Publications by authors named "Muhammad Luqman"

32 Publications

Elucidating the distinct interactive impact of cadmium and nickel on growth, photosynthesis, metal-homeostasis, and yield responses of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) varieties.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 28;28(21):27376-27390. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Environmental Science, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Contamination of soils with heavy metals (HMs) caused serious problems because plants tend to absorb HMs from the soil. In view of HM hazards to plants as well as agro-ecosystems, we executed this study to assess metal toxicity to mung bean (Vigna radiata) plants cultivated in soil with six treatment levels of cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) and to find metal tolerant variety, i.e., M-93 (V) and M-1(V) with multifarious plant biochemical and physiological attributes. Increasing doses of Cd and Ni inhibited plant growth and photosynthesis and both varieties showed highly significant differences in the morpho-physiological attributes. V showed sensitivity to Cd and Ni treatments alone or in combination. Tolerance indices for attributes presented a declined growth of Vigna plants under HM stress accompanied by highly significant suppression in gas exchange characteristics. Of single element applications, the adverse effects on mung bean were more pronounced in Cd treatments. V showed much reduction in photosynthesis attributes except sub-stomatal CO concentration in all treatments compared to V. The yield attributes, i.e., seed yield/plant and 100-seed weight, were progressively reduced in T for both varieties. In combination, we have observed increased mobility of Cd and Ni in both varieties. The results showed that water use efficiency (WUE) generally increased in all the treatments for both varieties compared to control. V exhibited less soluble sugars and free amino acids compared to V in all the treatments. Similarly, we recorded an enhanced total free amino acid contents in both varieties among all the metal treatments against control plants. We conclude that combinatorial treatment proved much lethal for Vigna plants, but V performed better than V in counteracting the adverse effects of Cd and Ni.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12579-5DOI Listing
June 2021

Plant-growth-promoting Bacillus and Paenibacillus species improve the nutritional status of Triticum aestivum L.

PLoS One 2020 1;15(12):e0241130. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Botany and Microbiology Department, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Wheat is one of the best-domesticated cereal crops and one of the vital sources of nutrition for humans. An investigation was undertaken to reveal the potential of novel bio-inoculants enriching micronutrients in shoot and grains of wheat crop to eliminate the hazards of malnutrition. Sole as well as consortia inoculation of bio-inoculants significantly enhanced mineral nutrients including zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) concentrations in shoot and grains of wheat. Various treatments of bio-inoculants increase Zn and Fe content up to 1-15% and 3-13%, respectively. Sole inoculation of Bacillus aryabhattai (S10) impressively improves the nutritious of wheat. However, the maximum increase in minerals contents of wheat was recorded by consortia inoculation of Paenibacillus polymyxa ZM27, Bacillus subtilis ZM63 and Bacillus aryabhattai S10. This treatment also showed a maximum bacterial population (18 × 104 cfu mL-1) in the rhizosphere. The consortium application of these strains showed up to a 17% increase in yield. It is evident from the results that the consortium application was more effective than sole and co-inoculation. A healthy positive correlation was found between growth, yield, and the accessibility of micronutrients to wheat crops at the harvesting stage. The present investigations revealed the significance of novel bacterial strains in improving the nutritional status of wheat crops. These strains could be used as bio-inoculants for the biofortification of wheat to combat hidden hunger in developing countries.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0241130PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7707572PMC
January 2021

Type I IFNs: A Blessing in Disguise or Partner in Crime in MERS-CoV-, SARS-CoV-, and SARS-CoV-2-Induced Pathology and Potential Use of Type I IFNs in Synergism with IFN- as a Novel Antiviral Approach Against COVID-19.

Viral Immunol 2020 Nov 11. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Microbiology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Since the end of 2019, the emergence of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has accelerated the research on host immune responses toward the coronaviruses. When there is no approved drug or vaccine to use against these culprits, host immunity is the major strategy to fight such infections. Type I interferons are an integral part of the host innate immune system and define one of the first lines of innate immune defense against viral infections. The antiviral role of type I IFNs against Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and SARS-CoV (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus) is well established. Moreover, the involvement of type I IFNs in disease pathology has also been reported. In this study, we have reviewed the protective and the immunopathogenic role of type I IFNs in the pathogenesis of MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. This review will also enlighten the potential implications of type I IFNs for the treatment of COVID-19 when used in combination with IFN-.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vim.2020.0085DOI Listing
November 2020

Antimicrobial profiling and molecular characterization of antibiotic resistant genes of Proteus vulgaris isolated from tertiary care hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2019 Nov;32(6(Supplementary)):2887-2891

