Publications by authors named "Muhammad Irfan Ullah"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Extracts of Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham. showed both phytotoxic and insecticidal capacities against Lemna minor L. and Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa.

PLoS One 2021 30;16(4):e0250118. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Biotechnology, College of Sciences, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia.

Many phytochemicals can affect the growth and development of plants and insects which can be used as biological control agents. In this study, different concentrations of crude, hexane, chloroform, butanol, and aqueous extracts of Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham., an endemic plant of the Cholistan desert in South Punjab of Pakistan, were analysed for their chemical constituents. Their various concentrations were also tested for their phytotoxic and insecticidal potential against duckweed, Lemna minor L., and the dusky cotton bug, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa. various polyphenols, i.e., quercetin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and cinnamic acid were detected in different concentrations with different solvents during the phytochemical screening of E. nivulia. In the phytotoxicity test, except for 100 μg/mL of the butanol extract gave 4.5% growth regulation, no phytotoxic lethality could be found at 10 and 100 μg/mL of all the extracts. The highest concentration, 1000 μg/mL, of the chloroform, crude, and butanol extracts showed 100, 63.1, and 27.1% of growth inhibition in duckweed, respectively. In the insecticidal bioassay, the highest O. hyalinipennis mortalities (87 and 75%) were recorded at 15% concentration of the chloroform and butanol extracts of E. nivulia. In contrast, the lower concentrations of the E. nivulia extracts caused the lower mortalities. Altogether, these findings revealed that E. nivulia chloroform extracts showed significant phytotoxicity while all the extracts showed insecticidal potential. This potential can be, further, refined to be developed for bio-control agents.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250118PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087071PMC
April 2021

Host-Plant Variations Affect the Biotic Potential, Survival, and Population Projection of (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

Insects 2021 Apr 21;12(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

College of Plant Health and Medicine, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109, China.

The green peach aphid, Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a polyphagous insect pest is a major threat to a wide range of crops worldwide. Aiming to evaluate the life history traits of , feeding on different host plants, we used five vegetables: cabbage, (Brassicaceae); chinese cabbage, (Brassicaceae); chili pepper, (Solanaceae); crown daisy, (Asteraceae); and eggplant, (Solanaceae). TWOSEX-MSchart software was used for the statistical analysis about the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. The highest fecundity (69.65 individuals) rate of , intrinsic rate of increase ( = 0.425 d), finite rate of increase ( = 1.531 d), net reproductive rate ( = 69.65 offspring), and shortest mean generation time (T = 9.964 d) were recorded on the chili pepper plant. Whereas, lower fitness occurred on cabbage. The findings attained from population growth parameters indicate that chili pepper is the most susceptible plant, while cabbage is resistant to aphids. Population projection results also supported this statement, as the final total population size on cabbage was significantly lower than other plants. The reported information would be useful for devising integrated pest management programs, particularly those involving . This information also suggests the adaptability of causing economic damage to these vegetable cultivars.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects12050375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143353PMC
April 2021

Enhanced Passivation and Carrier Collection in Ink-Processed PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells via a Supplementary Ligand Strategy.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Sep 2;12(37):42217-42225. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Luoyu Road 1037, Wuhan 430074, P. R. China.

Solution-processed semiconductors have opened promising avenues for next-generation semiconductor and optoelectronic industries. Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) as one of the most typical materials are widely utilized for the design and development of light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, and solar cells. Recently, an emerging process of PbS QD ink has been employed to attain world record power conversion efficiency by surface passivation using a PbI ligand to form PbI-PbS and the process optimization in the field of photovoltaics. However, the bonding and debonding of the ligands on the surface of PbS QDs are dynamic reversible processes in an ink environment. The uncoordinated Pb defects induced by unbonded PbS QDs serve as the recombination sites. Thus, the present ink process leaves much room for the enhancement by surface passivation of PbS QDs. Herein, we devise an efficient strategy with a supplementary phenethylammonium iodide (PEAI) ligand for the formation of the PEAI-PbS interface in PbS QD ink-processed solar cells. This newly developed method can not only improve the passivation on the QD surface by iodine ions but also simultaneously enhance the carrier collection efficiency by a graded energy alignment between PbI-PbS and PEAI-PbS layers. The corresponding power conversion efficiency of the optimized device has significantly increased by approximately 20% more than the control device. As a result, such a robust and efficient method regarded as a strategic candidate can overcome the bottleneck of imperfect passivation caused by a large specific surface area and loose bonding ligands, eventually promoting the industrial application of QDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c08135DOI Listing
September 2020

White Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Agaricomycetes), and a Probiotics Mixture Supplementation Correct Dyslipidemia without Influencing the Colon Microbiome Profile in Hypercholesterolemic Rats.

