Publications by authors named "Muhammad Kamran"

165 Publications

Preventing Coronary Obstruction During Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Results From the Multicenter International BASILICA Registry.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 May 6;14(9):941-948. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Structural Heart and Valve Center, Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Objectives: This study sought to determine the safety of the BASILICA (bioprosthetic or native aortic scallop intentional laceration to prevent iatrogenic coronary artery obstruction) procedure.

Background: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement causes coronary artery obstruction in 0.7% of cases, with 40% to 50% mortality. BASILICA is a procedure to prevent coronary obstruction. Safety and feasibility in a large patient cohort is lacking.

Methods: The international BASILICA registry was a retrospective, multicenter, real-world registry of patients at risk of coronary artery obstruction undergoing BASILICA and transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 definitions were used to adjudicate events.

Results: Between June 2017 and December 2020, 214 patients were included from 25 centers in North America and Europe; 72.8% had bioprosthetic aortic valves and 78.5% underwent solo BASILICA. Leaflet traversal was successful in 94.9% and leaflet laceration in 94.4%. Partial or complete coronary artery obstruction was seen in 4.7%. Procedure success, defined as successful BASILICA traversal and laceration without mortality, coronary obstruction, or emergency intervention, was achieved in 86.9%. Thirty-day mortality was 2.8% and stroke was 2.8%, with 0.5% disabling stroke. Thirty-day death and disabling stroke were seen in 3.4%. Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 composite safety was achieved in 82.8%. One-year survival was 83.9%. Outcomes were similar between solo and doppio BASILICA, between native and bioprosthetic valves, and with the use of cerebral embolic protection.

Conclusions: BASILICA is safe, with low reported rates of stroke and death. BASILICA is feasible in the real-world setting, with a high procedure success rate and low rates of coronary artery obstruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2021.02.035DOI Listing
May 2021

Magnetic Field Treatments Improves Sunflower Yield by Inducing Physiological and Biochemical Modulations in Seeds.

Molecules 2021 Apr 1;26(7). Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Agronomy, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr Elshiekh 33516, Egypt.

Magnetic seed enhancement has been practicing as a promising tool to improve germination and seedling growth of low vigor seeds stored under suboptimal conditions, but there is still ambiguity regarding the prospects for magnetism in oilseeds. Present study elucidates the potential of magnetic seed stimulation to improve sunflower germination, growth and yield. Germination and emergence tests were performed to optimize the strength of the magnetic field to sunflower seed enhancement. The seeds were directly exposed to magnetic field strengths of 50, 100 and 150 millitesla (mT) for 5, 10 and 15 min (min) and then standard germination tests were performed. Secondly, the emergence potential of untreated seeds was compared with seed exposed to hydropriming, priming with 3% moringa leaf extract (MLE), priming with magnetically treated water (MTW) for 10 min and priming with 3% MLE solution prepared in magnetically treated water (MTW + MLE). Germination, emergence, seedling growth and seed biochemical properties were used to select the best treatment for field evaluation. The results of the study revealed that magnetic seed treatment with 100 mT for 10 min and seed priming with 3% MLE solution in magnetically treated water (MTW + MLE) significantly improved emergence, crop growth rate and sunflower yield.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26072022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8036579PMC
April 2021

Nanofabrication Techniques: Challenges and Future Prospects.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 Oct;21(10):4981-5013

Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, South Korea.

Nanofabrication of functional micro/nano-features is becoming increasingly relevant in various electronic, photonic, energy, and biological devices globally. The development of these devices with special characteristics originates from the integration of low-cost and high-quality micro/nano-features into 3D-designs. Great progress has been achieved in recent years for the fabrication of micro/nanostructured based devices by using different imprinting techniques. The key problems are designing techniques/approaches with adequate resolution and consistency with specific materials. By considering optical device fabrication on the large-scale as a context, we discussed the considerations involved in product fabrication processes compatibility, the feature's functionality, and capability of bottom-up and top-down processes. This review summarizes the recent developments in these areas with an emphasis on established techniques for the micro/nano-fabrication of 3-dimensional structured devices on large-scale. Moreover, numerous potential applications and innovative products based on the large-scale are also demonstrated. Finally, prospects, challenges, and future directions for device fabrication are addressed precisely.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2021.19327DOI Listing
October 2021

Boron-toxicity induced changes in cell wall components, boron forms, and antioxidant defense system in rice seedlings.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Apr 7;216:112192. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, Root Biology Center, College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642 Guangdong, PR China. Electronic address:

Boron (B) is an indispensable micronutrient that ensures the optimal growth and productivity of the plant. However, excessive use of B fertilizers results in B toxicity which is relatively difficult to correct as compared to B deficiency. Moreover, underlying mechanisms of B toxicity induced changes in cell wall components and the association of B forms in the appearance of toxicity symptoms in rice seedlings are lacking. Therefore, the present investigation was carried out on rice seedlings by employing different concentrations of B (CK, B1; 100 µM, B2; 300 µM, and B3; 400 µM). The results showed that a high concentration of B caused inhibition of root and shoot growth with noticeable signs of stress on leaves in terms of chlorophyll contents. In addition, B toxicity caused oxidative stress and lipid oxidation of membranes. The higher concentrations of B were accumulated in the leaves than roots. In the roots and leaves, more than 80% B was adsorbed on the cell wall. In the treatment of B3, the free form of B was higher than the bound-B. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) results showed that higher concentrations led to variation in functional groups of cell walls of leaves. The results of this investigation showed that B stress-induced inhibition of growth might be linked with higher B uptake in the upper parts, oxidative damages, and forms of B may play important role in the chlorosis. The findings of the study may help to understand the mechanisms of B stress-induced growth inhibition in rice seedlings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112192DOI Listing
April 2021

