Publications by authors named "Muhammad Kamil"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Toxicological Evaluation of Novel Cyclohexenone Derivative in an Animal Model through Histopathological and Biochemical Techniques.

Toxics 2021 May 25;9(6). Epub 2021 May 25.

Faculty of Medicine, Transilvania University of Brasov, 500019 Brasov, Romania.

Toxicity studies were conducted to provide safety data of potential drug candidates by determining lethal and toxic doses. This study was designed for pre-clinical evaluation of novel cyclohexenone derivative with respect to the acute and sub-acute toxicity along with the diabetogenic potential. Acute and sub-acute toxicity were assessed after intraperitoneal (i.p) injection of the investigational compound through selected doses for 21 days. This was followed by assessment of isolated body organs (liver, kidney, heart and pancreas) via biochemical indicators and histopathological techniques. No signs of toxicity were revealed in the study of acute toxicity. Similarly, a sub-acute toxicity study showed no significant difference in biochemical indicators on 11th and 21st days between treated and control groups. However, in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and random blood glucose/sugar (RBS) values, significant differences were recorded. Histopathological evaluation of liver, kidney, pancreas and heart tissues revealed mild to severe changes in the form of steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, necrosis and myofibrillary damages on 11th and 21st days of treatment. In conclusion, the median lethal dose of the tested compound was expected to be greater than 500 mg/kg. No significant change occurred in selected biomarkers, except BUN and RBS levels, but a histopathological study showed moderate toxic effect on liver, kidney, pancreas and heart tissues by the cyclohexenone derivative.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxics9060119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227666PMC
May 2021

Fronto-Orbital Advancement and Posterior Cranial Vault Expansion Using Distraction Osteogenesis in Patients With Multiple Craniosynostosis.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Jan 14. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia.

Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the treatment outcomes and the efficiency of techniques of fronto-orbital advancement (FOA) and posterior cranial vault expansion (PCVE) using distraction osteogenesis in patients with multiple craniosynostosis. We assessed the treatment results and outcomes of 8 patients with multiple craniosynostosis at the Kagoshima University Hospital between 2005 and 2019. Each 4 patients underwent FOA and PCVE, respectively, using distraction osteogenesis. The cranial volume and developmental quotient (DQ) were measured at the preoperative period and 1 year after surgery. The mean patient age at surgery was 22 months. The mean preoperative cranial volume was 1027 and 1071 cm3 in the FOA and PCVE groups, respectively. The mean preoperative DQ scores were 74 and 67, respectively. After 1-year of follow-up, the corresponding mean cranial volume became 1108 and 1243 cm3, respectively. The corresponding mean DQ scores also improved to 74 and 81, respectively. The postoperative follow-ups in all cases were uneventful, except for persistent epilepsy in 1 patient. Fronto-orbital advancement and PCVE using distraction osteogenesis might contribute to good outcomes in expanding cranial volume, cosmetic osteogenesis, and infantile development in patients with multiple craniosynostosis. Regarding the cranial volume expansion, especially, PCVE using distraction osteogenesis is more effective than FOA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000007442DOI Listing
January 2021

COVID-19 and its impact on Neurosurgery: Our Early Experience in Lombok Island Indonesia.

Interdiscip Neurosurg 2020 Dec 31;22:100868. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Departement of Neurosurgery, Dr. Soetomo General Hospital Medical Center, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.inat.2020.100868DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7392843PMC
December 2020

A sellar neuroblastoma showing rapid growth and causing syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone: A case report.

Surg Neurol Int 2020 27;11:165. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Departments of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-7 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima.

Background: Sellar neuroblastoma is a very rare entity. We report a rare case of arginine vasopressin (AVP)- producing sellar neuroblastoma presumed to have originated from the lower part of sellar turcica, which grew very rapidly.

Case Description: A 33-year-old woman was found to have a sellar lesion with a diameter of 18 mm invading into the bilateral cavernous sinus on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed for dizziness. Six years later, when she visited the clinic due to bilateral visual disturbance, MRI showed a rapid growth of the tumor, with a maximal diameter of 56 mm at the current state, strongly compressing the optic nerve and chiasm. Transsphenoidal decompression of the optic chiasm revealed an intact pituitary gland on the top of the tumor. The tumor was composed of neoplastic cells that were immunohistochemically positive for neuronal markers and arginine vasopressin (AVP), but negative for all anterior pituitary hormones, glial fibrillary acidic protein, or thyroid transcription factor-1; these findings were suggestive of sellar neuroblastoma. She underwent 50-Gy radiation therapy, which has controlled the growth for the past 3 years.

