Publications by authors named "Muhammad Mohsin Abrar"

12 Publications

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Global research on the air quality status in response to the electrification of vehicles.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jul 3;795:148861. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Prince Sultan Institute for Environmental, Water and Desert Research, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Department of Soil Science, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia.

Electric vehicles (EVs) can substantially decrease atmospheric pollutant emissions, thereby improving air quality, decreasing global warming, and improving human health. In this study, we performed a comprehensive bibliometric analysis using Web of Science to understand the research developments and future perspectives in EVs between 1974 and 2021. The analysis of indicators such as research trends, publication growth, and keywords revealed that most research in the selected timeframe was focused on applying and optimizing the existing technologies of different types of EVs to decrease air pollution and mortality. The changes in air quality owing to such electrification received special attention, with approximately 441 publications preferably in the English language. Among all the retrieved documents, research articles were most common (n = 295; 66.89% of the global output), dominated by the research domains of environmental sciences, followed by energy fuels and transportation science technology. Journal analysis revealed that Sustainability (n = 19, 4.30%) was the leading journal, followed by Journal of Cleaner Production and Science of the Total Environment. The most frequently used keywords were "electric vehicles," "air quality," and "air pollution." The most highly impactful article was published by Jacobson et al. (2005) in Science, with 620 total citations and 38.82 average annual citations. Furthermore, the United States (n = 118; 26.75% of the global output) had the highest publication rate, followed by China and the United Kingdom. The leading institutions were Tsinghua University (n = 16; 3.62% of the global research output) in China, followed by the University of Michigan and Cornell University in the United States. The current analysis warrants more focus on comprehensive analysis employing transport and chemistry modeling and using the latest technology for long life and sustainable batteries. This study provides a basis for future studies on improving air quality through innovative work in the electrification of vehicles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.148861DOI Listing
July 2021

Pollution characteristics and human health risk assessments of toxic metals and particle pollutants via soil and air using geoinformation in urbanized city of Pakistan.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 10. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresource, College of Tropical Crops, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228, Hainan, China.

Toxic metals and particle pollutants in urbanized cities have significantly increased over the past few decades mainly due to rapid urbanization and unplanned infrastructure. This research aimed at estimating the concentration of toxic metals and particle pollutants and the associated risks to public health across different land-use settings including commercial area (CA), urban area (UA), residential area (RA), and industrial area (IA). A total of 47 samples for both soil and air were collected from different land-use settings of Faisalabad city in Pakistan. Mean concentrations of toxic metals such as Mn, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, Co, and Cd in all land-use settings were 92.68, 4.06, 1.34, 0.16, 0.07, 0.03, and 0.02 mg kg, respectively. Mean values of PM, PM, and Mn in all land-use settings were found 5.14, 1.34, and 1.9 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Mn was found as the most hazardous metal in terms of pollution load index (PLI) and contamination factor (CF) in the studied area. Health risk analysis for particle pollutants using air quality index (AQI) and geoinformation was found in the range between good to very critical for all the land-use settings. The hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were higher for children in comparison to adults, suggesting that children may be susceptible to potentially higher health risks. However, the cancer risk (CR) value for Pb ingestion (1.21 × 10) in children was lower than the permissible limit (1 × 10 to 1 × 10). Nonetheless, for Cr inhalation, CR value (1.09 × 10) was close to tolerable limits. Our findings can be of valuable assistance toward advancing our understanding of soil and air pollutions concerning public health in different land-use settings of the urbanized cities of Pakistan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14436-xDOI Listing
June 2021

Processed animal manure improves morpho-physiological and biochemical characteristics of Brassica napus L. under nickel and salinity stress.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresource, College of Tropical Crops, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228, Hainan, China.

Soil contamination with readily soluble salts and heavy metals is a major challenge concerning sustainable crop production. The use of organic wastes in agriculture not only helps in waste reduction but also acts as a soil conditioner and bio-stimulant for enhancing crop growth. In this regard, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of raw and processed animal manure (AM) on the growth, yield, and physicochemical parameters of Brassica napus L. developed under salinity and Ni stress. The experiment comprised two salinity levels (1.05 and 8 dS m), two Ni levels (0 and 50 mg kg), and two types of AMs (raw and processed at a rate of 2% w/w). A control treatment without AM incorporation was also included. In results, the application of AM markedly increased the growth and yield of B. napus under Ni and salinity stress; at the same time, it improved the physiological and chemical parameters of the said crop. Similarly, incorporation of processed AM significantly improved nutrient uptake and decreased Na/K ratios in the shoot and grain under the different stress conditions, as compared to the control. Likewise, Ni uptake in the grain, shoot, and root samples was also significantly reduced under the AM treatment. Also, the application of AM significantly reduced the daily intake of metal (DIM) index and the health risk index (HRI) values under the different stress conditions, as compared to the control. In conclusion, the application of processed AM constitutes an effective agricultural strategy to alleviate the adverse effects of Ni and salinity stress on growth, physiology, and yield of B. napus, thus resulting in enhanced productivity, as well as reduced risks associated with human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14004-3DOI Listing
April 2021