Institute of Microbiology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections acquired from hospitals and community. Pseudomonas and Proteus species are the common cause of these UTIs. Generally, UTIs are self-limiting but have potential to re-occur. Extensive treatment therapy with antibiotics lead to the development of resistance in uropathogens. The development of antibiotic resistance is leading to the failure of currently available antibiotic based therapies thus making the situation worse. The objective of the present study was to access antimicrobial sensitivity and to characterize antibiotic resistant genes of Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris) isolated from patients suffering with UTIs. A total of 150 urine samples were collected and cultured on MacConkey agar medium followed by isolation and identification on blood agar medium. Biochemical characterization of all presumptive Proteus isolates was done using Remel Rap ID one kit. Antibiotic sensitivity for P. vulgaris isolates was performed by disc diffusion method. Presence of blaTEM and qnr antibiotic resistant genes was determined by PCR. The results showed that the overall prevalence of P. vulgaris in clinical samples was 11.3%. It showed maximum resistance (94%) to three antibiotics i.e. ampicillin, tigecycline and chloramphenicol, while least resistance was observed against imipenem (12%). Statistical analysis depicted that imipenem had a significantly larger zone of inhibition (P=.01), while ampicillin had significantly smaller zone of inhibition (P=.0004) followed by chloramphenicol (p-value = 0.002). Imipenem should be considered as an effective antibiotic to treat urinary tract infections associated with P. vulgaris. Both blaTEM and qnr genes were found to be involved in conferring resistance to β-lactam and quinolones antibiotics.
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November 2019

Sharing the costs and benefits of climate change mitigation via Shapley value.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 Nov 13;26(32):33157-33168. Epub 2019 Sep 13.

The Center for Economic Research, Shandong University, Jinan, People's Republic of China.

This paper examines the free rider problem that exists in the joint effort to mitigate climate change. There is a need to develop a model that is stable and that provides evidence of an objective burden sharing rule so that the environmental agreement is more acceptable. This study approaches this problem via a cooperative game at the global level to make International Environmental Agreements (IEA) more stable. For this purpose, we apply the Shapley value transfer mechanism and find that under the commitment scenario, some regions attain the maximum benefits by joining the coalition. Shapley value transfer improves the coalition size and increases the global benefits at a certain level of abatement under perfect cooperation. Imperfect cooperation leads to lower levels of global benefits. Our findings offer new implications on how to improve the international cooperation for climate change. Commitments by major regions could activate the IEA (e.g., Paris agreement) efficiently. For the maximum global response to climate change, the national governments must reformulate and implement policies to meet their intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs). The results of this study also help the national governments to set their implementation priorities to implement the Paris Accord at global level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-06409-yDOI Listing
November 2019

Macromorphological and micromorphological seed features of selected taxa of Caesalpiniaceae using light and scanning electron microscopy.

Microsc Res Tech 2019 Jul 22;82(7):1073-1082. Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Seed micromorphological and macromorphological characteristics of 12 taxa of Caesalpiniaceae from Pakistan have been studied, using light and scanning electron microscopy, to investigate the importance of seed coat features as a taxonomic tool. Great variations have been observed in color, shape, dimension, and seed surface pattern among the different genera of the family. A taxonomic key was prepared for the studied taxa. Six types of seed shapes were observed; circular, elliptical, irregular, oblong, oval, and ovoid. All examined seeds were hard except fragile seeds of Haematoxylom campechianum. Eight types of surface ornamentation have been noticed that include levigate, lugose, papillate, reticulate, reticulate irregular, reticulate regular, rhombus, and rogues. Majority of the taxa has been observed with thick ornamentation wall but thin ornamentation wall has also been recorded in few species. Fracture line of the various patterns was present in all taxa except genus Bauhinia. Three types of texture crudeness; coarse, medium, and fine have been recorded. Both micromorphological and macromorphological characters of seed are very fruitful in identification and classification of Caesalpiniaceae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.23255DOI Listing
July 2019

Intraspecific variation in spermoderm pattern of tribe Acacieae (Mimosoideae) using scanning electron microscopy techniques.

Microsc Res Tech 2019 Feb 21;82(2):114-121. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Current research carried out in Pakistan is the first report on spermoderm ornamentation of eight species of tribe Acacieae (Mimosoidae) by using scanning electron microscopic techniques representing two genera, Fedherbia and Acacia were examined. Different spermoderm ornamentation were observed, described and discussed for their taxonomic importance. Seeds surfaces of the studied tribe possess novel variations in macro and micro morphology. Great variations were observed in both qualitative and quantitative characters of seeds. Seeds shape was oblong, ovate to elliptical and spermoderm ornamentation was levigate, rugose, polygonal and discoid, colliculate, and papillose type. These variations in the spermoderm ornamentation can be used as an aid in identification and classification of the members of tribe Acacieae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.23116DOI Listing
February 2019

Laparoscopic IPOM repair of an acquired abdominal intercostal hernia.

BMJ Case Rep 2018 Nov 3;2018. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

General Surgery, Mayo General Hospital, Castlebar, Ireland.