Phosphate-lanthanum coated sewage sludge biochar improved the soil properties and growth of ryegrass in an alkaline soil.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Mar 30;216:112173. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Key Laboratory of Material Chemistry for Energy Conversion and Storage, Ministry of Education, Hubei Key Laboratory of Material Chemistry and Service Failure, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, PR China. Electronic address:

The reclamation of alkaline soils remains challenging while the application of biochar has been proposed as a viable measure to rehabilitate soil fertility. The objective of the current pot study was to evaluate the efficacy of various P-La modified sewage sludge biochars (SSBC, La-SSBC, SSBC-P, La-SSBC-P) on soil phosphate-retention and ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) growth in an alkaline soil (excess CaCO). The results revealed that germination percentage, plant dry biomass, plant height, and the total amount of P in the ryegrass leaves were significantly (P < 0.05) improved under La-SSBC-P treatment as compared to other treatments. La-SSBC-P treatment significantly altered the chemical characteristics of post-harvest alkaline soil, such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic matter (SOM), limestone (CaCO), phosphate, and lanthanum contents. In comparison to the SSBC treatment, soil available phosphorous (AP) contents under La-SSBC-P were enhanced by 6.7 times after loading biochar with P and La (La-SSBC-P). After the plantation of ryegrass, concentration of lanthanum in the soil was negligible. The contents of CaCO reduced by 76.2% after La-SSBC-P biochar treatment, compared to the cultivated control. This phenomenon clearly indicated that lanthanum was reduced due to the precipitation with limestone, which was proposed based on the data of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Overall, results showed that the P-loaded lanthanum decorated biochar (La-SSBC-P) could be used as a potential substitute for P-fertilizer under the experimental conditions. However, field experiments are required to confer the efficiency of La-SSBC-P as P fertilizer in different soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112173DOI Listing
March 2021

Exogenous melatonin mitigates chromium toxicity in maize seedlings by modulating antioxidant system and suppresses chromium uptake and oxidative stress.

Environ Geochem Health 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Forestry and Wildlife, University College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, 63100, Pakistan.

Melatonin, being an endogenous signaling molecule plays important role in plant growth and stress alleviation. The present study was conducted to evaluate the ameliorative role of melatonin against Cr toxicity in maize seedlings. The Cr toxicity (50, 100 and 200 µM) severely affected hydroponically grown seedlings growth in a dose-dependent manner; however, the melatonin (0.5 and 1.0 µM) application markedly restored toxicity-induced growth retardation. Higher dose of melatonin (1.0 µM) was more effective in case of lower Cr toxicity (50 and 100 µM). Exposure of 200 µM Cr caused 45% and 43% reduction in shoot and root lengths and more than 80% reduction in biomass. In case of 200 µM Cr toxicity, application of 1.0 µM MT effectively restored shoot and root lengths reduction (from 45 to 30%) and biomass decline (from 80 to around 60%). Biomass restoration by 1.0 µM melatonin under 50 and 100 µM Cr was even more pronounced bringing it near to control plants having no Cr exposure. Further, both melatonin levels also improved root tips, root diameter, root volume and root surface area that had been damaged by Cr exposure. The melatonin also alleviated Cr-induced chlorophyll and carotenoids inhibition, improved relative water content, and markedly lowered proline and MDA content in shoots. Lower accumulation of MDA and proline, and greater membrane stability indices indicate that the melatonin conferred better plant growth by playing the role of antioxidant and detoxifying oxidative stress creating substances. Although antioxidant enzymes viz. SOD, POD, CAT and APX activities were also elevated by MT, this increase was not significantly different in the most of cases. No significant difference in NPK contents of shoot was observed by Cr and melatonin application indicating the growth retardation being caused directly by Cr intrinsic toxicity and not by nutrients deficiency. The melatonin-based amelioration of Cr toxicity in maize seedlings seems as the result of its nature as antioxidant, and not by activation/elevation of antioxidative enzymatic system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-021-00908-zDOI Listing
April 2021

Polymer-coated manganese fertilizer and its combination with lime reduces cadmium accumulation in brown rice (Oryza sativa L.).

J Hazard Mater 2021 Mar 6;415:125597. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 East Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008, China; Ecological Experimental Station of Red Soil, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yingtan 335211, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Manganese (Mn) has the potential to reduce cadmium (Cd) uptake by rice; however, the efficiency depends on its soil availability. Therefore, this study designed a slow-release Mn fertilizer by employing a polyacrylate coating. Pot trials were conducted to study the effects of coated-Mn and uncoated-Mn alone or in combination with lime on the dynamics of soil dissolved-Mn and available Cd, and the transportation of Mn and Cd within rice. The results showed that coated-Mn declined the release of Mn until the 7th day of application; however, it consistently supplied more dissolved-Mn than uncoated-Mn. As a result, coated-Mn induced a greater Cd reduction (45.8%) in brown rice than uncoated-Mn (9.7%). The total Cd of rice and its proportion in brown rice were greatly reduced by coated-Mn, indicating the inhibition of root uptake and interior transport of Cd. Additionally, lime addition prominently increased the soil pH and decreased the CaCl-extractable Cd (90.1-93.9%). However, since lime reduced the soil dissolved-Mn, downregulated the OsHMA3 expression and upregulated the OsNramp5 expression, brown rice Cd was reduced by only 43.0%. The combined addition of lime and coated-Mn alleviated the liming effect on soil Mn and gene expression in roots, thereby reducing brown rice Cd by 71.5%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125597DOI Listing
March 2021

Impact of riboflavin mediated photodynamic disinfection around fixed orthodontic system infected with oral bacteria.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Feb 22;34:102232. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Pediatric and Orthodontic Sciences, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.

