Publications by authors named "Muhammad Kamran"

215 Publications

Corrigendum: The Impact of Bio-Stimulants on Cd-Stressed Wheat ( L.): Insights Into Growth, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Cd Accumulation, and Osmolyte Regulation.

Front Plant Sci 2022 21;13:904893. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Plant Production Department, College of Food & Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2022.850567.].
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.904893DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9070016PMC
April 2022

PlantMWpIDB: a database for the molecular weight and isoelectric points of the plant proteomes.

Sci Rep 2022 May 6;12(1):7421. Epub 2022 May 6.

Department of Information and Communication Engineering, Yeungnam University, 214-1, Gyeongsan-si, 712-749, South Korea.

The molecular weight and isoelectric point of the proteins are very important parameters that control their subcellular localization and subsequent function. Although the genome sequence data of the plant kingdom improved enormously, the proteomic details have been poorly elaborated. Therefore, we have calculated the molecular weight and isoelectric point of the plant proteins and reported them in this database. A database, PlantMWpIDB, containing protein data from 342 plant proteomes was created to provide information on plant proteomes for hypothesis formulation in basic research and for biotechnological applications. The Molecular weight and isoelectric point (pI) are important molecular parameters of proteins that are useful when conducting protein studies involving 2D gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and X-ray protein crystallography. PlantMWpIDB provides an easy-to-use and efficient interface for search options and generates a summary of basic protein parameters. The database represents a virtual 2D proteome map of plants, and the molecular weight and pI of a protein can be obtained by searching on the name of a protein, a keyword, or by a list of accession numbers. The PlantMWpIDB database also allows one to query protein sequences. The database can be found in the following link https://plantmwpidb.com/ . The individual 2D virtual proteome map of the plant kingdom will enable us to understand the proteome diversity between different species. Further, the molecular weight and isoelectric point of individual proteins can enable us to understand their functional significance in different species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-11077-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9076895PMC
May 2022

Transcaval Versus Transaxillary TAVR in Contemporary Practice: A Propensity-Weighted Analysis.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2022 May;15(9):965-975

Emory Structural Heart and Valve Center, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Electronic address: https://twitter.com/AdamGreenbaumMD.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare transcaval and transaxillary artery access for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) at experienced medical centers in contemporary practice.

Background: There are no systematic comparisons of transcaval and transaxillary TAVR access routes.

Methods: Eight experienced centers contributed local data collected for the STS/ACC TVT Registry (Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry) between 2017 and 2020. Outcomes after transcaval and axillary/subclavian (transaxillary) access were adjusted for baseline imbalances using doubly robust (inverse propensity weighting plus regression) estimation and compared.

Results: Transcaval access was used in 238 procedures and transaxillary access in 106; for comparison, transfemoral access was used in 7,132 procedures. Risk profiles were higher among patients selected for nonfemoral access but similar among patients requiring transcaval and transaxillary access. Stroke and transient ischemic attack were 5-fold less common after transcaval than transaxillary access (2.5% vs 13.2%; OR: 0.20; 95% CI: 0.06-0.72; P = 0.014) compared with transfemoral access (1.7%). Major and life-threatening bleeding (Valve Academic Research Consortium 3 ≥ type 2) were comparable (10.0% vs 13.2%; OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.26-1.66; P = 0.38) compared with transfemoral access (3.5%), as was blood transfusion (19.3% vs 21.7%; OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.49-2.33; P = 0.87) compared with transfemoral access (7.1%). Vascular complications, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, and survival were similar between transcaval and transaxillary access. More patients were discharged directly home and without stroke or transient ischemic attack after transcaval than transaxillary access (87.8% vs 62.3%; OR: 5.19; 95% CI: 2.45-11.0; P < 0.001) compared with transfemoral access (90.3%).

Conclusions: Patients undergoing transcaval TAVR had lower rates of stroke and similar bleeding compared with transaxillary access in a contemporary experience from 8 US centers. Both approaches had more complications than transfemoral access. Transcaval TAVR access may offer an attractive option.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2022.03.014DOI Listing
May 2022

Effect of two hemostatic agents containing Aluminium chloride and ferric sulfate on bond integrity of resin-modified glass ionomer cement.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2022 Apr 23:102880. Epub 2022 Apr 23.

Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontic Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha. Electronic address:

Objective: To evaluate the influence of hemostatic agents (Expasyl and Viscostat) on the bond values of RMGIC bonded to pretreated dentin surface with cavity conditioner (CC), self etch primer (SEP), and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and eighty human third molars were embedded in a self-cure acrylic resin-filled polyvinyl cylinder. The dentinal surface was prepared and all the samples were arbitrarily distributed into three different groups liable to the hemostatic agent used (n = 60). Samples in group 1: no hemostatic agent used, Group 2: Samples exposed to Expasyl, and group 3: Viscostat. After applying the hemostatic agent, all the samples were surface treated with different surface conditioners. Subgroup A1, B1, C1 were conditioned with aPDT, Subgroup A2, B2, and C2 surface were treated with SEP, and Subgroup A3, B3, and C3 were smeared with CC. RMGIC was placed and SBS was assessed using a universal testing machine and failure mode analysis was performed using and stereomicroscope at 40x magnification. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc test compared the means and standard deviations (SD) following SBS testing (p = 0.05).