Acquired abdominal intercostal hernia (AAIH) is an infrequent occurrence whereby intra-abdominal contents herniate into intercostal space directly from the peritoneal cavity through an acquired defect in the abdominal wall musculature and fascia. These hernias are difficult to diagnose and should always be suspected when a chest wall swelling occur after major or minor trauma. Surgical repair is warranted in symptomatic patients. The majority of AAIHs are repaired through an open approach using tension-free mesh, with significant recurrence risk. Recently, laparoscopic and robot-assisted repairs have been proposed. We discuss a 49-year-old man presented through outpatient setting with a 5-year history of ongoing left subcostal discomfort and a reducible lump. His history included a workplace accident 5 years ago. Contrast-enhanced abdominal CT confirmed AAIH with omentum herniation into the sac. A successful laparoscopic repair with intraperitoneal onlay mesh technique using composite mesh was performed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-227158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6229219PMC
November 2018

Micromorphological observation of seed coat of Eucalyptus species (Myrtaceae) using scanning electron microscopy technique.

Microsc Res Tech 2019 Feb 23;82(2):75-84. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Seed shape, surface cells shape, arrangement, anticlinal wall pattern, and periclinal wall protuberances were recorded for nine species of Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) using scanning electron microscopy to determine the importance of seed morphological characters as an additional tool for identification. Most of the seeds were found ovate and some seeds were elliptic and cuboid in shape. Almost reticulate regular seed surface patterns were observed. Four types of surface cells were examined; diamond, elliptic, oblong, and irregular. Majority of the seeds showed raised anticlinal wall level and diversity from wavy to puzzle in pattern. Periclinal wall may be glabrous or having protuberances that were rhombus and bullate in shape. Both macro- and micromorphological characters can provide basis for classification and delimitation of genus Eucalyptus. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: Seeds quantitative characters of nine Eucalyptus species as seed length, width, and weight. Macromorphological characters of seeds including seed color, helium position, and seed shape. Micromorphological characters include seed surface, periclinal wall, and anticlinal wall investigation under scanning electron microscope. Ultra-seed sculpturing features as an additional tool in identification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.23099DOI Listing
February 2019

Molecular occurrence of canine babesiosis in rural dog population in Pakistan.

Trop Biomed 2018 Sep;35(3):593-603

5Department of Medicine, Islamia University Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur.

Canine babesiosis is an important tick-borne protozoal disease of dogs that poses major health problem worldwide. Farm dogs in rural areas are the companion animals, that not only watch the livestock herds but also guard the house of the owners. Each farmer keeps his companion dog to get all the services. In our study, a total of 450 blood samples of farm dogs from three different ecological zones (Southern, Central and Northern regions of the province; Punjab) of Pakistan, were collected to examine through microscopy and PCR. Examination of thin blood smears revealed an overall prevalence of 12.8% (58/450) of canine babesisal parasites. However, PCR analysis revealed 46.8% (211/450) and 7.3% (33/450) samples positive for B. gibsoni and B. vogeli, respectively. The amplicons of 671 bp and 590 bp were amplified for the detection of B. gibsoni and B. vogeli, respectively through PCR. The results of multivariate analysis showed that the occurrence of canine babesiosis is higher in the Central Punjab and younger age of the dogs, while breed and sex of the host were not significantly associated with the occurrence of the disease. Mixed infection of B. gibsoni and B. vogeli was observed only in 3 dogs each in district Kasur and Rawalpindi. Our study is the first report to observe the occurrence of canine babesiosis in rural dogs in Pakistan through PCR.
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September 2018

To Evaluate and Compare Changes in Baseline Strength of Hairs after Treating them with Deionized Water and Hard Water and its Role in Hair Breakage.

Int J Trichology 2018 May-Jun;10(3):113-117

Department of Information Technology, University of Agriculture, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.

Background And Aim: Interaction of hair with water is common. This study was conducted to compare changes in baseline strength of hair after treating it with hard water and deionized water.

Material And Methods: Hardness level of water samples collected from 10 districts of KP, Pakistan was determined, and that with maximum hardness was considered our sample hard water. Hair samples of 70 male individuals, from district with minimum hardness levels, were collected. Each hair sample was divided into three equal parts, and three groups of hair were established, each group containing 70 hairs. Group A was considered control. Group B was treated with deionized water and Group C was treated with hard water. Tensile strength of all three groups was measured using the universal testing machine and compared using paired -test.

Results: The mean age of all 70 participants were 23.87 ± 3. The mean values of tensile strength for hairs of Groups A, B, and C were 255.49, 254.84, and 234.16 with a standard deviation of 57.55, 58.74, and 56.25, respectively. Results were significant in case of hard water ( = 0.001) as compared to deionized water ( = 0.609).

Conclusion: Hard water decreases strength of hair and thus increases breakage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijt.ijt_115_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6028999PMC
July 2018

Effect of topical application of hard water in weakening of hair in men.

J Pak Med Assoc 2016 09;66(9):1132-1136

Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar, KPK, Pakistan.

Background: Hard water is thought to play a key role in weakening of hair (not Hair Loss) and breakage especially when travelling is involved. In our community, commonly men do the travelling and complain more about hair problem which is why only young male individuals were included in this study.