Int J Med Mushrooms 2020 ;22(3):235-244

Biomedical Research Center, Qatar University, 2713, Qatar.

Consumption of foods rich in dietary fiber has attracted considerable attention for lowering blood cholesterol and triglycerides through attenuation of gut microbiome. Diets rich in fiber may provide substrates for microbes to digest and proliferate. In response, products of microbial digestion enter systemic circulation and support host energy homeostasis. In the present study, rats with hypercholesterolemia (HC) were supplemented with probiotics (PB) and Agaricus bisporus mushroom to examine the antidyslipidemia effects. Forty adult rats were divided into five treatment groups. The rats in the control group were fed only a chow maintenance diet (CON; n = 8), whereas an atherogenic diet (chow diet supplemented with 1.5% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid) was offered to the remaining rats to induce hypercholesterolemia (HC group; n = 32). Rats developed HC following a 24-day continuous supplementation with the atherogenic diet. From day 25 onward, the HC group was further divided into HC-CON, HC-PB (supplemented with PB at 1 mg/rat/day), HC-AB (supplemented with A. bisporus at 5% of diet), and HC-AB.PB (supplemented with both A. bisporus and PB). After 6 weeks of supplementation, rats were killed to collect blood to determine serum lipid profile, oxidative stress, and for metagenomics analysis of colon contents. Results showed that all supplementations corrected HC-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, A. bisporus supplementation corrected HC-induced dyslipidemia (P ≤ .05). Blautia and Bifidobacterium were the most dominant bacterial genera in HC-AB and HC-PB groups, respectively. Phylum Firmicutes and class Clostridia predominantly occupied the gut microbiome in all groups. However, no significant differences were observed in microbiome diversity and clustering patterns among study groups. In conclusion, supplementation of A. bisporus mushroom and probiotics can lower oxidative stress and dyslipidemia with partial effects on the phylogenetic makeup in the gut microbiome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2020033807DOI Listing
February 2021

Detection of Wolbachia (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Rhizobiales: Rhizobiaceae) Associated With Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) Collected From Citrus reticulata (Sapindales: Rutaceae) and Alternate Host, Cordia myxa (Boraginales: Boraginaceae).

J Econ Entomol 2020 06;113(3):1486-1492

Department of Entomology, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan.

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is an important insect pest of the citrus crop worldwide. It vectors the pathogen 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas) that causes a serious disease known as citrus greening. Here, we tested the infection frequency of Wolbachia and CLas from 100 D. citri individuals collected from two host plants belonging to families Rutaceae (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and Boraginaceae (Cordia myxa L.) using molecular methods. The following trend of endosymbionts infection in adult D. citri was found; 85.4% (35/41) by Wolbachia, and 19.5% (8/41) by CLas collected from C. reticulata plants and 65.4% (17/26) by Wolbachia, and 15.4% (4/26) by CLas in case of C. myxa plant. However, 61.5% (8/13) nymphs collected from C. reticulata and 20.0% (4/20) collected from C. myxa plants were infected by Wolbachia, while no nymph was infected by CLas collected from either host plants. Findings from this work represent the first report of CLas presence in D. citri feeding on C. myxa plants. By studying the presence of CLas with other endosymbiotic bacteria, future basic and applied research to develop control strategies can be prioritized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toaa043DOI Listing
June 2020

Comprehensive study based on mtDNA signature (nad1) providing insights on Echinococcus granulosus s.s. genotypes from Pakistan and potential role of buffalo-dog cycle.

Infect Genet Evol 2020 07 3;81:104271. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Department of Botany, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan.