Purpose: The aim of this laboratory study was to investigate the amount of bacterial destruction through riboflavin mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) around fixed orthodontic devices by using the two strains of bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis.

Materials And Methods: A total of 80 metallic brackets were divided into four groups consisting of 20 brackets each. Group-I: riboflavin + LED irradiation; Group-II: riboflavin alone; Group-III: immersion in 0.2 % chlorhexidine gluconate solution and Group-IV: not submitted to any treatment. All metallic brackets were immersed in the standard bacterial solutions and incubated at 48 h. All samples were subjected to MTT assay for microbial cell viability testing after treatment. After 24 h of incubation, biofilms adhered on the mesh of metallic brackets after treatment were assessed by confocal laser microscopy. The total CFU/mL was estimated, and the results were log-transformed (log) and analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey-Kramer test. P-value was set to <0.05 that indicated statistical significance.

Results: The samples from group-IV showed the highest amount of relative biofilm viability compared to any other group while group-I (PDT) showed the least viability of the two bacterial strains studied (p < 0.05). Group-I showed no significant difference when compared with group-III (chlorhexidine) (p > 0.05). The biofilms on the samples from group-II and group-IV were largely viable indicating thick green staining across the mesh of the brackets. Among the group-III samples, there were predominantly dead cells as compared to the live cell staining. A considerable amount of red staining was observed with noticeable less green staining in group-I samples.

Conclusion: This laboratory investigation revealed that riboflavin mediated PDT significantly reduced the amounts of S. mutans and S. sanguinis around the orthodontic brackets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2021.102232DOI Listing
February 2021

Lag synchronization of coupled time-delayed FitzHugh-Nagumo neural networks via feedback control.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 16;11(1):3884. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Mathematics, Pusan National University, Busan, 46241, Republic of Korea.

Synchronization plays a significant role in information transfer and decision-making by neurons and brain neural networks. The development of control strategies for synchronizing a network of chaotic neurons with time delays, different direction-dependent coupling (unidirectional and bidirectional), and noise, particularly under external disturbances, is an essential and very challenging task. Researchers have extensively studied the synchronization mechanism of two coupled time-delayed neurons with bidirectional coupling and without incorporating the effect of noise, but not for time-delayed neural networks. To overcome these limitations, this study investigates the synchronization problem in a network of coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) neurons by incorporating time delays, different direction-dependent coupling (unidirectional and bidirectional), noise, and ionic and external disturbances in the mathematical models. More specifically, this study investigates the synchronization of time-delayed unidirectional and bidirectional ring-structured FHN neuronal systems with and without external noise. Different gap junctions and delay parameters are used to incorporate time-delay dynamics in both neuronal networks. We also investigate the influence of the time delays between connected neurons on synchronization conditions. Further, to ensure the synchronization of the time-delayed FHN neuronal networks, different adaptive control laws are proposed for both unidirectional and bidirectional neuronal networks. In addition, necessary and sufficient conditions to achieve synchronization are provided by employing the Lyapunov stability theory. The results of numerical simulations conducted for different-sized multiple networks of time-delayed FHN neurons verify the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive control schemes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82886-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7887243PMC
February 2021

Short term therapeutic efficacy of camel milk Vis-À-Vis buffalo milk in Alloxan® induced diabetic rabbits.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2020 Dec 8;19(2):915-923. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Anatomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Purpose: This is the first comparative report that demonstrates the comparison of the anti-hyperglycemic activity of camel milk, buffalo milk and synthetic drugs in induced diabetic rabbits.

Method: Five groups ( = 8) of rabbits containing placebo (G1) and hyperglycemic groups (Alloxan® administered intravenously) including control diabetic (G2), camel milk treated @40 ml/kg (G3), buffalo milk treated @40 ml/kg (G4) and glibenclamide (Glicon®) @10 mg/kg (G5) orally for 60 days. Collection of blood was done for hematology and biochemical analysis. Renal and hepatic tissue sections were processed by routine paraffin technique for diabetes-induced histopathological changes and anti-diabetic activity of camel and buffalo milk.

Results: Diabetes deleteriously ( ≤ 0.05) affects all studied parameters. A significant ( ≤ 0.05) recovery was seen in diabetogenic hematological (RBC, MCV, Hb, MCH) and serological parameters (AST, ALT, creatinine, BUN, TPs, and TOS) with camel milk treatment. Camel milk and glibenclamide decreased blood glucose level more significantly ( < 0.01) than the buffalo milk but more significant renal recovery was seen by renal function. Microscopic observations demonstrated that camel milk and glibenclamide recovered the altered histology of the liver and kidneys towards normal.

Conclusion: The results indicate that camel milk has a potential therapeutic effect in the treatment of hyperglycemia and plays a significant role in its management as well as reduces the risk of diabetes-related complications as compared to buffalo milk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40200-020-00580-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7843903PMC
December 2020

Coronavirus Disease 2019 in 5 Neighboring Limited-Resource Countries: A Financial and Health Threat.