Results: Highest SBS was exhibited by group A2 (22.36±1.66 MPa Control - SEP) whereas group A1 (14.14±1.32 aPDT + Control) demonstrated the lowest SBS. Subgroups B1 (17.23±0.33- Expasyl + aPDT) and C1 (18.36±0.25 MPa -Viscostat + aPDT) were found to be comparable (p > 0.05). Similarly, A3 (19.69±1.01- Control + CC) and B3 (18.23±0.33 MPa- Expasyl + CC) and C3 (18.36±0.37 Viscostat + CC) demonstrated no significant difference in bond scores (p > 0.05). Most of the failures in aPDT were adhesive. However, SEP and CC groups demonstrated admixed and cohesive failure CONCLUSION: Dentin conditioned by aPDT after hemostatic agents improves bond values of RMGIC. Self etch Primer and Cavity conditioner using polyacrylic acid without hemostatic agent improves bond integrity of RMGIC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2022.102880DOI Listing
April 2022

Major Depressive Disorder: Existing Hypotheses about Pathophysiological Mechanisms and New Genetic Findings.

Genes (Basel) 2022 04 6;13(4). Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Centre for Neuroimaging, Cognition and Genomics (NICOG), Discipline of Biochemistry, National University of Ireland Galway, H91 CF50 Galway, Ireland.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common mental disorder generally characterized by symptoms associated with mood, pleasure and effectiveness in daily life activities. MDD is ranked as a major contributor to worldwide disability. The complex pathogenesis of MDD is not yet understood, and this is a major cause of failure to develop new therapies and MDD recurrence. Here we summarize the literature on existing hypotheses about the pathophysiological mechanisms of MDD. We describe the different approaches undertaken to understand the molecular mechanism of MDD using genetic data. Hundreds of loci have now been identified by large genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We describe these studies and how they have provided information on the biological processes, cell types, tissues and druggable targets that are enriched for MDD risk genes. We detail our understanding of the genetic correlations and causal relationships between MDD and many psychiatric and non-psychiatric disorders and traits. We highlight the challenges associated with genetic studies, including the complexity of MDD genetics in diverse populations and the need for a study of rare variants and new studies of gene-environment interactions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes13040646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9025468PMC
April 2022

Recent advances in the green synthesis of Betti bases and their applications: a review.

Mol Divers 2022 Apr 21. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Institute of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

Well-known Betti bases are the products obtained by the one-pot multicomponent reaction of 1-naphthol/2-naphthol, aliphatic/aromatic aldehydes, and secondary amines, and this reaction is known as the Betti reaction. During recent years, due to the unveiling of the pharmacological and synthetic potential of Betti bases, a tremendous increase in the studies reporting novel synthetic methods for the efficient synthesis of Betti bases was observed. This review presents the recent key developments in the green synthesis of the Betti bases and accounts for the significant number of the literature reported during 2019-2022. Both catalyst free as well as the catalyst promoted synthesis (nanocatalyst, biocatalyst, transition metal catalyst, etc.) along with the synthetic applications (catalyst, ligands/chiral auxiliaries, and valuable synthons), optoelectronic applications (fluorescence sensors for phosgene gas, Hg, and Cr detection, quasi-reversible redox potential) and biological properties (anticancer agents, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory agents, antitubercular agents, pesticidal agents, anti-Alzheimer agents, Topoisomerase I inhibitors, YAP-TEAD interaction inhibitors, and DNA binding and cleavage activity) are discussed. There is a surge of interest for the development of the green and efficient Betti reaction for the construction of C-C and C-N bond in a single-step reaction accessing Betti bases as products. Along with key methodological developments for the green synthesis of Betti bases, their applications in synthetic organic chemistry, optoelectronic sensors, advanced materials synthesis, agrochemicals and pharmaceutically active scaffolds, during the period of 2019-2022, have been considered.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11030-022-10427-3DOI Listing
April 2022

New Genus and New Subgenera of Camerobiid Mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Camerobiidae) with a Key to World Species of the Genus.

Insects 2022 Mar 31;13(4). Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Acarology Research Laboratory, Department of Plant Protection, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

A new genus, Alatawi and Kamran, is hereby proposed for the two already described species, viz; . (Żmudziński) and . (Bolland). In addition, the monospecific genus Bolland is synonymized with the genus Bolland due to variations in the setae number of tibiae I-IV. Further, the genus Berlese is categorized in two new subgeneric divisions as Berlese and Mirza. The number and position of the midventral setae on tarsi I-IV are considered as strong diagnostic generic and subgeneric diagnostic characters. The present study also includes the key to all known species of the genus . The morphological characters of ten poorly described species were studied in detail through published literature. The ambiguities in the ventral idiosoma setal notation are highlighted and discussed. It is concluded that two intercoxal setae - are always present on small platelets, paired aggenital setae () are present anteriorly and paired genital setae () present posteriorly on genital shield. In addition, five records of new species for Saudi Arabia are reported along with re-descriptions of three species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects13040344DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9029948PMC
March 2022

Biochar-based asymmetric membrane for selective removal and oxidation of hydrophobic organic pollutants.

Chemosphere 2022 Apr 5;300:134509. Epub 2022 Apr 5.

Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058, China; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou, 310058, China. Electronic address:

Hydrophobic organic pollutants (HOCs) in the complex groundwater and soil pose serious technical challenges for sustainable remediation. Herein, an asymmetric membrane (PCAM), inspired by the plant cuticle, was comprised of a top polydimethylsiloxane layer being selectively penetrable to HOCs from complex solution with humic acid, followed by transfer and catalyst layers with biochar pyrolyzed by 300 °C (BC300) and 700 °C (BC700). The PCAM triggered the advanced oxidation of the coming pollutant. The graphitized biochar layer of the PCAM acted as catalysts that induced HOC removal through a non-radical oxidation pathway. Compared to one type biochar membrane, the sequential multi-biochar composite membrane had a faster removal efficiency. The greater uptake and transport performance of multi-biochar composite membrane could be due to the larger pore size and distribution properties of PCAM physicochemical properties and oxidative degradation of peroxymonosulfate. The developed PCAM technology benefits from selective adsorption and catalytic oxidation and has the potential to be applied in complex environmental restoration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.134509DOI Listing
April 2022

MTA1-mediated RNA m A modification regulates autophagy and is required for infection of the rice blast fungus.

New Phytol 2022 Mar 26. Epub 2022 Mar 26.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Provincial Key Laboratory of Plant Pathology of Hubei Province, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

In eukaryotes, N -methyladenosine (m A) is abundant on mRNA, and plays key roles in the regulation of RNA function. However, the roles and regulatory mechanisms of m A in phytopathogenic fungi are still largely unknown. Combined with biochemical analysis, MeRIP-seq and RNA-seq methods, as well as biological analysis, we showed that Magnaporthe oryzae MTA1 gene is an orthologue of human METTL4, which is involved in m A modification and plays a critical role in autophagy for fungal infection. The Δmta1 mutant showed reduced virulence due to blockage of appressorial penetration and invasive growth. Moreover, the autophagy process was severely disordered in the mutant. MeRIP-seq identified 659 hypomethylated m A peaks covering 595 mRNAs in Δmta1 appressoria, 114 m A peaks was negatively related to mRNA abundance, including several ATG gene transcripts. Typically, the mRNA abundance of MoATG8 was also increased in the single m A site mutant ∆atg8/MoATG8 , leading to an autophagy disorder. Our findings reveal the functional importance of the m A methylation in infection of M. oryzae and provide novel insight into the regulatory mechanisms of plant pathogenic fungi.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.18117DOI Listing
March 2022

The application of machine learning methods for prediction of metal immobilization remediation by biochar amendment in soil.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jul 19;829:154668. Epub 2022 Mar 19.

Department of Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058, China. Electronic address:

Biochar has been used widely in heavy metal contaminated sites as a soil remediation agent. However, due to the diversity of soils, biochars, and heavy metal contamination status, the remediation efficiency is difficult to measure, owing to a variety of parameters such as soil, biochar properties, and remediation procedure. Thus, an appropriate method to predict the remediation results and to select the appropriate biochar for the remediation is required. We initially created a database on soil remediation by biochars, which has 930 datasets with 74 biochars and 43 soils in it, based on collecting and organizing data from published literatures. Then, using data from the database, we modeled the remediation of five heavy metals and metalloids (lead, cadmium, arsenic, copper, and zinc) by biochars using machine learning (ML) methods such as artificial neural network (ANN) and random forest (RF) to predict remediation efficiency based on biochar characteristics, soil physiochemical properties, incubation conditions (e.g., water holding capacity and remediation time), and the initial state of heavy metal. The ANN and RF models outperform the lineal model in terms of accuracy and predictive performance (R > 0.84). Meanwhile, model tolerance of the missing data and reliability of the interpolation were studied by the predicted outputs of the models. The results showed that both ANN and RF have excellent performances, with the RF model having a higher tolerance for missing data. Finally, through the interpretability of ML models, the contribution of factors used in the model were analyzed and the findings revealed that the most influential elements of remediation were the type of heavy metals, the pH value of biochar, and the dosage and remediation time. The relative importance of variables could provide the right direction for better remediation of heavy metals in soil.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.154668DOI Listing
July 2022

KARRIKIN UP-REGULATED F-BOX 1 (KUF1) imposes negative feedback regulation of karrikin and KAI2 ligand metabolism in .

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022 03 7;119(11):e2112820119. Epub 2022 Mar 7.

Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521.

SignificanceKarrikins are chemicals in smoke that stimulate regrowth of many plants after fire. However, karrikin responses are not limited to species from fire-prone environments and can affect growth after germination. Putatively, this is because karrikins mimic an unknown signal in plants, KAI2 ligand (KL). Karrikins likely require modification in plants to become bioactive. We identify a gene, , that appears to negatively regulate biosynthesis of KL and metabolism of a specific karrikin. expression increases in response to karrikin or KL signaling, thus forming a negative feedback loop that limits further activation of the signaling pathway. This discovery will advance understanding of how karrikins are perceived and how smoke-activated germination evolved. It will also aid identification of the elusive KL.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2112820119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8931227PMC
March 2022

The Impact of Bio-Stimulants on Cd-Stressed Wheat ( L.): Insights Into Growth, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Cd Accumulation, and Osmolyte Regulation.

Front Plant Sci 2022 18;13:850567. Epub 2022 Feb 18.

