954DOI Listing
December 2020

Development and in vitro evaluation of (β-cyclodextrin-g-methacrylic acid)/Na-montmorillonite nanocomposite hydrogels for controlled delivery of lovastatin.

Int J Nanomedicine 2019 17;14:5397-5413. Epub 2019 Jul 17.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan.

Hyperlipidemia is the elevation of low density lipoprotein levels resulting in fat deposites in arteries and their hardening and blockage.  It is the leading cause of several life threatening pathological conditions like hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes etc. The objective of this study was to prepare and optimize nontoxic, biocompatible β-CD-g-MAA/Na-MMT nanocomposite hydrogels with varying content of polymer, monomer and montmorillonite. Moreover, lipid lowering potentials were determined and compared with other approaches. β-CD-g-MAA/Na-MMT nanocomposite hydrogels (BM-1 to BM9) were prepared through free radical polymerization by using  β-CD  as polymer, MAA as monomer, MBA as crosslinker and montmorillonite as clay. Developed networks were evaluated for FTIR, DSC, TGA, PXRD, SEM, sol-gel fraction (%), swelling studies, antihyperlipidemic studies and toxicity studies. Optimum swelling (94.24%) and release (93.16%) were obtained at higher pH values. Based on R and value LVT release followed zero order kinetics with Super Case II transport release mechanism, respectively. Tensile strength and elongation at break were found to be 0.0283MPa and 94.68%, respectively. Gel fraction was between 80.55 - 98.16%. Antihyperlipidemic studies revealed that LDL levels were markedly reduced from 522.24 ± 21.88mg/dl to 147.63 ± 31.5mg/dl. Toxicity studies assured the safety of developed network. A novel pH responsive crosslinked network containing β-CD - g - poly (methacrylic acid) polymer and MMT was developed and optimized with excellent mechanical, swelling and release properties and lipid lowering potentials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S209662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6647011PMC
October 2019

Adequacy of Pain Control in Patients With Advanced Cancer in Pakistan.

J Palliat Care 2019 Apr 13;34(2):126-131. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

3 Hamdard University, Islamabad Campus, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Purpose:: Pain is highly prevalent in advanced cancer and requires aggressive management. However, pain management in cancer is minimally investigated in Pakistan. This cross-sectional study explores the adequacy of pain management in patients with advanced stage cancer in Pakistan.

Method:: From January 2017 to May 2017, a cross-sectional study was conducted at Mayo Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. A total of 218 patients with cancers were interviewed, and 136 patients with pain ≥5 on a Numerical Rating Scale for pain were included in the study. Demographic of patients and clinical characteristics of tumors were also evaluated.

Results:: Only about one-third of the patients with advanced cancer reported adequate pain management. Chi-square test, χ (1, n = 136) = 33.038, P < .05, indicated that pain scores were inversely associated with pain control; inadequate pain control was observed in patients with higher pain score and vice versa. Of the 55.88% of patients who were prescribed morphine, only 6 patients were compliant with treatment recommendations. Most patients were prescribed nonopioid medications and tramadol and codeine, which are weak opioid medications.

Conclusion:: The rate of undertreatment of cancer pain in Pakistan is alarming. Inadequate clinicians' training, patients' and caregivers' beliefs, lack of availability of opioid medications, and socioeconomic factors are some of the barriers to effective pain control. A multidisciplinary team approach is necessary to follow the World Health Organization pain ladder guidelines for the treatment of cancer pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0825859718800490DOI Listing
April 2019

Frequency and correlates of symptoms of anxiety and depression among young caregivers of cancer patients: a pilot study.

BMC Res Notes 2018 Aug 31;11(1):631. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

CMH Lahore Medical College & Institute of Dentistry, Lahore Cantt, Pakistan.

Objectives: To determine the frequency of symptoms of anxiety and depression among the young caregivers of family members with cancer and their correlation with role of gender, age and socio-economic status.

Results: A total of 87.8% of caregivers were between 11 and 16 years of age, with 94.6% reported having support from another caregiver. At least 95% of caregivers reported symptoms of anxiety with a higher predisposition among females. Around 73% of caregivers had low monthly incomes followed by (22.9%) middle and (4.1%) high monthly incomes. Care givers belonging to low income groups were more likely to report anxiety and depressive symptoms (70%). Young adults 17-18 years of age reported fewer symptoms of anxiety (10.9%) than their younger counterparts. Reported symptoms of anxiety and depression decreased when the number of care givers increased-2 (67.5%), 3 (16.2%), 4 (5.4%). Increased hospital stay was associated with increased frequency of symptoms, but not beyond 5 weeks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-018-3740-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6119268PMC
August 2018

EVALUATION OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF MELILOTUS OFFICINALIS L. AGAINST PARACETAMOL AND CARBON TETRACHLORIDE INDUCED HEPATIC INJURY IN MICE.

Acta Pol Pharm 2017 May;74(3):903-909

Hepatic diseases are becoming common day by day and pose serious health threats to the life of humans. In order to treat these diseases, the attention of man is diverting towards herbal drugs, which are much safer and cost effective than synthetic drugs. The aim of present study was to investigate hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Melilomus officinalis against paracetamol and carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic damage. Melilotus officinalis at selected oral doses of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg showed significant hepatoprotective effects by decreasing the levels of serum marker enzymes such as total bilirubin, SGOT, SGPT, ALP, albumin and total protein, when compared with standard drug (silymarin) and negative control. Similarly, histopathological studies also supported biochemical estimations. It was concluded that extract of Melilotus officinali has strong hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol and carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity, which might be due to free radical scavenging mechanisms exhibited by flavonoids and phenolics, thus affirming its traditional therapeutic role in liver injury.
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May 2017

Evaluation of the cytotoxic potential of a new pentacyclic triterpene from Rhododendron arboreum stem bark.