Value Health Reg Issues 2020 Jun 30;24:114-116. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Department of Pharmacy, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan; Çukurova Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Tıbbi Farmakoloji Anabilim Dalı 01330-Sarıçam Adana, Turkey. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vhri.2020.06.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7324313PMC
June 2020

Cadmium uptake and translocation: selenium and silicon roles in Cd detoxification for the production of low Cd crops: a critical review.

Chemosphere 2021 Jun 21;273:129690. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, Root Biology Center, College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, Guangdong, PR China. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) is a primary contaminant in agricultural soils of the world. The ability of Cd uptake, transport, detoxification, and accumulation varies among different plant species and genotypes. Cd is translocated from soil to root by different transporters which are used for essential plant nutrient uptake. A number of strategies have been suggested for decreasing Cd toxicity in Cd contaminated soils. Recently, a lot of research have been carried out on minimizing Cd uptake through selenium (Se) and silicon (Si) applications. Both Se and Si have been reported to mitigate Cd toxicity in different crops. Vacuolar sequestration, formation of phytochelatins, and cell wall adsorption have been reported as effective mechanisms for Cd detoxification. The present review discussed past and current knowledge of literature to better understand Cd toxicity and its mitigation by adopting different feasible and practical approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129690DOI Listing
June 2021

Research advances and applications of biosensing technology for the diagnosis of pathogens in sustainable agriculture.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Feb 19;28(8):9002-9019. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, 38000, Pakistan.

Plant diseases significantly impact the global economy, and plant pathogenic microorganisms such as nematodes, viruses, bacteria, fungi, and viroids may be the etiology for most infectious diseases. In agriculture, the development of disease-free plants is an important strategy for the determination of the survival and productivity of plants in the field. This article reviews biosensor methods of disease detection that have been used effectively in other fields, and these methods could possibly transform the production methods of the agricultural industry. The precise identification of plant pathogens assists in the assessment of effective management steps for minimization of production loss. The new plant pathogen detection methods include evaluation of signs of disease, detection of cultured organisms, or direct examination of contaminated tissues through molecular and serological techniques. Laboratory-based approaches are costly and time-consuming and require specialized skills. The conclusions of this review also indicate that there is an urgent need for the establishment of a reliable, fast, accurate, responsive, and cost-effective testing method for the detection of field plants at early stages of growth. We also summarized new emerging biosensor technologies, including isothermal amplification, detection of nanomaterials, paper-based techniques, robotics, and lab-on-a-chip analytical devices. However, these constitute novelty in the research and development of approaches for the early diagnosis of pathogens in sustainable agriculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-12419-6DOI Listing
February 2021

Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy; A study from a rural population of Sindh, Pakistan.

Pak J Med Sci 2021 Jan-Feb;37(1):9-14

Dr. Jameel Ahmed, FRCP. Department of Medicine, Fatima hospital, Baqai Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan.

Objective: To discuss common indications and findings on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy as well as to correlate these findings with alarm symptoms in the rural population of Gadap town, Sindh.

Methods: This was a retrospective study on 1288 patients conducted in the medical ward of Fatima Hospital, Baqai Medical University. Patients' demographics and other data related to the procedure were recovered from patients' records. SPSS version 20 was used for statistical analysis.

Results: Ratio of male and female patients was approximately 1:1. Majority of the patients were young, and most procedures were done as outpatients without the requirement of conscious sedation. Epigastric pain was the primary indication for upper GI endoscopy (62.6%). One third of the procedures performed did not report any pathological finding. Probability of a positive finding was more likely if a patient presented with dysphagia, heart-burn, hematemesis, vomiting, or for screening endoscopy (for varices). Patients who were diagnosed with esophageal candidiasis, esophageal varices or esophageal growth/ ulcer had reported one or more alarm symptoms in their history.

Conclusions: Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is a useful test to diagnose disorders of the esophagus, stomach and duodenum. However, it is an expensive procedure and therefore referring physicians should keep appropriate clinical indication and ethical considerations in mind before recommending such an investigation to their patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12669/pjms.37.1.3297DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7794160PMC
January 2021

Jasmonic acid-mediated enhanced regulation of oxidative, glyoxalase defense system and reduced chromium uptake contributes to alleviation of chromium (VI) toxicity in choysum (Brassica parachinensis L.).

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jan 8;208:111758. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt; Biology Department, Faculty of Science, Taibah University, Al-Sharm, Yanbu El-Bahr, Yanbu 46429, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

The cultivation of leafy vegetables on metal contaminated soil embodies a serious threat to yield and quality. In the present study, the potential role of exogenous jasmonic acid (JA; 0, 5, 10, and 20 µM) on mitigating chromium toxicity (Cr; 0, 150, and 300 µM) was investigated in choysum (Brassica parachinensis L.). With exposure to increasing Cr stress levels, a dose-dependent decline in growth, photosynthesis, and physio-biochemical attributes of choysum plants was observed. An increase in Cr levels also resulted in oxidative stress closely associated with higher lipoxygenase activity (LOX), hydrogen peroxide (HO) generation, lipid peroxidation (MDA), and methylglyoxal (MG) levels. Exogenous application of JA alleviated the Cr-induced phytotoxic effects on photosynthetic pigments, gas exchange parameters, and restored growth of choysum plants. While exposed to Cr stress, JA supplementation induced plant defense system via enhanced regulation of antioxidant enzymes, ascorbate and glutathione pool, and the glyoxalase system enzymes. The coordinated regulation of antioxidant and glyoxalase systems expressively suppressed the oxidative and carbonyl stress at both Cr stress levels. More importantly, JA restored the mineral nutrient contents, restricted Cr uptake, and accumulation in roots and shoots of choysum plants when compared to the only Cr-stressed plants. Overall, the application of JA2 treatment (10 µM JA) was more effective and counteracted the detrimental effects of 150 µM Cr stress by restoring the growth and physio-biochemical attributes to the level of control plants, while partially mitigated the detrimental effects of 300 µM Cr stress. Hence, JA application might be considered as an effective approach for minimizing Cr uptake and its detrimental effects in choysum plants grown on contaminated soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111758DOI Listing
January 2021

Two new life types and assessment of web-associated behavioral characteristics of some Oligonychus species on various host plants.