Plant Production Department, College of Food & Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

It has been established that wheat ( L.) has a higher Cd absorption capacity than other cereal crops causing an excess daily Cd intake and a huge threat for public health. Therefore, the reduction of Cd accumulation in wheat from the soil is a crucial food-security issue. A pot trial was performed on Cd-stressed wheat seedlings to evaluate the morphological and physio-biochemical responses foliage spray of two different bio-stimulants, i.e., ascorbic acid (AsA) and moringa leaf extract (MLE). Two wheat cultivars (Fsd-08 and Glxy-13) were exposed to cadmium (CdCl.5HO) stress (0, 500, and 1,000 μM), along with foliar spray of AsA (0 and 50 mM) and MLE (0 and 3%). The most observable growth reduction was documented in plants that are exposed to a higher Cd concentration (1,000 μM), followed by the lower Cd level (500 μM). The wheat growth attributes, such as number of leaves per plant, number of tillers per plant, biomass yield, shoot/root length, and leaf area, were greatly depressed under the Cd stress, irrespective of the cultivar. Under the increasing Cd stress, a significant diminution was observed in maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), photochemical quenching (qP), and electron transport rate (ETR) accompanied with reduced gas exchange attributes. However, Cd-induced phytotoxicity enhanced the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and internal carbon dioxide concentration (Ci), which was confirmed by their significant positive correlation with Cd contents in shoot and root tissues of both cultivars. The contents of proline, AsA, glycine betaine (GB), tocopherol, total free amino acid (TFAA), and total soluble sugar (TSS) were greatly decreased with Cd stress (1,000 μM), while MLE and AsA significantly enhanced the osmolytes accumulation under both Cd levels (especially 500 μM level). The Cd accumulation was predominantly found in the root as compared to shoots in both cultivars, which has declined after the application of MLE and AsA. Conclusively, MLE was found to be more effective to mitigate Cd-induced phytotoxicity up to 500 μM Cd concentration, compared with the AsA amendment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.850567DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8895758PMC
February 2022

Targeting Women's vulnerable employment through social protection: A quasi-experimental regression discontinuity design.

Heliyon 2022 Feb 16;8(2):e08964. Epub 2022 Feb 16.

Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.

In Pakistan, women face economic and social vulnerability, which keeps them underpaid even without social barriers. Government micro and macroeconomic policies are aimed at income generation rather than making women part of the economic mainstream. The cash transfer program is an essential component of social protection policy in the developing world, with one of its key objectives of raising women's financial autonomy. This research investigates the impact of Pakistan's first and largest cash transfer program, named Benazir Income Support Program (BISP), on women's vulnerable employment. BISP was initiated by identifying poor households based on poverty score cutoff, thereby exploiting Regression Discontinuity Design. The findings revealed that this program reduced vulnerable employment in the initial years of its inception. However, it does not impact the later follow-up years. Policymakers should take necessary measures so that women's non-vulnerable employment may improve.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e08964DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8860917PMC
February 2022

Predictors of Outcome of Cirrhotic Patients Requiring Invasive Mechanical Ventilation: Experience From a Non-Transplant Tertiary Care Hospital in Pakistan.

Cureus 2022 Jan 23;14(1):e21517. Epub 2022 Jan 23.

Nephrology, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, PAK.

Background Patients with known liver cirrhosis, irrespective of the etiology, have poor outcomes when put on invasive mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit (ICU) setting. The clinical situation becomes even more complicated when such patients are managed in a non-transplant center. Various factors are associated with poor outcomes, and hence, various scoring systems are available to help determine the prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis. These scoring systems are broadly classified into two categories, namely, ICU-specific scoring systems and liver disease-specific scoring systems. There is a dearth of data from Pakistan regarding which score better determines the prognosis of patients with liver cirrhosis admitted to the ICU. In this study, we aimed to determine the outcome of cirrhotic patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation in a non-transplant tertiary care hospital in Pakistan using ICU-specific and liver disease-specific scoring systems. Methodology A retrospective study design was applied to a record of 88 cirrhotic patients admitted to the medical ICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Karachi, Pakistan, from January 2016 to November 2016. Patients with acute hepatitis were excluded. Data on patients' characteristics, the reason for intubation, hepatic encephalopathy, the need for vasopressor support, and the duration of ICU and hospital stay were collected. Moreover, the first-day Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA), Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP), and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores were calculated, with mortality being the primary outcome measure. Results The most common etiology was hepatitis C (52.3%, 46/88). The most common reason for intubation was airway protection (57.9%, 51/88). Overall mortality was 71.6% (63/88). On univariate analysis, CTP score >10, MELD score >18, hepatic encephalopathy, bilirubin, prothrombin time, presence of tense ascites, and APACHE II were significantly associated with mortality. On multivariate analysis, CTP score >10 (odd ratio = 21; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4-104; p < 0.001) was an independent predictor of mortality. Area under curve was 0.89 (95% CI = 0.82-0.96) for CTP, 0.86 (95% CI = 0.77-0.95) for MELD, 0.81 (95% CI = 0.69-0.92) for APACHE II, and 0.81 (95% CI = 0.71-0.91) for SOFA in predicting mortality. Conclusions CTP and MELD scores are better predictors of short-term mortality in patients with liver cirrhosis requiring invasive mechanical ventilation compared to APACHE II and SOFA scores. CTP score >10 was an independent predictor of mortality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.21517DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8862690PMC
January 2022

Investigation of -HAM for Enzyme Inhibition Potential in Relation to the Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents and Radical Scavenging Activity.