Investigating connections between COVID-19 pandemic, air pollution and community interventions for Pakistan employing geoinformation technologies.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 29;272:129809. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Agronomy, University of Haripur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Several major cities that witnessed heavy air pollution by particulate matter (PM) concentration and nitrogen dioxide (NO) have contributed to high rate of infection and severity of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Owing to the negative impact of COVID-19 on health and economy, it is imperative to predict the pandemic trend of the COVID-19 outbreak. Pakistan is one of the mostly affected countries by recent COVID-19 pandemic in terms of COVID-cases and economic crises. Like other several Asian countries to combat the virus impacts, Pakistan implemented non-pharmacological interventions (NPI), such as national lockdowns. The current study investigates the effect of major interventions across three out of four provinces of Pakistan for the period from the start of the COVID-19 in March 22, 2020 until June 30, 2020, when lockdowns were started to be eased. High-resolution data on NO was recorded from Sentinel-5's Precursor spacecraft with TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (Sentinel-5P TROPOMI). Similarly, PM data were collected from sampling sties to investigate possible correlation among these pollutants and COVID-19. In addition, growth and susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) models utilizing time-series data of COVID-19 from February 26 to December 31, 2020, with- and without NPI that encompass the predicted number of infected cases, peak time, impact on the healthcare system and mortality in Pakistan. Maximum mean PM concentration of 108 μgm was recorded for Lahore with the range from 51 to 215 μgm during strict lockdown (L), condition. This is three times higher than Pak-EPA and US-EPA and four times for WHO guidelines, followed by Peshawar (97.2 and 58 ± 130), Islamabad (83 and 158 ± 58), and Karachi (78 and 50 ± 140). The majority of sampling sites in Lahore showed NO levels higher than 8.75E-5 (mol/m) in 2020 compared to 2019 during "L" period. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model depicted a strong correlation (r) between the predicted and reported cases for Punjab (r = 0.79), Sindh (r = 0.91), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) (r = 94) and Islamabad (r = 0.85). Findings showed that major NPI and lockdowns especially have had a large effect on minimizing transmission. Continued community intervention should be undertaken to keep transmission of SARS-CoV-2 under control in cities where higher incidence of COVID-19 cases until the vaccine is available. This study provides a methodological framework that if adopted can assist epidemiologist and policy makers to be well-prepared in advance in cities where PM concentration and NO levels are already high in order to minimize the potential risk of further spread of COVID-19 cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7846247PMC
June 2021

Spatiotemporal variability of COVID-19 pandemic in relation to air pollution, climate and socioeconomic factors in Pakistan.

Chemosphere 2021 May 10;271:129584. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresource, College of Tropical Crops,Hainan University, Haikou, 570228, China; Department of Agronomy, The University of Haripur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 21120, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Information on the spatiotemporal variability of respirable suspended particulate pollutant matter concentrations, especially of particles having size of 2.5 μm and climate are the important factors in relation to emerging COVID-19 cases around the world. This study aims at examining the association between COVID-19 cases, air pollution, climatic and socioeconomic factors using geospatial techniques in three provincial capital cities and the federal capital city of Pakistan. A series of relevant data was acquired from 3 out of 4 provinces of Pakistan (Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) including the daily numbers of COVID-19 cases, PM concentration (μgm), a climatic factors including temperature (°F), wind speed (m/s), humidity (%), dew point (%), and pressure (Hg) from June 1 2020, to July 31 2020. Further, the possible relationships between population density and COVID-19 cases was determined. The generalized linear model (GLM) was employed to quantify the effect of PM, temperature, dew point, humidity, wind speed, and pressure range on the daily COVID-19 cases. The grey relational analysis (GRA) was also implemented to examine the changes in COVID-19 cases with PM concentrations for the provincial city Lahore. About 1,92, 819 COVID-19 cases were reported in Punjab, Sindh, KPK, and Islamabad during the study period. Results indicated a significant relationship between COVID-19 cases and PM and climatic factors at p < 0.05 except for Lahore in case of humidity (r = 0.175). However, mixed correlations existed across Lahore, Karachi, Peshawar, and Islamabad. The R value indicates a moderate relationship between COVID-19 and population density. Findings of this study, although are preliminary, offers the first line of evidence for epidemiologists and may assist the local community to expedient for the growth of effective COVID-19 infection and health risk management guidelines. This remains to be seen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129584DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7797023PMC
May 2021