Exp Appl Acarol 2021 Feb 2;83(2):211-227. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Acarology Laboratory, Department of Plant Protection, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box No. 2460, Riyadh, 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The webbing life type of three spider mite species of the genus Oligonychus was studied based on web-associated behavioral characteristics. All tested Oligonychus species-viz., avocado brown mite, Oligonychus punicae (Hirst), date palm mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor), and banks grass mite, Oligonychus pratensis (Banks)-exhibited a complicated-web (CW) life type on various host plants. A new life type, 'CW-c,' was documented for O. punicae on the adaxial leaf side of Conocarpus erectus L. (Combretaceae). The weaving pattern with guy ropes is spun by the O. punicae female and is associated with stalked eggs; it appeared as a unique character in the CW-life type. Oligonychus afrasiaticus, also showed a new life type, 'CW-d,' when reared on the abaxial side of leaves of four host plants, viz., desert fan palm, maize, sorghum, and sugarcane. Oligonychus afrasiaticus showed a site for quiescence and a site for oviposition as variables, whereas the site for defecation (SD) was a persistent characteristic on all four tested host plants. Oligonychus pratensis showed the characteristics of the sub-type 'CW-u' on the abaxial leaf side of Washingtonia filifera (Lindl.) H. Wendl. (Arecaceae). The SD was a distinguishing behavioral characteristic used to separate O. afrasiaticus from O. pratensis when inhabiting the same host plant, W. filifera.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-020-00579-yDOI Listing
February 2021

Adsorption, kinetics and thermodynamics studies of methyl orange dye sequestration through chitosan composites films.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jan 13;168:383-394. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Department of Chemistry, Govt. Post Graduate College Nowshera, 24100, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan; Department of Chemistry, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan 23200, Pakistan.

Different films comprising pure chitosan (CS) and chitosan coated sodium zeolites composites films designated as CSZ1, CSZ2, CSZ3 and CSZ4 respectively are presented here for the sequestration of MO dye. The as-synthesized films were characterized by using FSESM, XPS XRD, and TGA analysis. The sequestration of methyl orange dye (MO) was studied under various adsorption parameters i.e. pH effect, reaction temperature, catalytic dosage, interaction period, and original dye concentration in batch experiments. The adsorption power of MO dye sequestration in the presence of CSZ3 was 287 mg g higher than the fine CS (201 mg g), and lowest for CSZ4 (173 mg g). The experimental data is fitted in the pseudo-second order of chemical kinetics. The Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were used on behalf of the analysis of experimental data that revealed multilayered adsorption of MO dye. Kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic process were discussed in detailed, suggesting the endothermic and spontaneous process of the adsorption of MO dye on the exterior of films. The present work is general for the MO adsorption, however, it can be applied on large scale applications and can be easily adjustable in the water purification assemblies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.12.054DOI Listing
January 2021

Application of abscisic acid and 6-benzylaminopurine modulated morpho-physiological and antioxidative defense responses of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) by minimizing cobalt uptake.

Chemosphere 2021 Jan 31;263:128169. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

College of Resources and Environment, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, 410128, Hunan, PR China. Electronic address:

A hydroponic study was conducted to determine the effects of single and/or combined application of different doses (0, 5 and 10 μM L) of abscisic acid (ABA) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) on cobalt (Co) accumulation, morpho-physiological and antioxidative defense attributes of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) exposed to severe Co stress (400 μM L). The single Co treatment (T1), prominently decreased tomato growth, relative water contents, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b), whereas enhanced oxidative stress and Co accumulation in shoot and root tissues. Nonetheless, the supplementation of ABA and 6-BAP via nutrient media significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced plant biomass, root morphology and chlorophyll contents of tomato, compared to only Co treatment (T1). Moreover, the oxidative stress indicators such as malondialdehyde, proline and HO contents were ameliorated through activation of enzymatic antioxidant activities i.e. ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase, in growth modulator treatments in comparison to T1. The Co uptake, translocation (TF) and bioaccumulation factor (BAF) by shoot and root tissues of tomato were significantly reduced under all the treatments than that of T1. The supply of 6-BAP alone or in combination with ABA at 10 μM L application (T7) rate was found the most effective to reduce Co accumulation in the roots and shoots by 48.4% and 70.2% respectively than T1 treatment. It can be concluded that two plant growth modulators could improve the stress tolerance by inhibition of Co uptake in tomato plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128169DOI Listing
January 2021