Life (Basel) 2022 Feb 21;12(2). Epub 2022 Feb 21.

Plant Production Department, College of Food & Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

-Ham (EN) is a neglected medicinal plant traditionally used for a number of pathologies, but it has not been explored scientifically. In the current study, its various fractions were assessed for their phenolic and flavonoid content, radical scavenging, as well as its enzyme inhibitory potential. The hydro-alcoholic crude extract (ENCr) was subjected to a fractionation scheme to obtain different fractions, namely n-hexane (ENHF), chloroform (ENCF), n-butanol (ENBF), and aqueous fraction (ENAF). The obtained results revealed that the highest phenolic and flavonoid content, maximum radical scavenging potential (91 ± 0.55%), urease inhibition (54.36 ± 1.47%), and α-glucosidase inhibition (97.84 ± 1.87%) were exhibited by ENCr, while the ENBF fraction exhibited the highest acetylcholinestrase inhibition (57.32 ± 0.43%). Contrary to these, hydro-alcoholic crude as well as the other fractions showed no significant butyrylcholinestrases (BChE) and carbonic anhydrase inhibition activity. Conclusively, it was found that EN possesses a significant radical scavenging and enzyme inhibitory potential. Thus, the study may be regarded a step forward towards evidence-based phyto-medicine.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life12020321DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8875530PMC
February 2022

Versatile Chemical Recycling Strategies: Value-Added Chemicals from Polyester and Polycarbonate Waste.

ChemSusChem 2022 Apr 23;15(8):e202200255. Epub 2022 Feb 23.

Centre for Sustainable and Circular Technologies, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY, United Kingdom.

Zn -complexes bearing half-salan ligands were exploited in the mild and selective chemical upcycling of various commercial polyesters and polycarbonates. Remarkably, we report the first example of discrete metal-mediated poly(bisphenol A carbonate) (BPA-PC) methanolysis being appreciably active at room temperature. Indeed, Zn(2) and Zn(2)Et achieved complete BPA-PC consumption within 12-18 mins in 2-Me-THF, noting high bisphenol A (BPA) yields (S =85-91 %) within 2-4 h. Further kinetic analysis found such catalysts to possess k values of 0.28±0.040 and 0.47±0.049 min respectively at 4 wt%, the highest reported to date. A completely circular upcycling approach to plastic waste was demonstrated through the production of several renewable poly(ester-amide)s (PEAs), based on a terephthalamide monomer derived from bottle-grade poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), which exhibited excellent thermal properties.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.202200255DOI Listing
April 2022

Phytohormones Trigger Drought Tolerance in Crop Plants: Outlook and Future Perspectives.

Front Plant Sci 2021 13;12:799318. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Hainan Key Laboratory for Sustainable Utilization of Tropical Bioresource, College of Tropical Crops, Hainan University, Haikou, China.

In the past and present, human activities have been involved in triggering global warming, causing drought stresses that affect animals and plants. Plants are more defenseless against drought stress; and therefore, plant development and productive output are decreased. To decrease the effect of drought stress on plants, it is crucial to establish a plant feedback mechanism of resistance to drought. The drought reflex mechanisms include the physical stature physiology and biochemical, cellular, and molecular-based processes. Briefly, improving the root system, leaf structure, osmotic-balance, comparative water contents and stomatal adjustment are considered as most prominent features against drought resistance in crop plants. In addition, the signal transduction pathway and reactive clearance of oxygen are crucial mechanisms for coping with drought stress via calcium and phytohormones such as abscisic acid, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, auxin, gibberellin, ethylene, brassinosteroids and peptide molecules. Furthermore, microorganisms, such as fungal and bacterial organisms, play a vital role in increasing resistance against drought stress in plants. The number of characteristic loci, transgenic methods and the application of exogenous substances [nitric oxide, (CHO) 24-epibrassinolide, proline, and glycine betaine] are also equally important for enhancing the drought resistance of plants. In a nutshell, the current review will mainly focus on the role of phytohormones and related mechanisms involved in drought tolerance in various crop plants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.799318DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8792739PMC
January 2022

Key microbial clusters and environmental factors affecting the removal of antibiotics in an engineered anaerobic digestion system.

Bioresour Technol 2022 Mar 26;348:126770. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

CAS Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China; Ecological Experimental Station of Red Soil, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yingtan 335211, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; Jiangxi Zhenghe Ecological Agriculture Company Limited, Xinyu 338008, China. Electronic address:

To identify the key microbial clusters and influencing factors involved in antibiotic removal from engineered anaerobic digestion (AD) systems, the dynamic characteristics of antibiotics, physiochemical factors, microbial communities and functional genes were investigated by 16S rRNA and metagenome sequencing. The results showed that antibiotic removal occurred mainly in the first 21 days, and sulfonamides had the highest removal rate. The key microbial clusters related to the biodegradation of antibiotics consisted mainly of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The key enzymes consisted of deaminases, peptidases, C-N ligases, decarboxylases and alkyl-aryl transferases. Structural equation modelling indicated that low concentrations of propionic acid promoted the biodegradation activities of key microbial clusters in the first 21 days, but their activities were inhibited by the accumulated propionic acid after 21 days. Thus, propionic acid should be regulated in engineered AD systems to prevent the adverse effect of acid inhibition on antibiotic-degrading bacteria.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2022.126770DOI Listing
March 2022

The genus Berlese (Acari, Prostigmata, Tetranychidae): taxonomic assessment and a key to subgenera, species groups, and subgroups.