Materials And Methods: Water samples from different districts of KPK, Pakistan, were collected and their hardness values were estimated to find the water sample of maximum and minimum water hardness in order to know the maximum hardness hair would encounter in KPK, Pakistan. Samples from district Kohat had maximum hardness whereas minimum hardness was estimated in samples of district Peshawar. Water from district Kohat was considered as our sample water for the experimental group of hair. Hair samples were collected from 76 male individuals of district Peshawar, the area with least water hardness among the samples collected. Each hair sample was divided into two halves. One half was considered as experimental group and the other was considered as control group. The experimental group was treated with hard water of district Kohat for 10 minutes on alternate days, for 3 months. In a very similar way the control group was treated with de-ionized water. Tensile strength in term of "Stress" of both the experimental and control groups were measured using the universal testing machine and compared using paired t-test.

Results And Conclusions: The standard deviations (SD) for hair treated with hard water and distilled water was 62.05 and 58.13 respectively and the mean values were 238.49 and 255.36 respectively. The results showed that the tensile strength of hair was significantly (p=0.001) reduced in hair treated with hard water as compared to hair treated with de-ionized water.
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September 2016

Risk factors for lung cancer in the Pakistani population.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2014 ;15(7):3035-9

Sustainable Development Study Centre (SDSC), GCU, Lahore, Pakistan E-mail :

Background: Lung cancer is one of the most prevalent malignancies in the world and both incidence and mortality rates are continuing to rise in Pakistan. However, epidemiological studies to identify common lung cancer determinants in the Pakistani population have been limited.

Materials And Methods: In this retrospective case-control study, 400 cases and 800 controls were enrolled from different hospitals of all provinces of Pakistan. Information about socio-demographic, occupational, lifestyle and dietary variables was extracted by questionnaire from all subjects. Odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. and dose-response associations were also assessed for suitable factors.

Results: Strong associations were observed for smoking (OR=9.4, 95%CI=6.9-12.8), pesticide exposure (OR=5.1, 95%CI=3.1-8.3), exposure to diesel exhaust (OR=3.1, 95%CI=2.1-4.5), red meat consumption (OR=2.9, 95%CI=1.8-4.7) and chicken consumption (OR=2.8, 95%CI=1.7-49). Other associated factors observed were welding fumes (OR=2.5, 95%CI=1.0-6.5), sedentary living (OR=2.0, 95%CI=1.6-2.6), family history (OR=2.0, 95%CI=0.8-4.9), wood dust (OR=1.9, 95%CI=1.2- 3.1), tea consumption (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.2-2.6), coffee consumption (OR=1.8, 95%CI=1.1-2.8), alcoholism (OR=1.7, 95%CI=1.1-2.5) and asbestos exposure(OR=1.5, 95%CI=0.5-4.4). Consumption of vegetables (OR=0.3, 95%CI=0.2-0.4), juices (OR=0.3, 95%CI=0.3-0.4), fruits (OR=0.7, 95%CI=0.5-0.9) and milk (OR=0.6, 95%CI=0.5- 0.8) showed reduction in risk of lung cancer. Strongest dose-response relationships were observed for smoking (?2=333.8, p≤0.0000001), pesticide exposure (?2=50.9, p≤0.0000001) and exposure to diesel exhaust (?2=51.8, p≤0.0000001).

Conclusions: Smoking, pesticide exposure, diesel exhaust and meat consumption are main lung cancer determinants in Pakistan. Consuming vegetables, fruits, milk and juices can reduce the risk of lung cancer risk, as in other countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2014.15.7.3035DOI Listing
January 2015

Missense mutations (p.H371Y, p.D438Y) in gene CHEK2 are associated with breast cancer risk in women of Balochistan origin.

Mol Biol Rep 2014 Feb 4;41(2):1103-7. Epub 2014 Jan 4.

Department of Biotechnology and Informatics, BUITEMS, Quetta, Pakistan.

CHEK2 encodes a serine/threonine-protein kinase which plays a critical role in DNA damage signaling pathways. CHEK2 directly phosphorylates and regulates the functions of p53 and BRCA1. Most women with breast and/or ovarian cancer are not carriers of mutant BRCA1 or BRCA2. Multiple studies have shown that a CHEK2*1100delC confers about a two-fold increased risk of breast cancer in unselected females and a tenfold increase in males. Moreover, studies have shown that first-degree relatives of bilateral breast cancer cases who carried the CHEK2*1100delC allele had an eight-fold increased risk of breast cancer. It has been suggested that CHEK2 functions as a low-penetrance susceptibility gene for cancers and multiplies the risks associated with other gene(s) to increase cancer risk. The main goal of this study was to evaluate and to compare the role of truncating mutations, splice junction mutations and rare missense substitutions in breast cancer susceptibility gene CHEK2. Present study was performed on 140 individuals including 70 breast cancer patients both with and without family history and 70 normal individuals. Written consent was obtained and 3 ml intravenous blood was drawn from all the subjects. DNA was extracted from all the samples through inorganic method published already. Primers were synthesized for all the 14 exons of CHEK2 gene. Coding and adjacent intronic sequences of CHEK2 gene were amplified and sequenced. Two genetic variants (p.H371Y, p.D438Y) were found in exon 10 and exon 11 of gene CHEK2 which were not found in any of the 70 control individuals from same geographical area and ethnic group. The genetic variant c.1312G>T (p.D438Y) identified in a patient with a family history of breast cancer. To our knowledge, this is first mutation scanning study of gene CHEK2 from Balochistan population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-013-2956-xDOI Listing
February 2014

Relationship of academic success of medical students with motivation and pre-admission grades.