Silicon mediated improvement in the growth and ion homeostasis by decreasing Na uptake in maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars exposed to salinity stress.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Jan 26;158:208-218. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Government College University Faisalabad, Faisalabad, 38000, Pakistan; Department of Biological Sciences and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung, 40402, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Silicon (Si), a major contributing constituent for plant resistance against abiotic stresses. In spite of this, the detailed mechanisms underlying the potential of Si in mitigating salt toxicity in maize (Zea mays L.) are still poorly understood. The present study deals with the response of Si application on growth, gaseous exchange, ion homeostasis and antioxidant enzyme activities in two maize cultivars (P1574 and Hycorn 11) grown under saline conditions. Salt stress remarkably reduced the plant tissue (roots and shoots) biomass, relative water contents (RWC), membrane stability index (MSI), gaseous exchange characteristics, and antioxidant enzymatic activities i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT). However, salt-induced phytotoxicity increased the plant tissue concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (HO), Na/K ionic ratio, Na translocation (root to shoot), and its uptake. The detrimental effects were more prominent in Hycorn 11 cultivar than the P1574 cultivar at higher salinity level (S2; 160 mM NaCl). The addition of Si alleviated salt toxicity, which was more obvious in P1574 relative to Hycorn 11 as demonstrated by an increasing trend in RWC, MSI, and activities of SOD, POD, APX and CAT. Besides, Si-induced mitigation of salt stress was due to the depreciation in Na/K ratio, Na ion uptake at the surface of maize roots, translocation in plant tissues and thereby significantly reduced Na ion accumulation. The findings showed a new dimension regarding the beneficial role of Si in maize plants grown under salt toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.10.040DOI Listing
January 2021

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-induced mitigation of heavy metal phytotoxicity in metal contaminated soils: A critical review.

J Hazard Mater 2021 01 14;402:123919. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-Bioresources, Root Biology Center, College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, Guangdong, PR China. Electronic address:

The heavy metal pollution is a worldwide problem and has received a serious concern for the ecosystem and human health. In the last decade, remediation of the agricultural polluted soil has attracted great attention. Phytoremediation is one of the technologies that effectively alleviate heavy metal toxicity, however, this technique is limited to many factors contributing to low plant growth rate and nature of metal toxicities. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) assisted alleviation of heavy metal phytotoxicity is a cost-effective and environment-friendly strategy. AMF have a symbiotic relationship with the host plant. The bidirectional exchange of resources is a hallmark and also a functional necessity in mycorrhizal symbiosis. During the last few years, a significant progress in both physiological and molecular mechanisms regarding roles of AMF in the alleviation of heavy metals (HMs) toxicities in plants, acquisition of nutrients, and improving plant performance under toxic conditions of HMs has been well studied. This review summarized the current knowledge regarding AMF assisted remediation of heavy metals and some of the strategies used by mycorrhizal fungi to cope with stressful environments. Moreover, this review provides the information of both molecular and physiological responses of mycorrhizal plants as well as AMF to heavy metal stress which could be helpful for exploring new insight into the mechanisms of HMs remediation by utilizing AMF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2020.123919DOI Listing
January 2021

Melatonin improves the seed filling rate and endogenous hormonal mechanism in grains of summer maize.

Physiol Plant 2020 Nov 18. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Key Laboratory of Crop Physio-ecology and Tillage in Northwestern Loess Plateau, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

The unpredictable precipitation and water deficit conditions in semiarid regions significantly reduce the yield of summer maize. The exogenous application of plant growth regulators can be used as a strategy to enhance plant stress tolerance and improve the growth and yield of maize under semiarid conditions. Here, we studied the protective role of melatonin application on maize yield using grain filling rate and hormonal crosstalk in maize grains. In the first field experiment, seeds were soaked with melatonin at a concentration of 0 (SM ), 25 (SM ), 50 (SM ), and 75 μM (SM ) μM. In contrast, in the second experiment, melatonin was applied on the foliage at the ninth leaf stage at a concentration of 0 (FM ), 25 (FM ), 50 (FM ), and 75 (FM ) μM. Our findings showed that melatonin treatments as seed soaking significantly increased single seed weight, seed filling rate in superior, medium and inferior seeds by regulating the hormone levels compared to foliar application. Application of melatonin significantly increased the zeatin+zeatin riboside (Z+ZR), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and gibberellic acid (GA) contents. However, it significantly inhibited the contents of abscisic acid (ABA) during the seed filling period. The content of Z+ZR, IAA, and GA was positively correlated with the maximum seed filling rate, seed weight, and mean filling rate in middle, superior and lower seeds, while the ABA was negatively correlated. The ABA content in inferior seeds was positively correlated with the maximum and mean seed filling rate. In semiarid regions, melatonin treatment of SM and FM significantly increased the dry matter per plant, 100-grain weight, seed filling rate, IAA, Z+ZR, GA contents, ear characteristics, and maize yield.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.13282DOI Listing
November 2020

Boron supply alleviates cadmium toxicity in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by enhancing cadmium adsorption on cell wall and triggering antioxidant defense system in roots.

Chemosphere 2021 Mar 10;266:128938. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, Root Biology Center, College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, Guangdong, PR China. Electronic address:

Cadmium (Cd) pollution is a key concern globally that affects plant growth and productivity. Boron (B) is a micronutrient that helps in the formation of the primary cell wall (CW) and alleviates negative effects of toxic elements on plant growth. Nonetheless, knowledge about how B can reduce Cd toxicity in rice seedlings is not enough, particularly regarding CW-Cd adsorption. Therefore, the current experiment investigated the alleviative role of B on Cd toxicity in rice seedling. The experiment was carried out with 0 μM and 30 μM HBO under 50 μM Cd toxicity in hydroponics. The results showed that Cd exposure alone inhibited plant growth parameters and caused lipid peroxidation. Moreover, Cd toxicity led to obvious visible toxicity symptoms on the leaves. However, increasing the availability of B alleviated Cd toxicity by reducing Cd concentration in plant tissues and improving antioxidative system. Moreover, cell wall pectin and hemicellulose adsorbed a significant amount of Cd. Fourier-Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra exhibited that cell wall functional groups were increased by B application. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis confirmed the higher Cd binding onto CW. The findings of this investigation showed that B could mitigate Cd stress by decreasing Cd uptake and encouraging Cd adsorption on CW, and activation of the protective mechanisms. The present results might help to increase rice productivity on Cd polluted soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.128938DOI Listing
March 2021

Phytomelatonin: An overview of the importance and mediating functions of melatonin against environmental stresses.