Long-term fertilization affects functional soil organic carbon protection mechanisms in a profile of Chinese loess plateau soil.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 11;267:128897. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

South Subtropical Crop Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences (CATAS), Zhanjiang, GuangDong, 524091, China. Electronic address:

Crop productivity and soil health are limited by organic carbon (OC), however, the variations in the mechanisms of SOC preservation in a complete soil profile subjected to long-term fertilization remains unclear. The objective of the study was to examined the content and profile distribution of the distinctive SOC protection mechanisms on a complete profile (0-100 cm) of Eumorthic Anthrosols in Northwest China after 23 years of chemical and manure fertilization. The soil was fractionated by combined physical-chemical and density floatation techniques. Throughout the profile, significant variations were observed among fractions. In the topsoil (0-20 and 20-40 cm), mineral coupling with the fertilization of manure (MNPK) enhanced total SOC content and recorded for 29% of SOC in the 0-20 and 20-40 cm layers. Moreover, MNPK increased the SOC content of the unprotected cPOC fraction by 60.9% and 61.5% in the 0-20 and 20-40 cm layer, while SOC content was low in the subsoil layers (40-60, 60-80 and 80-100 cm, respectively) compared with the control (C). The highest OC under MNPK in physically protected micro-aggregates (μagg) (6.36 and 6.06 g C kg), and occluded particulate organic carbon (iPOC) (1.41 and 1.29 g C kg) was found in the topsoil layers. The unprotected cPOC fraction was the greatest C accumulating fraction in the topsoil layers, followed by μagg and H-μSilt fractions in the soil profile, implying that these fractions were the most sensitive to the fertilization treatments. Overall, the unprotected, physically protected, and physico-chemically protected fractions were the dominant fractions for the sequestration of carbon across fertilization treatments and soil layers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128897DOI Listing
March 2021

Evaluating the Contribution of Growth, Physiological, and Ionic Components Towards Salinity and Drought Stress Tolerance in .

Plants (Basel) 2020 Nov 13;9(11). Epub 2020 Nov 13.

National Engineering Laboratory for Improving Quality of Arable Land, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China.

Salinity and drought stress, singly or in combination, are major environmental menaces. L. is a biodiesel plant that can tolerate long periods of drought. However, the growth performance and stress tolerance based on physical, chemical, and physiological attributes of this plant have not yet been studied. To address this question, seedlings were grown in a completely randomized design in plastic pots filled with soil to evaluate the effects of salinity and drought stresses on growth, ionic composition, and physiological attributes. The experiment consisted of six treatments: control (without salinity and drought stress), salinity alone (7.5 dS m, 15 dS m), drought, and a combination of salinity and drought (7.5 dS m+ Drought, 15 dS m+Drought). Our results revealed that, compared with the control, both plant height (PH) and stem diameter (SD) were reduced by (83%, 80%, and 77%) and (69%, 56%, and 55%) under salinity and drought combination (15 dS m+Drought) after three, six, and nine months, respectively. There was 93% more leaf Na found in plants treated with 15 dS m+Drought compared with the control. The highest significant average membrane stability index (MSI) and relative water content (RWC) values (81% and 85%, respectively) were found in the control. The MSI and RWC were not influenced by 7.5 dS m and drought treatments and mostly contributed towards stress tolerance. Our findings imply that is moderately tolerant to salinity and drought. The Na toxicity and disturbance in K: Na ratio were the main contributing factors for limited growth and physiological attributes in this plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9111574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7696781PMC
November 2020

Soil aggregation and soil aggregate stability regulate organic carbon and nitrogen storage in a red soil of southern China.

J Environ Manage 2020 Sep 15;270:110894. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Dept. Soil Sci. and Agric. Chem., Eng. Polytech. School, Campus univ. 27002 Lugo, Univ. Santiago de Compostela, Spain.