Authors:
Muhammad Luqman

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2013 Jan;23(1):31-6

Department of Pathology, Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, Pakistan.

Objective: To determine predictive validity of pre-admission scores of medical students, evaluate correlation between level of motivation and later on academic success in a medical college.

Study Design: Analytical study.

Place And Duration Of Study: Foundation University Medical College, Islamabad, from June to August 2011.

Methodology: A non-probability convenience sampling of students of 1st to final year MBBS classes was done after obtaining informed consent. These students filled out 'Strength of Motivation for Medical School' (SMMS) questionnaire. The data of pre-admission grades of these students along with academic success in college according to examination results in different years were collected. The correlation between the pre-admission grades and score of SMMS questionnaire with their academic success in medical college was found by applying Pearson co-efficient of correlation in order to determine the predictive validity.

Results: Only 46% students revealed strong motivation. A significant, moderate correlation was found between preadmission scores and academic success in 1st year modular examination (0.52) which became weaker in various professional examinations in higher classes. However, no significant correlation was observed between motivation and academic success of medical students in college.

Conclusion: Selecting medical students by pre-admission scores or motivation level alone may not be desirable. A combination of measures of cognitive ability criteria (FSc/pre-admission test scores) and non-cognitive skills (personality traits) is recommended to be employed with the use of right tools for selection of students in medical schools.
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http://dx.doi.org/01.2013/JCPSP.3136DOI Listing
January 2013

An audit of length of bone marrow trephine biopsies at a tertiary care hospital.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2010 Oct-Dec;22(4):81-3

Department of Haematology, Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Background: Bone marrow trephine biopsy is a well established minor surgical procedure for the inspection of bone marrow usually done along with bone marrow aspiration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the length of trephine biopsies and the rate of positivity for diagnosis as well as unfit biopsies in various length ranges.

Methods: This retrospective study was conducted at Fauji Foundation Hospital and Foundation University Medical College Rawalpindi from Jan 2007 to Dec 2009. A total of 394 trephine biopsy reports were collected and reviewed. The criterion for adequate trephine biopsy was > or = 1.5 Cm. The biopsies were divided into four groups according to length, i.e., group-1: > or = 1.5 Cm, group-2: 1-1.4 Cm, group-3: 0.5-0.9 Cm, and group-4: < 0.5 Cm. The adequacy of trephine biopsy length and rate of positive diagnosis as well as unfit biopsies were compared.

Results: Total 394 trephine biopsies were reviewed. Group-1 included 88 biopsies and 87 (98.9%) had positive diagnosis. Group-2 included 137 biopsies and 133 (97.1%) had positive diagnosis. Group-3 included 99 biopsies and 91 (92%) had positive diagnosis. Group-4 included 70 biopsies and 57 (81.4%) had positive diagnosis. There was no significant difference between group-1 and group-2 for the rate of positivity of diagnosis (p = 0.65). In group-1, 1 (1.1%) was unfit for evaluation, in group-2, 4 (2.9%) were unfit, in group-3, 8 (8%) were unfit, and in group-4, 13 (18.5%) were unfit for evaluation. Total 26 trephine biopsies were unfit for evaluation, out of which 13 (50%) belonged to group-4. Trephine biopsies that were unfit for evaluation were 4 (4.9%) in 2007, 17 (10.5%) in 2008, and 5 (3.3%) in 2009.

Conclusion: Although 22.3% biopsies were of recommended length there was no significant difference in rate of positive diagnosis between biopsies of > or = 1.5 Cm and 1-1.4 Cm.
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April 2012

Pattern of childhood malignancies: study of 922 cases at Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2006 Jul-Sep;7(3):420-2

Army Medical College, Adiala Road, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Objective: To determine the pattern of childhood cancer in northern Pakistan.

Design: A descriptive study.

Place And Duration: January 1992 to December 2001 at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Materials And Methods: All histologically diagnosed malignant childhood tumours registered with the tumour registry of our institute were retrieved from the case files. Basic epidemiological data regarding each case were collected from the request forms and analysed for the site of involvement, age distribution and histological types of tumour.

Results: During the ten year study period a total of 922 childhood malignancies, constituting 4.3% of all malignant tumours, were seen. Haematological malignancies (lymphomas and leukaemias) were the commonest, accounting for 50.4% in males and 37.7% in females. The haematological malignancies were followed by tumours of bone (6.3%), CNS (6.3%), and eye (4.84%) in males and soft tissue tumours as 5th common in females. Skin, renal and colorectal tumours were also in the ten commonest in both sexes and so were ovarian tumours in females.