Zookeys 2021 22;1079:89-127. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Departamento de Entomologia e Acarologia, Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", Universidade de São Paulo, 13418-900, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brazil Universidade de São Paulo São Paulo Brazil.

A comprehensive taxonomic assessment of the most agriculturally important and highly diverse spider mite genus, Berlese (Acari: Tetranychidae) was performed. The sub-generic division, species groups, doubtful species, species complexes and the interpretation of a key generic character are discussed. Based on the orientation of the male aedeagus, only two subgenera, namely Berlese (aedeagus downturned) and Tuttle & Baker (aedeagus upturned), are valid in the genus . The subgenera Wainstein, Wainstein, and Tuttle & Baker are considered to be synonyms of the subgenus Oligonychus, whereas the subgenus Pritchardinychus Wainstein is proposed as a synonym of the subgenus Reckiella. Moreover, based on female morphological characters, four species groups (, , , and ) and 11 species subgroups (, , , , , , , , , , and ) are suggested in the subgenera and . Fourteen species are proposed as species inquirendae, and potential cryptic species complexes in the genus are briefly highlighted. It is agreed that the clunal seta is always absent, while the para-anal setae and are always present in the genus A key to subgenera, species groups, and species subgroups of the genus is provided.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1079.75175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8716507PMC
December 2021

Elucidating the mechanisms determining the availability of phosphate by application of biochars from different parent materials.

Environ Geochem Health 2022 Jan 24. Epub 2022 Jan 24.

State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, China.

The consortium of minerals and organic matter notably alters and affects minerals' surface characteristics and nutrients providence. Organic matter such as biochar can modify the availability status of macronutrients like phosphorus (P). Despite some investigation, the adsorption/desorption of P with pure iron (hydr)oxides and the probable mechanisms involved are still unknown. In the present study, the goethite/hematite or goethite-biochar/hematite-biochar complexes were prepared, and a batch experiment with different P concentrations, time spell, pH, and ionic strength is performed to evaluate the sorption characteristics of P. The results of our study suggest that the P adsorption on mineral surface decreased with the increasing pH. Furthermore, the coexistence of biochar and minerals significantly inhibits P adsorption on the minerals surface. The results of Languimner and Freundlich's equations signify that the biochar-minerals complexes have heterogeneous adsorption sites and the presence of biochar reduces P adsorption on minerals surface. Among four biochars including peanut straw biochar (PC (B1)), rice straw biochar (RC (B2)), canola straw biochar (CC (B3)), and soybean straw biochar (SC (B4)), PC was more effective than other biochars to inhibit P adsorption on minerals surfaces.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-021-01184-7DOI Listing
January 2022

Alleviation of temperature stress in maize by integration of foliar applied growth promoting substances and sowing dates.

PLoS One 2022 20;17(1):e0260916. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Temperature is a key factor influencing plant growth and productivity, but its sudden rise can cause severe consequences on crop performances. Early sowing and application of growth promoting agents as a foliar spray can be a sustainable approach to cope with high temperature stress at grain filling stage of cereal crops. Therefore, a test was designed to explore the potential of different growth helping agents including sorghum water extract (SWE, 10 ml L-1), moringa leaf extract (MLE, 3%), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 2 μM), salicylic acid (SA, 50 mg L-1) and ascorbic acid (ASA, 50 mg L-1) as foliar agents at different sowing dates (early and optimum) to cope with temperature stress in maize. The results stated that foliar application of growth promoting substances successfully persuaded high temperature tolerance at reproductive phase of maize in early and optimum sowings when compared to control. However, SWE + ASA, MLE + H2O2 and SWE + ASA + SA + H2O2 were the best combinations for improving growth, development, and physiological variables under both sowing dates even under suboptimal temperature. All foliar applications significantly increased maize grain and biological yields while maximum was observed in SWE + ASA followed by SWE + ASA + SA + H2O2 or MLE + H2O2 that were statistically at par with ASA + SA + H2O2 but plants without spray or distilled water application did not improve grain and biological yields. Overall, the foliar applications of growth promoting substances enable the plant to enhance its growth, development, morphology, yield and biochemical variables.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0260916PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8775190PMC
February 2022

Phytoremediation of nickel by quinoa: Morphological and physiological response.

PLoS One 2022 13;17(1):e0262309. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The amount of soil contaminated with heavy metal increases due to urbanization, industrialization, and anthropogenic activities. Quinoa is considered a useful candidate in the remediation of such soil. In this pot experiment, the phytoextraction capacity of quinoa lines (A1, A2, A7, and A9) against different nickel (Ni) concentrations (0, 50, and 100 mg kg-1) were investigated. Required Ni concentrations were developed in polythene bags filled with sandy loam soil using nickel nitrate salt prior to two months of sowing and kept sealed up to sowing. Results showed that translocation of Ni increased from roots to shoots with an increase in soil Ni concentration in all lines. A2 line accumulated high Ni in leaf compared to the root as depicted by translocation factor 3.09 and 3.21 when grown at soil having 50 and 100 Ni mg kg-1, respectively. While, in the case of root, A7 accumulated high Ni followed by A9, A1, and A2, respectively. There was a 5-7% increased seed yield by 50 mg kg-1 Ni in all except A1 compared to control. However, growth and yield declined with a further increase in Ni level. The maximum reduction in yield was noticed in A9, which was strongly linked with poor physiological performance, e.g., chlorophyll a, b, and phenolic contents. Ni concentrations in the seed of all lines were within the permissible value set (67 ppm) by FAO/WHO. The result of the present study suggests that quinoa is a better accumulator of Ni. This species can provide the scope of decontamination of heavy metal polluted soil. The screened line can be used for future quinoa breeding programs for bioremediation and phytoextraction purpose.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0262309PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8757961PMC
February 2022

KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 regulates leaf development, root system architecture and arbuscular-mycorrhizal symbiosis in Brachypodium distachyon.