Conclusion: Awareness of rare sellar neuroblastomas will allow the accumulation of clinicopathologic information that may facilitate the understanding of their origin, clinical features, neuroimaging characteristics, and pertinent adjuvant treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.25259/SNI_97_2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7332709PMC
June 2020

FARP1 boosts CDC42 activity from integrin αvβ5 signaling and correlates with poor prognosis of advanced gastric cancer.

Oncogenesis 2020 Feb 6;9(2):13. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Digestive Surgery, Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima, Japan.

Considering the poor prognosis of most advanced cancers, prevention of invasion and metastasis is essential for disease control. Ras homologous (Rho) guanine exchange factors (GEFs) and their signaling cascade could be potential therapeutic targets in advanced cancers. We conducted in silico analyses of The Cancer Genome Atlas expression data to identify candidate Rho-GEF genes showing aberrant expression in advanced gastric cancer and found FERM, Rho/ArhGEF, and pleckstrin domain protein 1 (FARP1) expression is related to poor prognosis. Analyses in 91 clinical advanced gastric cancers of the relationship of prognosis and pathological factors with immunohistochemical expression of FARP1 indicated that high expression of FARP1 is significantly associated with lymphatic invasion, lymph metastasis, and poor prognosis of the patients (P = 0.025). In gastric cancer cells, FARP1 knockdown decreased cell motility, whereas FARP1 overexpression promoted cell motility and filopodium formation via CDC42 activation. FARP1 interacted with integrin β5, and a potent integrin αvβ5 inhibitor (SB273005) prevented cell motility in only high FARP1-expressing gastric cancer cells. These results suggest that the integrin αvβ5-FARP1-CDC42 axis plays a crucial role in gastric cancer cell migration and invasion. Thus, regulatory cascade upstream of Rho can be a specific and promising target of advanced cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41389-020-0190-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7005035PMC
February 2020

Formin-like 1 (FMNL1) Is Associated with Glioblastoma Multiforme Mesenchymal Subtype and Independently Predicts Poor Prognosis.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Dec 17;20(24). Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8520, Japan.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults, is characterized by rapid proliferation, aggressive migration, and invasion into normal brain tissue. Formin proteins have been implicated in these processes. However, the role of formin-like 1 (FMNL1) in cancer remains unclear. We studied FMNL1 expression in glioblastoma samples using immunohistochemistry. We sought to analyze the correlation between FMNL1 expression, clinicopathologic variables, and patient survival. Migration and invasion assays were used to verify the effect of FMNL1 on glioblastoma cell lines. Microarray data were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas and analyzed using gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). FMNL1 was an independent predictor of poor prognosis in a cohort of 217 glioblastoma multiforme cases ( < 0.001). FMNL1 expression was significantly higher in the mesenchymal subtype. FMNL1 upregulation and downregulation were associated with mesenchymal and proneural markers in the GSEA, respectively. These data highlight the important role of FMNL1 in the neural-to-mesenchymal transition. Conversely, FMNL1 downregulation suppressed glioblastoma multiforme cell migration and invasion via DIAPH1 and GOLGA2, respectively. FMNL1 downregulation also suppressed actin fiber assembly, induced morphological changes, and diminished filamentous actin. FMNL1 is a promising therapeutic target and a useful biomarker for GBM progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20246355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6940780PMC
December 2019

High filamin-C expression predicts enhanced invasiveness and poor outcome in glioblastoma multiforme.

Br J Cancer 2019 04 14;120(8):819-826. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan.

Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common brain malignancy in adults, is generally aggressive and incurable, even with multiple treatment modalities and agents. Filamins (FLNs) are a group of actin-binding proteins that regulate the actin cytoskeleton in cells. However, the role of FLNs in malignancies-particularly in GBM-is unclear.

Methods: The relation between FLNC expression and overall survival in GBM was evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier analysis using GBM patients from the Kagoshima University Hospital (n = 90) and data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) (n = 153). To assess FLNC function in GBM, cell migration and invasion were examined with Transwell and Matrigel invasion assays using FLNC-overexpressing U251MG and LN299 GBM cells, and ShRNA-mediated FLNC knocked-down KNS81 and U87MG cells. The gelatin zymography assay was used to estimate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 activity.