Conclusions: Lymphomas and leukaemias are the main bulk of childhood cancer. Malignant tumours were twice more common in males than females in this series.
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February 2007

Urothelial neoplasia of the urinary bladder--comparison of interobserver variability for WHO Classification 1972 with WHO/ISUP Consensus Classification 1998.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2006 Apr-Jun;18(2):4-8

Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Background: Classification of urothelial bladder tumours is an important factor in the treatment and prognosis of these lesions. Over the years many classifications have been proposed for this purpose. The objective of this study was to classify urothelial neoplasms of the urinary bladder using the latest WHO/ISUP Consensus Classification 1998 and WHO Classification 1972 and compare the two regarding interobserver variability.

Methods: This study included 100 consecutive biopsy specimens of urothelial neoplasms of the urinary bladder diagnosed at the department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi. These were classified according to WHO Classification 1972 and WHO/ISUP Consensus Classification 1998 by 2 groups of pathologists independently. The tumour categories for WHO classification 1972; papilloma, and transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) grades I, II and III were compared with the WHO/ISUP Consensus Classification entities of papilloma, papillary neoplasm of low malignant potential, low grade and high grade papillary carcinomas. Kappa statistics were used to evaluate interobserver variability. Chi square test was used to calculate significance.

Results: There was agreement on 80 tumours between the two groups of histopathologists when using WHO classification 1972 while there was agreement on 95 tumours using WHO/ISUP consensus classification. The value of Kappa for WHO Classification was 0.68 (good agreement) whereas for WHO/ISUP Consensus Classification it was 0.91 (excellent agreement). The difference between the two systems was statistically significant (p<0,001). Kappa values were less for benign and borderline lesions using both systems.

Conclusions: WHO/ISUP Consensus Classification 1998 showed less interobserver variability than WHO Classification 1972 in the evaluation of bladder tumours. It was found easier to apply by both groups. There was less agreement on the benign and borderline lesions using both the classifications.
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October 2006

The pattern of malignant tumours: tumour registry data analysis, AFIP, Rawalpindi, Pakistan (1992-2001).

J Pak Med Assoc 2006 Aug;56(8):359-62

Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Objective: To provide information regarding frequency of malignant tumours through data retrieved from pathology based tumour registry of AFIP, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Methods: All malignant tumours recorded with the AFIP tumour registry over a period of 10 years (1992-2001) were analysed in terms of age group, gender and type of tumour with relation to site. A comparison with the previously published material from same setting, national and international studies were also done.

Results: The total malignant tumours in the 10 years period were 21,168. Out of these, 12584 (59.5%) were seen in male patients while 8584 (40.5%) were in females. Total malignant tumours in pediatric age group were 927 (4.4%). The common malignant tumours in males in order of decreasing frequency were, those of prostate, skin, lymph node, leukaemia, urinary bladder, colorectum, bone, lung, stomach and liver. In females, breast carcinoma was on top followed by skin, leukaemia, ovary, coloretum, lymph node, bone, liver, cervix and gall bladder. In females, contrary to the Western studies and India, ovarian tumours were more frequent than cervical cancers. Comparison of this analysis with our previous analysis, national and international studies showed some interesting features.

Conclusion: It was found that in males, tumours of the prostate were the most frequent as compared to the previous study, which showed lymphomas and leukemias to be the most common. On the other hand in females, tumours of the breast remained to be consistently most frequent.
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August 2006

Usefulness of crush smears intraoperative consultaion of neurological biopsis.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2006 Sep;16(9):590-3

Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institutes of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi.

Objective: To evaluate accuracy of intraoperative crush smears diagnosis of neurosurgical biopsies.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Place And Duration Of Study: The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from February 2002 to February 2003.

Patients And Methods: One hundred, neurosurgical biopsies were received for intraoperative consultation over a period of one year. Clinical information regarding age, gender, history, and CT scan or MRI findings were recorded. Crush smears were prepared, fixed in 95% alcohol and stained with rapid haemotoxylin and eosin (H&E) stains. Diagnosis was categorized into inflammatory, benign and malignant tumours. Remaining tissue was fixed overnight in 10% formalin for histological sections. Permanent H&E sections were used as the gold standard. The average time required for intraoperative cytological diagnosis was 8 minutes.

Results: Out of 100 neurosurgical biopsies, crush smears of 94 were considered suitable for interpretation. There were 8 inflammatory, 41 benign and 41 malignant tumours, including 4 inconclusive. Eightyfour of the crush smears diagnosis agreed with the histological diagnosis. Overall diagnostic accuracy of crush smears was 93.3%. Diagnosis of inflammatory, benign and malignant tumours showed specificity of 98.7%, 96% and 94%, and a sensitivity of 70%, 97.5% and 95% respectively.