Physiol Plant 2020 Nov 6. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Life Sciences, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

Recently, melatonin has gained significant importance in plant research. The presence of melatonin in the plant kingdom has been known since 1995. It is a molecule that is conserved in a wide array of evolutionary distant organisms. Its functions and characteristics have been found to be similar in both plants and animals. The review focuses on the role of melatonin pertaining to physiological functions in higher plants. Melatonin regulates physiological functions regarding auxin activity, root, shoot, and explant growth, activates germination of seeds, promotes rhizogenesis (growth of adventitious and lateral roots), and holds up impelled leaf senescence. Melatonin is a natural bio-stimulant that creates resistance in field crops against various abiotic stress, including heat, chemical pollutants, cold, drought, salinity, and harmful ultra-violet radiation. The full potential of melatonin in regulating physiological functions in higher plants still needs to be explored by further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.13262DOI Listing
November 2020

Structural colouration in the Himalayan monal, hydrophobicity and refractive index modulated sensing.

Nanoscale 2020 Oct;12(41):21409-21419

School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khalifa University of Science and Technology, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

The Himalayan monal is a bird in the pheasant family, and it is the national bird of Nepal. The bird possesses spectacular iridescent plumage with a range of different metallic colours. Here, we have studied the internal structure of its feathers from different parts of the bird's body and showed that its beautiful colours and iridescence are due to photonic structures present in the internal structure of the feathers. Sharp changes in the reflected brilliance were observed from the feathers upon changing the illumination conditions, such as horizontal and azimuthal angles. The feathers exhibited interesting hydrophobic properties, with the dull-coloured proximal end showing lower hydrophobicity with a contact angle between 90° and 110° compared with the iridescent distal end of a feather exhibiting a contact angle between 115° and 120°, attributed to the change in the internal structure and/or density of the feathers. A quick reversible change in colours of these feathers was observed when they were soaked in water and other liquids, which reversed upon drying. The shift in colour was suggested to be due to the swelling of the keratin layer of barbules that absorbed liquids and as a result modified the refractive index and periodicity of the internal photonic structures. The colour shift response of feathers was different in the case of alcohols and other water-based solutions, suggesting different swelling behaviour of keratin against different liquids; the water-based solution had the more pronounced effect. Such photonic modulation can be utilized in colour selective filters and sensing devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr06382gDOI Listing
October 2020

Influence of biochar and soil properties on soil and plant tissue concentrations of Cd and Pb: A meta-analysis.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Feb 30;755(Pt 2):142582. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Biochar Engineering Technology Research Center of Guangdong Province, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Foshan University, Foshan, Guangdong 528000, China; Key Laboratory of Soil Contamination Bioremediation of Zhejiang Province, Zhejiang A&F University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 311300, China. Electronic address:

The application of biochar to soils contaminated with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) has received particular attention due to its ability to reduce PTE uptake by the plants. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to identify Cd and Pb concentrations in plant shoots and roots in response to biochar application and soil properties. We collected data from 65 peer-reviewed journal articles published from 2009 to 2020 in which 66% of manuscripts were published from 2015 to 2020. The data were processed using OpenMEE software. The results pinpointed that addition of biochar to soil caused a significant decrease in shoot and root Cd and Pb concentrations as compared to untreated soils with biochar (control), and the reduction rate was affected by plant types and both biochar and soil properties. The biochar size less than 2 mm, biochar pH higher than 10, pyrolysis temperature of 401-600 °C, and the application rate higher than 2% appeared to be effective in reducing shoot and root Cd and Pb concentration. Soil properties such as pH, SOC, and texture influenced the efficiency of biochar for reducing plant Cd and Pb uptake. Biochar application increased SOC (54.3%), CEC (48.0%), pH (0.08), and EC (59.4%), and reduced soil extractable Cd (42.1%) and Pb (47.1%) concentration in comparison to control. A detailed study on the rhizosphere chemistry and uptake mechanism will help to underpin the biochar application rates and their efficiency reducing PTE mobility and plant uptake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142582DOI Listing
February 2021

Severity of Disease from COVID-19 in Patients with Obesity and MAFLD: Is there an association?

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2020 Sep;30(9):891-893

Department of Medicine, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.29271/jcpsp.2020.09.891DOI Listing
September 2020

Highly efficient porous sorbent derived from asphalt for the solid-phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

J Chromatogr A 2020 Sep 17;1631:461559. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117543, Singapore.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are generated primarily during the incomplete combustion of organic matter and are ubiquitous environmental pollutants. For the first time, in this study, a mesoporous carbon derived from asphalt with high surface area (2300 m²g with an average of 1.2 cm³ g) was utilized as a sorbent for the solid-phase extraction (SPE) of several PAHs in tap water samples. The factors influencing the extraction capability of the new material were investigated and the optimum conditions were determined to be as follows: Sample volume - 200 mL, no adjustment of sample pH, and sorbent amount - 50 mg. Under the most favorable SPE conditions, with gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis, the method exhibited a linear range of 0.5-50 μgL with limits of detection between 0.004 and 0.026 μgL. The recoveries obtained from spiked tap water samples spiked at 1 μgL and 5 μgL, were in the range 86.7-98.2% with relative standard deviations of <9%. The method was also applied to tap water samples collected from the local environment. The concentrations of PAHs detected ranged between 0.13 and 48 μgL. The reusability of the sorbent was tested with five consecutive SPE extraction, and no carryover of analytes was observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2020.461559DOI Listing
September 2020

Air pollution and its economic impacts at household level: willingness to pay for environmental services in Pakistan.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Feb 1;28(6):6611-6618. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Economics, Faculty of Business Administration, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad, 45550, Pakistan.