Pakistan has long been considered neglected endemic region for Echinococcus granulosus. Limited surveillance studies have failed to epidemiologically draw complete picture on geographical presence and etiological agents of cystic echinococcosis. Amidst such lacunae, current study explored main transmission routes of this disease through molecular characterization of hydatid cyst isolates obtained from sheep (n = 35), goats (n = 26), cattle (n = 30) and buffalo (n = 30) from the four provinces of Pakistan. Two strains of E. granulosus sensu stricto, G1/G3, and their haplotypes were observed to be cycling in sympatry in the domestic ungulate populations. G3 genotype had higher prevalence (66.94%) in the hosts compared to G1 genotype (33.06%) which was not surprising, considering the large buffalo population in Pakistan. Haplotypic analysis revealed presence of 9 different haplotypes configured in a double clustered network with two centrally positioned haplotypes referred to as G3 (PKH1) and G1 (PKH6). Population demographics and genetic variability indices suggested expanding parasitic population in multiple host spectrum. Elucidating local transmission patterns of E. granulosus sensu stricto, buffalo-dog cycle emerged as one of the dominant causes of G3 dispersal in contrary to other global studies. Adaptability of G3 to environmental conditions of Pakistan and high affinity for buffaloes emphasize on heterogeneous nature of this strain in contrast to G1. However, more studies involving larger datasets and mitochondrial sequences could confirm this hypothetically formulated inference.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104271DOI Listing
July 2020

Effects of Entomopathogenic Fungi on the Biology of (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its Reduviid Predator, (Heteroptera: Reduviidae).

Int J Insect Sci 2019 31;11:1179543319867116. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Department of Entomology, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan.

Entomopathogenic fungi (EPFs), and , are efficient biological agents in the management of multiple arthropod pests. In this study, the effects of both EPF species on various life stages of (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its natural enemy (Fab.) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) were determined under laboratory conditions. significantly ( < .05) reduced the growth rate of the third and fourth instar larvae of . For relative consumption rate (RCR), the maximum impact was recorded for , which reduced the RCR of the larvae. The larvae of treated with showed significantly lower efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI) and the larval mortality rate (58.0%) was also higher compared with (33.3%). Similarly, had a significant effect on the pupal formation of ; however, no significant effect was found on adult emergence percentage. To determine the effect of EPF-infected prey on the adult predator, their handling time, predatory rate, consumption rate, and the survival rate were recorded. No significant effect of EPF species on the predation rate was found. Furthermore, no significant difference was found in the survival rate of predators fed on either EPF-infected prey or healthy larvae. The interaction of these EPFs with a reduviid predator suggested that both EPF species, especially , could be used together with the predator to boost the biological control of in commercial crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1179543319867116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6669838PMC
July 2019

Application of Organic Fertilizers Affect the Citrus Leafminer, (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) Infestation and Citrus Canker Disease in Nursery Plantations.

Int J Insect Sci 2019 1;11:1179543319858634. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Department of Entomology, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan.

Citrus leafminer (CLM), Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), is one of the most important insect pests of Pakistan's citrus nursery stock and caused extensive damage to young flushes. The organic compost is a widespread technique used to manage insect pests and plant diseases. Different composts (biofert, tara root and vermicompost) at 0.5 and 0.25 kg/plant concentration in comparison to NPK fertilizer at 0.4 and 0.2 g/plant were evaluated for CLM infestation and the associated citrus canker disease in nursery plantations of Blanco. Application of biofert at 0.5 kg/plant reduced the CLM infestation up to 54.5% during Fall-2016 and 39.1% during Summer-2017 in comparison to control treatment. The CLM larval density was also found lower by the application of biofert followed by vermicompost during both seasons. Both concentrations of biofert followed by vermicompost at 0.5 kg/plant resulted in remarkable protection against citrus canker disease in both flushes. The incidence of canker associated with CLM infested leaves was also studied and found lower by the application of biofert and vermicompost compared with control treatment. Conclusively, the soil amendment using biofert and vermicompost affects the CLM population and canker infection in nursery plantations. These organic fertilizers can be used in future citrus IPM programs as a tool to suppress the CLM population and citrus canker disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1179543319858634DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6604117PMC
July 2019

Tamboti wood ash and burnt goat dropping ash, safe alternatives to control cowpea weevils, Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) during storage for subsistence farming.