Conclusions: Crush smears are useful in the intraoperative diagnosis of space occupying lesions of central nervous system. The crush smears cytology was found highly reliable, rapid and inexpensive mode of intraoperative diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/9.2006/JCPSP.590593DOI Listing
September 2006

Carcinoma of the male breast: a study of 141 cases from northern Pakistan.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2006 Jan-Mar;7(1):119-21

Army Medical College, 71-C Lane-8 Askari-VII, Adiala Road, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Carcinoma of the male breast, histologically identical to that seen in females, is a rare malignant epithelial tumour. We retrospectively studied 141 cases of male breast carcinoma diagnosed during a ten year period (1992-2001). These tumours comprised 0.7% of all cancers, 1.1% of all malignancies in males and 5.9% of all breast carcinomas in both genders. A male to female ratio of 1:16 was observed. The peak incidence was in the age group between 50-60 years and majority of the patients were below 60 years. Most of the patients presented with a painless lump and infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the main histological type. While compared with our previous similar analysis, a highly significant increase (p< 0.0001) was found for total numbers of breast carcinoma in both sexes and total number of malignancies in males.
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June 2006

Carcinoma breast: a histopathological audit.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2006 Feb;16(2):117-9

Department of Histopathology, AFIP, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Objective: To compare audited results with original reports in cases of breast carcinoma, as a part of quality assurance programme.

Design: A descriptive study.

Place And Duration Of Study: January 2001 to December 2001 at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Materials And Methods: Slides and original reports of 191 cases of breast carcinoma diagnosed by different consultants in the department were retrieved from the case files. The cases were re-examined for histological type, nuclear grade, tumour grade, lymphovascular invasion and tumour necrosis without knowledge of the previous report. The new independent observations were recorded and differences from original reports were analysed. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis.

Results: There was no discrepancy about malignant nature of all the 191 lesions. However, 39 cases (20.4%) showed some differences of grade, lymphovascular invasion and necrosis, from their original reports. Omission of most of the parameters (n=45) was due to lack of tabulated reporting. The differences of results of lymphovascular invasion and necrosis were not statistically significant (p-values = 0.90 each), but differences of nuclear and tumour grade were statistically significant (p-value <0.001 and <0.01).

Conclusion: There was no discrepancy in the reports such as histological types or the presence of tumours. Tabulated form of reporting has less chance of omission of important parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/2.2006/JCPSP.117119DOI Listing
February 2006

Analysis of gastrointestinal malignancies at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2005 Oct-Dec;6(4):497-500

Objectives: To determine the pattern of gastrointestinal (GI) malignancies in northern Pakistan.

Design: A retrospective pathology based tumour registry data analysis.

Place And Duration: January 1992 to December 2001 at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Materials And Methods: All histologically diagnosed malignant tumours of GI tract registered with the tumour registry were retrieved from the case files. Basic epidemiological data regarding each case was collected from the request forms and then analysed for the site of involvement, age distribution and histological types of tumours.

Results: During the study period a total of 2279 patients had GI tract malignancies, constituting 10.8% of all malignant tumours diagnosed in this period. Males were more frequently affected than females (M:F ratio 2.3:1). Peak incidence was in the 50-60 year age group. Colorectal tumours were most frequent (44.6%), followed by stomach (24%), esophagus (22.6%), anal (4.6%) and small intestinal (3.7%) malignancies. Ten cases of malignant tumours of the appendix, 6 in females and 4 in males were also found. The histological pattern was predictable. Statistical analysis showed that there was significant increase (P<0.01) in registration of stomach, anorectal and small intestinal tumours over the period studied,whereas esophagus and colorectal tumours remained the same.

Conclusion: Colorectal tumours are more frequent in our material as compared to other developing countries. Peak incidence is in slightly younger age group and cases in <20 years age group are also more frequent as compared to Western studies.
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May 2006

Clinicopathological features of lupus anticoagulant; experience at AFIP during last seven years.

Med Sci Monit 2005 Nov;11(11):CR536-9

AFIP, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

Background: The lupus anticoagulant (LA) belongs to family of immunoglobulins, most commonly an IgG isotype. These antibodies have been identified most frequently in association with thromboembolic events, recurrent fetal loss and thrombocytopenia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presenting clinical and pathological features in patients LA positive presenting at AFIP Rawalpindi over the period of Jan 1993 to Nov 2000.

Material/methods: Retrospective analysis of patients presenting with positive LA was carried out.

Results: 1583 suspected cases were screened for LA including 1370 females and 213 males. 1024 cases presented with history of recurrent abortions, 292 with thrombosis, 152 with thrombotic strokes before the age of 45 years, 52 with thrombocytopenia and 63 with miscellaneous disorders. Out of 1024 patients tested for recurrent abortions, 130 (13%) females were positive for lupus anticoagulant. Ten (6.5%) of 152 patients presenting with strokes were found positive. Out of 292 cases presenting with thrombosis 17 (5.9%) were found positive.

Conclusions: The lupus anticoagulant prevalence in Pakistani patients with recurrent fetal loss, stroke and thrombosis is statistically significant. Clinicians should be made aware of association of LA with various diseases. The successful management of these patients depends upon close liaison with obstetricians, physicians and haematologists.
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November 2005

Typing and grading of cytological category C5 breast lesions.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2005 Apr;15(4):221-4

Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi.