Soil aggregation plays a critical role in the maintenance of soil structure, as well as in its productivity. Fertilization influences soil aggregation, especially by regulating soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents in aggregate fractions. The present study evaluated the influence of three contrasting fertilizer regimes (unfertilized control -CK-, mineral fertilization -NPK- and manure combined with NPK -NPKM) on soil aggregate stability, aggregate-associated organic carbon and total nitrogen sequestration and mineralization of SOC. Soil samples from (20 cm) depth were collected from a long-term fertilization experiment and analysed for size distribution ranging (>250 μm, 250-53 μm and <53 μm sizes), SOC and TN contents, as well as for mineralization of bulk and aggregate associated-SOC. Both NPK and NPKM fertilizations significantly enhanced SOC and TN contents in bulk soil and its constituent aggregates of >250 μm, 250-53 μm and <53 μm sizes, as compared to CK. Long-term NPK and NPKM increased SOC and TN stock in bulk soil by 45 and 98%, and by 70 and 144%, respectively, as compared to CK. Similarly, higher values of SOC and TN stock in all aggregate fractions was observed with the application of NPKM. Application of NPK and NPKM for 26 years significantly increased aggregate stability, which was positively correlated with total SOC contents in terms of mean weight diameter (MWD) (Adj. R = 0.689, p < 0.03) and geometric mean diameter (GMD) (Adj. R = 0.471, p < 0.24). Moreover, higher scores regarding cumulative mineralization for bulk soil and aggregate associated OC were observed with the application of NPK and NPKM. Irrespective of treatments, higher cumulative C-mineralization was observed for macro-aggregates (>250 μm size) followed by 250-53 μm and <53 μm size aggregates. Interestingly, a highly positive correlation was observed between aggregate stability and the cumulative amount of mineralization for bulk soil and aggregate fractions, with R ranging from 0.84 to 0.99. This study evidenced that long-term fertilization of NPK and NPKM can improve soil aggregation, stability and associated OC and TN stock in aggregates, as well as aggregate-associated OC mineralization, which was further governed by aggregate size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110894DOI Listing
September 2020

Can exposure to PM particles increase the incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?

Sci Total Environ 2020 11 23;741:140441. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

National Engineering Laboratory for Improving Quality of Arable Land, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140441DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308784PMC
November 2020

Pakistan and India Collaboration to Improve Regional Air Quality Has Never Been More Promising.

Integr Environ Assess Manag 2020 Sep 9;16(5):549-551. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

National Engineering Laboratory for Improving Quality of Arable Land, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ieam.4292DOI Listing
September 2020

Variations in the profile distribution and protection mechanisms of organic carbon under long-term fertilization in a Chinese Mollisol.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jun 24;723:138181. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Institute of Environment and Resources, Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Harbin 150086, China.

Long term fertilization may have a significant effect on soil organic carbon (SOC) fractions and profile distribution. However, previous research mostly explored the SOC in the topsoil and provided little or no information about its distribution in deeper layers and various protection mechanisms particularly under long-term fertilization. The present study investigated the contents and profile distribution (0-100 cm) of distinct SOC protection mechanisms in the Mollisol (black soil) of Northeast China after 35 years of mineral and manure application. The initial Organic Matter content of the topsoil (0-20 cm) ranged from 26.4 to 27.0 g kg soil, and ploughing depth was up to 20 cm. A combination of physical-chemical fractionation methods was employed to study various SOC fractions. There were significant variations throughout the profile among the various fractions and protection mechanisms. In topsoil (to 40 cm), mineral plus manure fertilization (MNPK) increased the total SOC content and accounted for 16.15% in the 0-20 cm and 12.34% in the 20-40 cm layer, while the manure alone (M) increased the total SOC by 56.14%, 48.73% and 27.73% in the subsoil (40-60, 60-80 and 80-100 cm, respectively). Moreover, MNPK and M in the topsoil and subsoil, respectively increased the unprotected coarse particulate organic carbon (cPOC) (48% and 26%, respectively), physically protected micro-aggregate (μagg) (20% and 18%, respectively) and occluded particulate organic carbon (iPOC) contents (279% and 93%, respectively) compared with the control (CK). A positive linear correlation was observed between total SOC and the cPOC, iPOC, physico-biochemically protected NH-μSilt and physico-chemically protected H-μSilt (p < 0.01) across the whole profile. Overall, physical, physico-biochemical and physico-chemical protection were the predominant mechanisms to sequester carbon in the whole profile, whereas the biochemical protection mechanisms were only relevant in the topsoil, thus demonstrating the differential mechanistic sensitivity of fractions for organic carbon cycling across the profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138181DOI Listing
June 2020
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