Environ Monit Assess 2019 Jul 9;191(8):487. Epub 2019 Jul 9.

Department of Agriculture Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, 38040, Pakistan.

This study determined the effect of tamboti wood ash and burnt goat dropping ash along with a chemical insecticide (avi-klorpirifos) on the reproduction, egg hatchability, damage, and mortality of cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.). The germination potential of treated cowpea seeds was also determined using a susceptible variety-Blackeye. Two hundred grams of clean cowpea seeds were mixed with 25 g of tamboti wood ash and goat dropping ash. These seeds were then infested with 5 pairs of newly emerged adults of C. maculatus under controlled laboratory conditions. The experiment revealed that both tamboti wood ash and goat dropping ash had negative effects on the efficiency of C. maculatus and significantly reduced the extent of damage. In germination test, these ashes showed a significant improvement in germinability of treated cowpea seeds. However, in all instances, tamboti wood ash proved to be much more effective than goat dropping ash. The study observed that these natural products have the potential to protect cowpea seeds from the damage caused by C. maculatus during storage and can, therefore, be used as an alternative pest management method against cowpea weevils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-019-7632-8DOI Listing
July 2019

Heavy metal exposure through artificial diet reduces growth and survival of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2019 May 13;26(14):14426-14434. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Department of Agricultural Development, Democritus University of Thrace, Orestiada, Greece.

Insect physiology is affected by the presence of toxins in the surrounding environment of insects as well as their food sources. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of heavy metal exposure to two low concentrations (50 μg/g and 150 μg/g) of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) through artificial diet to the larvae on biological parameters of Asian armyworm (Spodoptera litura Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Both Pb and Zn, even at low concentrations, had relatively high toxic effects on S. litura larvae (P < 0.01). S. litura larval weight and length suffered the maximum reduction when the larvae were fed on diet mixed with the high Pb concentration (150 μg/g) tested compared to the other treatments. At the same Pb concentration (150 μg/g), values of larva growth index, pupa growth index, immature growth index, standardized growth index, and fitness index were 4.66, 7.33, 7.82, 5.35, and 10.00 times lower, respectively, than those of control. At the same Zn concentration (150 μg/g), values of larval growth index, pupal growth index, immature growth index, standardized growth index, and fitness index were 5.61, 3.00, 3.04, 3.23, and 9.24 times lower, respectively, than those of control. The survival rate of S. litura larvae was also lower (12.5%) when the larvae were fed on diet mixed with Pb at 150 μg/g after 10 days of observation. Overall, the presence of those heavy metals in the environment, even at low concentrations, would exert an adverse impact on larvae development of this insect. From this point of view, findings could provide a basis for long-term evaluation of heavy metal risk and its impact on populations of important agricultural pests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-04792-0DOI Listing
May 2019

Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes), Supplementation Alters Gut Microbiome and Corrects Dyslipidemia in Rats.

Int J Med Mushrooms 2019 ;21(1):79-88

Biomedical Research Center, Qatar University, Qatar.

Recent interest in diet-induced modulation of the gut microbiome has led to research on the impact that dietary fibers can have on host health. Lentinus edodes mushroom-derived fibers may act as an appropriate substrate for gut microbe digestion and metabolism. The metabolites that gut microbes excrete can modulate host energy balance, gut absorption, appetite, and lipid metabolism. In the present study, we explored the dynamics of the gut microbiome of hypercholesterolemic rats supplemented with L. edodes. Wistar rats were offered a chow maintenance diet (CMD; CON group) or the same CMD ration with cholesterol (1.5% w/w) and cholic acid (0.5% w/w) added to induce hypercholesterolemia (day 1 to day 24). Hypercholesterolemic rats were subsequently offered either the same cholesterol-cholic acid diet (HC-CON group) or were supplemented with L. edodes (5% w/w; LE group) for 42 days (day 25 to day 66). At the end of the experiment, serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations were determined. Colon digesta were subjected to DNA extraction and subsequent 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Raw sequences were quality filtered and statistically analyzed using QIIME and LEfSe tools. Triglyceride concentrations were lower (P = 0.002) in the LE group than in the CON and HC-CON groups. Total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations were slightly decreased, whereas HDL cholesterol concentrations were increased by L. edodes supplementation compared with the HC-CON group. The gut microbiome of the LE group had higher species richness characterized by increased abundance of Clostridium and Bacteroides spp. Linear discriminant analysis identified bacterial clades that were statistically different among treatment groups. In conclusion, manipulation of gut microbiota through the administration of L. edodes could manage dyslipidemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2018029348DOI Listing
June 2019