Pharm Biol 2017 Dec;55(1):1927-1930

e Institute of Integrative Bioscience , CECOS University of IT and Emerging Sciences , Peshawar , KP , Pakistan.

Context: Traditionally, Rhododendron arboreum Sm. (Ericaceae) is a very important medicinal plant having oxytocic, estrogenic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and hepatoprotective activities; it also inhibits the prostaglandin synthetase.

Objectives: This study determines the cytotoxic potential of 15-oxoursolic acid isolated from R. arboreum against selected human cancer cell lines.

Materials And Methods: Extraction from stem bark (5 kg) of R. arboreum was performed with methanol, which was successively partitioned into hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions, respectively. The new antitumor agent [15-oxoursolic acid (1)] was isolated from ethyl acetate fraction through column chromatography. Structure elucidation of new compound was performed through extensive spectroscopy i.e., IR, MS and 1D and 2D NMR. Cytotoxicity of isolated compound was determined at doses 5-100 μM for a period of 72 h on specified human cancer cell lines [renal cell carcinoma (A498), non-small cell lung (NCI-H226), squamous cell carcinoma (H157) and human ovarian carcinoma (MDR-2780AD)].

Results: Structure of isolated compound was characterized as 15-oxoursolic acid on the basis of various extensive spectroscopic techniques. 15-Oxoursolic acid revealed considerable anticancer activity with IC values of 2.3 ± 0.1 μM, 4.9 ± 0.2 μM, 9.2 ± 0.2 μM and 10.3 ± 0.1 μM against MDR 2780AD, Hep G2, H157 and NCI-H226, respectively, while in the case of A498, the activity was good (IC 32.8 ± 1.2 μM).

Conclusions: This study highlighted the potential of 15-oxoursolic acid to be further explored as a new lead compound for cancer chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2017.1343359DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7012009PMC
December 2017

Storage Stability of Kinnow Fruit (Citrus reticulata) as Affected by CMC and Guar Gum-Based Silver Nanoparticle Coatings.

Molecules 2015 Dec 18;20(12):22645-61. Epub 2015 Dec 18.

Section of Food Science and Technology, Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Haripur, Haripur 22620, KPK, Pakistan.

The influence of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) and guargum-based coatings containing silver nanoparticles was studied on the postharvest storage stability of the kinnow mandarin (Citrus reticulata cv. Blanco) for a period of 120 days (85%-90% relative humidity) at 4 °C and 10 °C. Physicochemical and microbiological qualities were monitored after every 15 days of storage. Overall results revealed an increase in total soluble solid (TSS), total sugars, reducing sugars and weight loss but this increase was comparatively less significant in coated fruits stored at 4 °C. Ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity was significantly enhanced in coated fruits stored at 4 °C. Titratable acidity significantly decreased during storage except for coated kinnow stored at 4 °C. In control samples stored at 10 °C, high intensity of fruit rotting and no chilling injury was observed. Total aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria and yeast and molds were noticed in all treatments during storage but the growth was not significant in coated fruits at 4 °C. Kinnow fruit can be kept in good quality after coating for four months at 4 °C and for 2 months at 10 °C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules201219870DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6332021PMC
December 2015

Preliminary phytochemical screening, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Euphorbia milli.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2014 Jul;27(4):947-51

PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan.

Euphorbia milii is a Pakistani herb used for various infectious diseases. In this study we have carried out phytochemical, antibacterial and antioxidant investigation of different extracts/fractions. Phytochemical studies showed the presence of cardiac glycosides, steroids/phytosterols, anthocyanin, proteins, terpenoids, flavonoids and tannins. Susceptibility testing by well diffusion assay of its chloroform and methanol fractions revealed good antimicrobial activity against Klebsiella pneumonia and Staph epidermis. Ethyl acetate fraction of roots also exhibited considerable antimicrobial activity against most of tested pathogens. Various fractions (Hexane, chloroform, methanol and water) of E. milii were screen for their antioxidant potential using DPPH radical scavenging assay at different concentrations among these, chloroform fraction exhibited good scavenging activity. The IR spectroscopy of the various extracts/fractions indicated the presence of OH, saturated CH stretching, C=C, C=O, NO2, C-N, Ar-O, C-O- and R-O-Stretching respectively. The findings provide helpful evidence for the use of E. milii in traditional medicines.
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July 2014

Correlation between Chemical Composition of Curcuma domestica and Curcuma xanthorrhiza and Their Antioxidant Effect on Human Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012 26;2012:438356. Epub 2012 Nov 26.

Drug and Herbal Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

The antioxidant activity of the curcuminoids of Curcuma domestica L. and C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. and eight compounds which are prevalent constituents of their rhizome oils were investigated in an effort to correlate human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) antioxidant activity with the effect of the herbs and their components. The antioxidant activity was examined using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) assay with human LDL as the oxidation substrate. The methanol extracts and rhizome oils of C. xanthorrhiza and C. domestica showed strong inhibitory activity on copper-mediated oxidation of LDL. Curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin, isolated from the methanol extracts of both plants, exhibited stronger activity than probucol (IC(50) value 0.57 μmol/L) as reference, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.15 to 0.33 μmol/L. Xanthorrhizol, the most abundant component (31.9%) of the oil of C. xanthorrhiza, showed relatively strong activity with an IC(50) value of 1.93 μmol/L. The major components of C. domestica, ar-turmerone (45.8%) and zerumbone (3.5%), exhibited IC(50) values of 10.18 and 24.90 μmol/L, respectively. The high levels of curcuminoids in the methanol extracts and xanthorrhizol, ar-turmerone and zerumbone in the oils, and in combination with the minor components were responsible for the high LDL antioxidant activity of the herbs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/438356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3519093PMC
December 2012