Results: In silico analysis of GBM patient data from TCGA and immunohistochemical analyses of clinical GBM specimens revealed that increased FLNC expression was associated with poor patient prognosis. FLNC overexpression in GBM cell lines was positively correlated with enhanced invasiveness, but not migration, and was accompanied by upregulation of MMP2.

Conclusions: FLNC is a potential therapeutic target and biomarker for GBM progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-019-0413-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6474268PMC
April 2019

Bacterial biofilm and associated infections.

J Chin Med Assoc 2018 01 15;81(1):7-11. Epub 2017 Oct 15.

Department of Biotechnology, Abdul Wali Khan University, Garden Campus, Mardan, Pakistan.

Microscopic entities, microorganisms that drastically affect human health need to be thoroughly investigated. A biofilm is an architectural colony of microorganisms, within a matrix of extracellular polymeric substance that they produce. Biofilm contains microbial cells adherent to one-another and to a static surface (living or non-living). Bacterial biofilms are usually pathogenic in nature and can cause nosocomial infections. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) revealed that among all microbial and chronic infections, 65% and 80%, respectively, are associated with biofilm formation. The process of biofilm formation consists of many steps, starting with attachment to a living or non-living surface that will lead to formation of micro-colony, giving rise to three-dimensional structures and ending up, after maturation, with detachment. During formation of biofilm several species of bacteria communicate with one another, employing quorum sensing. In general, bacterial biofilms show resistance against human immune system, as well as against antibiotics. Health related concerns speak loud due to the biofilm potential to cause diseases, utilizing both device-related and non-device-related infections. In summary, the understanding of bacterial biofilm is important to manage and/or to eradicate biofilm-related diseases. The current review is, therefore, an effort to encompass the current concepts in biofilm formation and its implications in human health and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcma.2017.07.012DOI Listing
January 2018

Long-term outcome after endovascular treatment of cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula and a literature review.

Acta Neurochir (Wien) 2017 11 20;159(11):2113-2122. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1, Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima, 890-8520, Japan.

Background: The long-term efficacy of endovascular treatment (EVT) for cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulae (CS-dAVF) was assessed with a special focus on residual shunts after initial EVT.

Patients And Methods: This retrospective survey included 50 patients who had undergone EVT and were followed for 1 month or longer (median follow-up 56 months).

Results: Common preoperative symptoms were chemosis (78%), extra-ocular motor palsy (72%), exophthalmos (66%), and tinnitus (26%). CS-dAVF were addressed by transvenous embolization (tVE, n = 48), tVE only was used in 43 instances and tVE plus transarterial embolization (tAE) in five. Two patients underwent tAE only. Procedure-related morbidity (brainstem infarction) was recorded in one patient (2%) and transient symptom exacerbation (paradoxical worsening) in 12 patients (24%). Postoperative digital subtraction angiography showed no major retrograde shunt or cortical venous reflux in any of the 50 patients. Anterograde or minor retrograde residual shunt was observed in 17 patients (34%); three of these underwent additional tVE and four had Gamma Knife surgery. The shunt flow disappeared in all 17 patients 12.6 ± 13.4 (mean ± SD) months after initial EVT. At the latest follow-up, 65.7 ± 52.6 months after the initial operation, no shunt flow was observed in any of the 50 patients. None had remaining or newly developed chemosis or tinnitus on follow-up. The rate of persistent cavernous sinus symptoms at the latest follow-up was higher in patients with than without post-procedural paradoxical worsening (5/12, 41.7% vs. 2/38, 5.3%, p = 0.0059 by Fisher's exact test).

Conclusions: Long-term follow-up showed that EVT, especially tVE, is an efficient and safe treatment for CS-dAVF. It resulted in the eventual disappearance of shunt flow. Residual shunt without major retrograde flow or cortical venous reflux can be monitored without additional treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00701-017-3336-4DOI Listing
November 2017

Electron-Donor and -Acceptor Agents Responsible for Surface Modification Optimizing Electrochemical Performance.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2017 Aug 15;9(34):28967-28979. Epub 2017 Aug 15.

Materials Electrochemistry Group, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University , Gyeongsan 38541, Republic of Korea.