Plant J 2022 03 23;109(6):1559-1574. Epub 2022 Feb 23.

School of Molecular Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, 6009, Australia.

KARRIKIN INSENSITIVE2 (KAI2) is an α/β-hydrolase required for plant responses to karrikins, which are abiotic butenolides that can influence seed germination and seedling growth. Although represented by four angiosperm species, loss-of-function kai2 mutants are phenotypically inconsistent and incompletely characterised, resulting in uncertainties about the core functions of KAI2 in plant development. Here we characterised the developmental functions of KAI2 in the grass Brachypodium distachyon using molecular, physiological and biochemical approaches. Bdkai2 mutants exhibit increased internode elongation and reduced leaf chlorophyll levels, but only a modest increase in water loss from detached leaves. Bdkai2 shows increased numbers of lateral roots and reduced root hair growth, and fails to support normal root colonisation by arbuscular-mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The karrikins KAR and KAR , and the strigolactone (SL) analogue rac-GR24, each elicit overlapping but distinct changes to the shoot transcriptome via BdKAI2. Finally, we show that BdKAI2 exhibits a clear ligand preference for desmethyl butenolides and weak responses to methyl-substituted SL analogues such as GR24. Our findings suggest that KAI2 has multiple roles in shoot development, root system development and transcriptional regulation in grasses. Although KAI2-dependent AM symbiosis is likely conserved within monocots, the magnitude of the effect of KAI2 on water relations may vary across angiosperms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15651DOI Listing
March 2022

Analysis of Plant Origin Antibiotics against Oral Bacterial Infections Using In Vitro and In Silico Techniques and Characterization of Active Constituents.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Dec 8;10(12). Epub 2021 Dec 8.

Natural Products & Food Research and Analysis (NatuRA), Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerp, Belgium.

The pervasiveness of oral bacterial infections in diabetic patients is a serious health concern that may produce severe complications. We investigated 26 Ayurvedic medicinal plants traditionally used for treatment of the oral bacterial infections with the aim to look for new promising drug leads that can be further employed for herbal formulation design. The plants were grouped into three categories based on traditional usage. All plant extracts were examined for antibacterial, antibiofilm and antiquorum-sensing properties. The plants with significant activities including , , , , and were further analyzed using HPLC-DAD-QToF and GC-MS. In silico and in vitro activity was evaluated for selected constituents. Finally, it could be concluded that eugenol and 2-phenylethylisothiocyanate are major contributors towards inhibition of bacterial biofilms and quorum sensing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10121504DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8699006PMC
December 2021

Electron and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic investigation of anthracene oxidation.

Heliyon 2021 Nov 25;7(11):e08474. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia.

The work reports a method for monitoring anthracene radical-mediated oxidation reactions using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The formation of anthracene dimer product was well-defined using H-NMR and H-H correlation spectroscopy (COSY). Unrestricted 3-21G/B3LYP DFT was used to estimate radical hyperfine spacing (hfs), then to identify the characteristic EPR-spin transitions of anthracene radical intermediate. A detailed investigation of an anthracene oxidation reaction and its possible reaction mechanism in concentrated sulphuric acid is conducted as a model system for polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Peak-to-peak (p2p) intensities of selected EPR-spectral lines were used to evaluate anthracene's oxidation kinetic model. The findings showed that radical intermediate formation is a unimolecular autocatalytic process, dimerization is a pseudo-zero-order reaction, and the latter is the rate-determining step with a half-life of 48 ± 2 min at 25.0 °C.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e08474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8639432PMC
November 2021

Comparative study of heat and mass transfer of generalized MHD Oldroyd-B bio-nano fluid in a permeable medium with ramped conditions.

Sci Rep 2021 12 6;11(1):23454. Epub 2021 Dec 6.

Department of Mathematics, Abbottabad University of Science and Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan.

This article aims to investigate the heat and mass transfer of MHD Oldroyd-B fluid with ramped conditions. The Oldroyd-B fluid is taken as a base fluid (Blood) with a suspension of gold nano-particles, to make the solution of non-Newtonian bio-magnetic nanofluid. The surface medium is taken porous. The well-known equation of Oldroyd-B nano-fluid of integer order derivative has been generalized to a non-integer order derivative. Three different types of definitions of fractional differential operators, like Caputo, Caputo-Fabrizio, Atangana-Baleanu (will be called later as [Formula: see text]) are used to develop the resulting fractional nano-fluid model. The solution for temperature, concentration, and velocity profiles is obtained via Laplace transform and for inverse two different numerical algorithms like Zakian's, Stehfest's are utilized. The solutions are also shown in tabular form. To see the physical meaning of various parameters like thermal Grashof number, Radiation factor, mass Grashof number, Schmidt number, Prandtl number etc. are explained graphically and theoretically. The velocity and temperature of nanofluid decrease with increasing the value of gold nanoparticles, while increase with increasing the value of both thermal Grashof number and mass Grashof number. The Prandtl number shows opposite behavior for both temperature and velocity field. It will decelerate both the profile. Also, a comparative analysis is also presented between ours and the existing findings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-02326-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8648785PMC
December 2021

A Novel Fingerprinting Technique for Data Storing and Sharing through Clouds.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Nov 17;21(22). Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Centre of AI and Data Science, Edinburgh Napier University, Edinburgh EH11 4DY, UK.