Air pollution has become a major global problem. Thus, the goal of this study was to find out the economic impacts (treatment cost) of air pollution on households as well as the principal factors inducing an individual's willingness to pay for better air quality. District Faisalabad was purposively selected for sampling, as it is a major industrial hub in Pakistan. The required information was collected from 120 sampled respondents through a structured questionnaire. The ordinary least squares method was used for assessing the impact of various factors on the treatment cost of the most recent episode of ailment related to air pollution. The ordered logit model was used to assess the impacts of factors affecting the willingness to pay for programs aimed at the provision of better environmental services. The results revealed that high air pollution in the urban area resulted in more lost workdays and higher health costs. The findings also showed that people were willing to pay for better air quality in urban areas than in rural areas. Based on the findings, it is suggested that the incentive schemes may be designed for the promotion of cleaner services in rural and urban areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11023-4DOI Listing
February 2021

Hormonal changes with uniconazole trigger canopy apparent photosynthesis and grain filling in wheat crop in a semi-arid climate.

Protoplasma 2021 Jan 23;258(1):139-150. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Key Laboratory of Crop Physio-Ecology and Tillage Science in North-Western Loess Plateau, Ministry of Agriculture, College of Agronomy, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100, Shaanxi, China.

Phytohormones are important for the growth and development of plants. The objective of the experiment was to investigate the effect of foliar application of uniconazole (UCZ) at the four-leaf stage on hormone crosstalk and production of winter wheat. An experiment was carried out during 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 growth season in a semi-arid region, where UCZ at a concentration of 0 (CK, distilled water), 15 (FU), 30 (FU), and 45 (FU) mg L were sprayed on wheat crop at the four-leaf stage at a rate of 138.8 mL m. UCZ alters the endogenous hormone contents in flag leaves and in grains. UCZ inhibited gibberellic acid (GA) in flag leaves and in grains where the lower GA with UCZ improved the zeatin + zeatin riboside (Z + ZR) and abscisic acid (ABA) contents. The lower GA and higher Z + ZR and ABA contents with UCZ-treated plants improved the chlorophyll content and canopy apparent photosynthesis (CAP) as well as the grain-filling characteristics. The Z + ZR and ABA in flag leaves were positively correlated with chlorophyll content and CAP value while negatively with GA. Moreover, the Z + ZR and ABA were positively correlated with maximum grain weight, mean grain-filling rate, and maximum grain-filling rate, while negatively with GA level. Treatment FU significantly improved the chlorophyll content, CAP value, spike weight, grain-filling characteristics, and hormone contents of Z + ZR and ABA while it decreased the GA level. The hormone crosstalk with UCZ significantly increased the yield of wheat crop, where FU treatment performs better.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00709-020-01559-0DOI Listing
January 2021

Efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy against halitosis in adolescent patients undergoing orthodontic treatment.

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2020 Dec 17;32:102019. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Orthodontics and Pedodontics, College of Dentistry, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Purpose: The aim of the present randomized controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on halitosis in adolescent patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment.

Materials And Methods: Forty-five adolescents with halitosis undergoing orthodontic treatment were equally randomized into three groups: Group - I: provision of treatment through PDT on dorsum of tongue; Group - II: provision of treatment with the help of tongue scrappers (TS); Group - III: provision of treatment with the help of TS and adjunctive PDT. Presence of halitosis confirmed on the basis of gas chromatography and estimation of oral malodour with a cysteine challenge and HS values recorded ≥112 parts per billion (ppb). A portable device Oral Chroma™ was used for performing breath analysis. A total of 5 bacterial species including P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum, P. intermedia, T. forsythia and T. denticola were studied as the proportion of sites defined as having ≥1.0 × 10 bacterial cells.

Results: The mean age of the participants in Group-I, II and III were 15.4 years, 13.8 years, and 14.2 years, respectively. The median values for Group-I, II and III at initial breath analysis were 874 ppb, 613 ppb and 1089 ppb, respectively. After treatment with the respective therapeutic modalities, a statistically significant difference was seen among groups after 2-weeks (p < 0.0001) (Table 3). After applying Kruskal-Wallis test, group-III showed the highest amount of reduction in HS concentration (100 %) at final 2-weeks breath analysis compared to group-I and group-II (p = 0.0001). Descriptive statistics for all bacteria showed that group-III (TS + PDT) statistically significantly reduced the proportional distribution of all bacteria at 2-week follow-up (p < 0.0001) compared to group-I or group-II.

Conclusion: PDT along with tongue scrapping showed effective immediate reduction of HS concentration and reduction of oral pathogens in adolescent patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment with short-term follow up. Long-term evaluation and complete eradication of halitosis needs to be explored in further clinical trials. In addition, the cost of PDT and its potential side effects should not be disregarded.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2020.102019DOI Listing
December 2020