The electrochemical roles of electron-donor and -acceptor agents in surface reforming of magnesium alloy were investigated via plasma electrolysis. The surface modification was performed in an aluminate-based electrolyte, having urea and hydrazine with inherent molecular structures, which might act as electron acceptor and donor during plasma-assisted electrochemical reaction. The presence of hydrazine working as donor would promote the formation of magnesium aluminates in the oxide layer, resulting in superior compactness of the oxide layer to that when urea was used as the working as acceptor since the precipitation of MgCO was favored in the electrolyte with urea. The thickness of the oxide layer formed by a combination of urea and hydrazine was higher than urea, while the porosity was higher than hydrazine. The electrochemical performance was enhanced in the order of hydrazine, urea and hydrazine combined, and urea, which was discussed on the basis of impedance interpretation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.7b05773DOI Listing
August 2017

Soft plasma electrolysis with complex ions for optimizing electrochemical performance.

Sci Rep 2017 03 10;7:44458. Epub 2017 Mar 10.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Republic of Korea.

Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) was a promising surface treatment for light metals to tailor an oxide layer with excellent properties. However, porous coating structure was generally exhibited due to excessive plasma discharges, restraining its performance. The present work utilized ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and Cu-EDTA complexing agents as electrolyte additives that alter the plasma discharges to improve the electrochemical properties of Al-1.1Mg alloy coated by PEO. To achieve this purpose, PEO coatings were fabricated under an alternating current in silicate electrolytes containing EDTA and Cu-EDTA. EDTA complexes were found to modify the plasma discharging behaviour during PEO that led to a lower porosity than that without additives. This was attributed to a more homogeneous electrical field throughout the PEO process while the coating growth would be maintained by an excess of dissolved Al due to the EDTA complexes. When Cu-EDTA was used, the number of discharge channels in the coating layer was lower than that with EDTA due to the incorporation of CuO and CuO altering the dielectric behaviour. Accordingly, the sample in the electrolyte containing Cu-EDTA constituted superior corrosion resistance to that with EDTA. The electrochemical mechanism for excellent corrosion protection was elucidated in the context of equivalent circuit model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep44458DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5345099PMC
March 2017

Synergistic influence of inorganic oxides (ZrO and SiO) with NH to protect composite coatings obtained via plasma electrolyte oxidation on Mg alloy.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2017 Jan;19(3):2372-2382

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Republic of Korea.

Different electrochemical approaches were proposed in this study to introduce nanoparticles to the coating layers, aiming at their in situ incorporation into the coating layers fabricated via plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). The addition of nanoparticles to the coating layers provided an electrochemical pathway to generate the functionalized coatings with a wide range of compositions and constituent phases as well giving the appearance of sealing the pores. In this study, the microstructure, chemical composition, and electrochemical response of the composite coating formed via one-stage PEO were compared with those obtained by means of structural modification of PEO coatings together with either impregnation or pre-deposition. For the combination of PEO and pre-deposition, the coating layer demonstrated less porous and better corrosion performance in the conditions used in this study, which were attributed to the denser and/or thicker layer resulting after incorporating the nanoparticles, such as SiO and ZrO. In these methods, the nanoparticles were detected mainly not only near the coating surface, but also within the micro-defects inside the coating layers. Accordingly, the electrochemical analysis based on potentiodynamic polarization tests in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution clearly showed that the corrosion resistance of Mg alloy would be enhanced significantly due to the incorporation of SiO and ZrO or ZrO nanoparticles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c6cp07135jDOI Listing
January 2017

Mediterranean glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD(C563T)) mutation among Jordanian females with acute hemolytic crisis.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2010 Dec;20(12):794-7

Department of Haematolgy, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute (AMDI), University Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.

Objective: To evaluate the G6PD(C563T) Mediterranean mutation among Jordanian females who were admitted to Princess Rahma Teaching Hospital (PRTH) with/or previous history of favism.

Study Design: A descriptive study.

Place And Duration Of Study: Jordanian University of Science and Technology and PRTH, from October 2003 to October 2004.

Methodology: After obtaining approval from the Ethics Committee of Jordanian University of Science and Technology, a total of 32 females were included in this study. Samples from 15 healthy individual females were used as a negative control. Blood samples from these patients were collected and analyzed by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) to determine the G6PD(C563T) mutation.

Results: Twenty one out of 32 patients were found to be G6PD(C563T) Mediterranean mutation (65.6%) positive. Three out of 21 patients were homozygous and remaining 18 were heterozygous for G6PD(C563T) Mediterranean mutation. Eleven (34.4%) out of 32 patients were found to be negative for G6PD(C563T) mutation indicating the presence of other G6PD mutations in the study sample.