With the emerging growth of digital data in information systems, technology faces the challenge of knowledge prevention, ownership rights protection, security, and privacy measurement of valuable and sensitive data. On-demand availability of various data as services in a shared and automated environment has become a reality with the advent of cloud computing. The digital fingerprinting technique has been adopted as an effective solution to protect the copyright and privacy of digital properties from illegal distribution and identification of malicious traitors over the cloud. Furthermore, it is used to trace the unauthorized distribution and the user of multimedia content distributed through the cloud. In this paper, we propose a novel fingerprinting technique for the cloud environment to protect numeric attributes in relational databases for digital privacy management. The proposed solution with the novel fingerprinting scheme is robust and efficient. It can address challenges such as embedding secure data over the cloud, essential to secure relational databases. The proposed technique provides a decoding accuracy of 100%, 90%, and 40% for 10% to 30%, 40%, and 50% of deleted records.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21227647DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8619563PMC
November 2021

Impact of Protracted Displacement on Delay in the Diagnosis Associated with Treatment Outcomes: A Cross-Sectional Study in Internally Displaced Tuberculosis Patients of Pakistan.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 11 15;18(22). Epub 2021 Nov 15.

Department of Pharmacy Administration and Clinical Pharmacy, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710061, China.

Human displacement is on the rise globally, and the increase in the burden of tuberculosis (TB) is also attributed to migrations worldwide. A significant number of such displacements occur in regions with considerably higher areas of TB burden. Displacements may delay TB diagnosis and treatment, which will possibly lead to TB transmission among healthy individuals. In this study, we assessed the association of existing determinants after a protracted internal displacement of people with delay in TB diagnosis and treatment outcomes. A cross-sectional study was conducted on internally displaced TB patients (IDPs), registered at selected health facilities in three urban districts of Pakistan from March 2019 to February 2020. The univariate and multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the delay in diagnosis and treatment outcomes. IDPs with delay in initiation of treatment beyond 30 days were at high possibility of unsuccessful TB treatment outcomes (adjusted odds ratio AOR, 2.60; 95% CI 1.06-6.40). Furthermore, the multivariate regression analysis showed a statistically significant association ( > 0.05) between TB patients who were aged 55 to 65 years (AOR, 2.66; 95% CI 1.00-7.07), female patients (AOR, 2.42; 95% CI 1.21-4.81), visited non-formal health provider (AOR, 8.81; 95% CI 3.99-19.46), self-medication (AOR, 2.72; 95 % CI 1.37-5.37), poor knowledge of TB (AOR, 11.39; 95% CI 3.31-39.1), and perceived stigma (AOR, 8.81; 95% CI 3.99-19.4). Prolonged delay in treatment was associated with unfavorable treatment outcomes among IDPs. Migrants and IDPs are more likely to experience an interruption in care due to overall exclusion from social and health care services. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the barriers to providing public health care services, particularly in preventing and treating TB.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182211984DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8621790PMC
November 2021

Nano agrochemical zinc oxide influences microbial activity, carbon, and nitrogen cycling of applied manures in the soil-plant system.

Environ Pollut 2022 Jan 18;293:118559. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Center of Excellence in Environmental Studies, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80216, Jeddah, 21589, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

The widespread use of nano-enabled agrochemicals in agriculture for remediating soil and improving nutrient use efficiency of organic and chemical fertilizers is increasing continuously with limited understanding on their potential risks. Recent studies suggested that nanoparticles (NPs) are harmful to soil organisms and their stimulated nutrient cycling in agriculture. However, their toxic effects under natural input farming systems are just at its infancy. Here, we aimed to examine the harmful effects of nano-agrochemical zinc oxide (ZnONPs) to poultry (PM) and farmyard manure (FYM) C and N cycling in soil-plant systems. These manures enhanced microbial counts, CO emission, N mineralization, spinach yield and N recovery than control (unfertilized). Soil applied ZnONPs increased labile Zn in microbial biomass, conferring its consumption and thereby reduced the colony-forming bacterial and fungal units. Such effects resulted in decreasing CO emitted from PM and FYM by 39 and 43%, respectively. Further, mineralization of organic N was reduced from FYM by 32%, and PM by 26%. This process has considerably decreased the soil mineral N content from both manure types and thereby spinach yield and plant N recoveries. In the ZnONPs amended soil, only about 23% of the applied total N from FYM and 31% from PM was ended up in plants, whereas the respective fractions in the absence of ZnONPs were 33 and 53%. Hence, toxicity of ZnONPs should be taken into account when recommending its use in agriculture for enhancing nutrient utilization efficiency of fertilizers or soil remediation purposes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118559DOI Listing
January 2022
-->