Objective: To determine the tumour type, cytological grade and nuclear grade on fine-needle aspiration smears in cytological category C5 breast lesions and compare them with histopathological findings.

Design: Cross-sectional, cohort.

Place And Duration Of Study: Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi from January to December 2002.

Subjects And Methods: Out of all patients referred to AFIP, Rawalpindi for fine-needle aspiration of breast masses, those adjudged C5 (malignant) were chosen for this study. History, clinical details and mammographic findings were noted. Aspirated smears were examined and an attempt was made to ascertain tumour type, cytological grade and nuclear grade. On excision of these lesions, the cytological findings were compared with those on paraffin-embedded histological sections.

Results: A total of 71 patients were included in this study. Of these, 64 (90.14%) were cytologically diagnosed as ductal carcinoma, 4 (5.63%) lobular carcinoma, 2 (2.82%) mucinous carcinoma and 1 (1.41%) as medullary carcinoma. Seventy (98.60%) tumours were correctly typed on aspiration smears. Sixty-eight (95.77%) cases were cytologically graded with accuracy. Nuclear grading was even better on cytology and, excluding one malignant lymphoma, all 70 (100%) smears were assessed correctly.

Conclusion: Overall efficiency of the tumour typing, cytological grading and nuclear grading on aspirated material turned out to be quite accurate. In expert hands, cytological examination can be of great help in pre-operative planning and in cases where tumour morphology in paraffin-embedded material has been distorted by neo-adjuvant therapy prior to excision.
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http://dx.doi.org/04.2005/JCPSP.221224DOI Listing
April 2005

Cytohistopathological correlation of C3 and C4 breast lesions.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2005 Apr;15(4):196-9

Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi.

Objective: To conduct an audit of smears in cytological categories C3 and C4 of fine-needle aspirates from breast lesions in comparison with histopathological diagnoses.

Design: Comparative, cross-sectional study.

Place And Duration Of Study: Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi from January to December 2002.

Patients And Methods: Out of all patients referred to AFIP, Rawalpindi for aspiration of breast masses, those adjudged C3 and C4 were chosen for this study. History, clinical details and mammographic findings were noted. Aspirated smears were stained with haematoxylin and eosin as well as a Romanovsky dye. On excision or incision biopsy of these lesions, the cytological findings were compared with those on paraffin-embedded histological sections.

Results: The total number of patients in these two categories was 54. Surgical specimens of 3 cases were found inadequate for assessment. Of the remaining 51 cases, 13 were categorised C3 and 38 C4. Sensitivity of 92%, specificity of 83% and accuracy of 90% were attained. Positive and negative predictive values were 95% and 77% respectively.

Conclusion: Categories C3 and C4 are areas where the cytopathologist is in doubt as to the benign or malignant nature of a breast mass. High sensitivity, positive predictive value and accuracy, being the hallmarks of a good screening procedure, underscore the validity of the technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/04.2005/JCPSP.196199DOI Listing
April 2005

Granulomatous hypophysitis mimicking pituitary adenoma.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2004 Nov;14(11):685-6

Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi.

Granulomatous inflammation of the pituitary gland is a rare disease that mimics non-functioning pituitary adenoma. Its incidence is high in middle aged and elderly women. Two such cases of histopathologically confirmed granulomatous hypophysitis are reported which presented with clinical and radiological impression of pituitary adenoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/11.2004/JCPSP.685686DOI Listing
November 2004

Fine needle aspiration biopsy of soft tissue tumours.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2003 Nov;13(11):625-8

Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi.

Objective: To determine the usefulness, limitations and diagnostic accuracy of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in soft tissue tumours.

Design: Cross-sectional analytical (comparative) study.

Place And Duration Of Study: Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi.

Materials And Methods: A total of 78 soft tissue tumours were subjected to FNAB from May 2000 to April 2002. Adequate aspirate was obtained in 69 patients. The smears were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin (HE) and May-Grunwald-Giemsa (MGG) stains. FNAB smears were put into three categories i.e. benign, borderline or malignant. A definite diagnosis was also given where possible. Tissue biopsies were received in 38 of these patients. Routine HE staining was done in each case along with special stains and immunohistochemistry where required.

Results: Out of 69 tumours, 30 were categorised as benign, 9 as intermediate and 30 as malignant. Lipomas were the most common benign tumour while small round blue cell tumours constituting 7 cases (23%) were the commonest malignancy. FNAB-histological correlation showed all tumours reported as benign on FNAB to be confirmed as such. There was only one false positive diagnosis on FNAB. All cases placed in intermediate category were found to be malignant on histopathology. Considering intermediate cases alternatively as benign and malignant revealed sensitivity of 80.6% and 100%, specificity of 85.7% and 85.7% and accuracy of 81.6% and 97.4% respectively.

Conclusion: Majority of soft tissue tumours can be categorized on FNAB with high degree of accuracy. The tumours placed in intermediate category should be subjected to biopsy or excision as it is more likely that they turn out to be malignant.
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http://dx.doi.org/11.2003/JCPSP.625628DOI Listing
November 2003