Conclusion: G6PD(C563T) Mediterranean mutation accounted for 65.6% of the study sample with favism in the North of Jordan. There is likely to be another G6PD deficiency variant implicated in acute hemolytic crisis (favism).
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http://dx.doi.org/12.2010/JCPSP.794797DOI Listing
December 2010

High frequency of hand foot syndrome with capecitabine.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2010 Jun;20(6):421-2

Department of Oncology, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.

A hospital based cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted to determine the frequency of hand foot syndrome (HFS) with Capecitabine as a single agent and in combination with Oxaliplatin. The study included 43 consecutive cases of colorectal carcinoma and conducted from June till December 2008. Patients on palliative care were excluded. SPSS was used for the application of chi-square test, by keeping the level of significance as p < 0.05. Fifteen (34.9%) patients developed HFS, 10 in the single-agent and 5 in the combination group. No significant association of HFS with either regimens was noted (p=0.876).
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http://dx.doi.org/06.2010/JCPSP.421422DOI Listing
June 2010

Association of carcinoma breast: grade and estrogen progesterone receptor expression.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2010 Apr;20(4):250-2

Department of Medicine, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains, Malaysia.

Objective: To determine the association between histological grade of tumour and estrogen progesterone receptors (ER/PR) expression in unselected invasive carcinoma of breast in Malaysian patients.

Study Design: An observational study.

Place And Duration Of Study: Advanced Medical and Dental Institute and Hospital, Kepala Batas, from year 2002 to 2007.

Methodology: Ethical approval from Ministry of Health of Malaysia was obtained. Retrospective case records of patients presented between 2002- 2007 were reviewed for obtaining information on grade of tumour and expression of ER/PR in unselected carcinoma of breast patients. Records with missing data were discarded.

Results: Out of 195 cases evaluated, 42 cases of grade-I tumour were recorded of which 08 (19%) tested positive for ER and 34 (81%) tested negative, 86 cases represented grade-II tumour of which 33 (38%) tested positive for ER and 53 (62%) were negative for ER, while out of 67 grade-III tumours 22 (33%) were positive for ER receptors while 45 (67%) were negative, (chi2 statistic (df) 4.831, p=0.089). For PR, 192 cases were evaluated and data was missing for 3 cases on PR status. Grade-I tumour consisted of 39 cases of which PR +ve represented 07 (17.94%) and 32 (82.05) cases PR -ve; 86 cases were of grade-II of which 31 (36.04%) were PR +ve and 55 (63.95%) PR -ve. Sixty seven cases of grade-III tumour of which 19 (28.35%) were PR +ve and 48 (71.64) were PR -ve (chi2 statistic (df): 4.297; p=0.117).

Conclusion: ER/PR positivity trend was highest for grade-II tumours compared to grade-I and grade-III tumours. In general ER positivity was more with grade-II and grade-III tumours compared to grade I tumours. Although results did not reach statistical significance but there was a trend towards ER/PR positivity in grade-II and III tumours. So far, studies from South East Asia reported ER/PR expression more with low grade tumours.
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http://dx.doi.org/04.2010/JCPSP.250252DOI Listing
April 2010

Association of ABO blood groups with diabetes mellitus.

Libyan J Med 2010 Feb 8;5. Epub 2010 Feb 8.

Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.

Objective: So far no studies have been performed in Malaysia to look at association of diabetes mellitus (DM) with blood groups. We studied the association of ABO blood groups with DM type 2.

Patients And Methodology: It was a case control study conducted at Kepala Batas Hospital Batas, Penang, Malaysia in the year 2009, involving 70 patients with DM type 2 and 140 healthy controls. Ethical approval was obtained from Universiti Sains Malaysia. Blood samples were collected from the patients after consent. Samples were tested for ABO blood groups using ID-Card gel method.

Results: Chi-square test results showed that there was an association between the ABO blood groups and DM type 2. It was found that A and O blood groups were negatively associated with DM type 2 (P<0.05) with higher percentage of A and O groups individuals were non-diabetic. No significant association was noted between DM type 2 and blood groups B (P=0.423) and AB (P=0.095). It was also noted that B blood group was distributed with highest percentage among patients with DM type 2 (53.71%) compared to controls (22.52%), but no statistical significance achieved.

Conclusion: The results obtained suggest that there was a negative association between ABO blood groups A and O with DM type 2, with A and O group having less chances of diabetes. Large studies in other ethnic groups are needed to confirm these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/ljm.v5i0.4847DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3071167PMC
February 2010
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