Insecticide toxic effects and blood biochemical alterations in occupationally exposed individuals in Punjab, Pakistan.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Mar 13;655:102-111. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Agricultural Development, Democritus University of Thrace, Orestiada, Greece. Electronic address:

Biomonitoring of people exposed to hazardous materials provides opportunities for early identification of several diseases, particularly in those individuals who are constantly exposed to pesticides, such as pesticide operators and workers in pesticide manufacturing industry. However, data on this hot topic are limited in Pakistan. In this study, insecticide toxic effects and biochemical alterations (i.e., damage in DNA and enzyme activity) were studied in blood samples of occupationally exposed individuals from Punjab, Pakistan. Eight out of twenty-seven blood samples (29.6%) of the pesticide operators were found positive in five insecticides, with the maximum concentration found for chlorpyrifos-methyl (0.039 μg/mL). Eleven out of twenty-seven blood samples (40.7%) of the pesticide industry workers were found positive in eight insecticides, with the maximum concentration found for endosulfan (0.051 μg/mL). Comet tail length was 16.88 ± 4.57 μm in pesticide industry workers and 16.33 ± 3.78 μm in pesticide operators, which were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than that recorded in the control group (4.84 ± 2.21 μm). Values of serum cholinesterase (SChE) concentration were slightly lower (P > 0.05) in exposed individuals, whereas values of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentration were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in exposed individuals compared with control group. Exposure duration and total insecticide concentration in blood samples were positively associated with comet tail length, ALT activity, AST activity, and ALP activity, but negatively with SChE. DNA damage was higher in smokers vs. non-smokers. Also, a positive association was found between comet tail length and number of cigarettes per day. Overall, occupational exposure to insecticides can pose serious health risks to pesticide operators and workers in pesticide manufacturing industry, highlighting the necessity of personal protection in those groups for preventing exposure and resultant health disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.11.175DOI Listing
March 2019

Immunomodulatory and ameliorative effects of Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces based probiotics on pathological effects of eimeriasis in broilers.

Microb Pathog 2019 Jan 29;126:101-108. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, 60800, Pakistan.

Eimeria infection is very important in broilers and causes heavy economic losses in extensive farming system due to reduced weight gains, high mortality and poor feed conversion ratio (FCR). Under the circumstances, there is a dire need to devise effective control strategies to avoid/counteract this infectious threat. This study was conducted to assess the immunomodulatory and ameliorative effects of Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces based probiotics against Eimeria infection in broilers. The results showed statistically higher (P < 0.05) lymphoproliferative responses in experimental groups treated either with Lactobacillus or Saccharomyces based probiotics, as compared to control group. Further higher antibody titers (geomean titers) were also recorded in chickens of experimental groups treated with probiotics as compared to those of control group. The probiotic treated groups also revealed significantly improved (P < 0.05) FCRs as compared to control group. In challenge experiment, significantly lower (P < 0.05) oocyst counts were recorded in broilers treated with probiotics, when compared with control group. Further, experimental groups also revealed significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily weight gains and protection rates as compared to control. The data regarding the lesion scoring showed that chickens treated with probiotics had higher values of percent protection against intestinal and caecal lesion, when compared with those of control group. In conclusion, supplementation of probiotics proved very useful to enhance the immunological and performance potentials of broilers which subsequently provided protection against Eimeria infection. Further studies on the physico-chemical properties along with commercial feasibility and cost benefit analysis of these probiotic species are needed for wise selection to get maximum profit from broiler industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2018.10.038DOI Listing
January 2019

Physiological Effects of Citrus Leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) Larval Feeding on Photosynthetic and Gaseous Exchange Rates in Citrus.

J Econ Entomol 2018 09;111(5):2264-2271

Department of Entomology, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan.

Feeding damage by arthropods exposes plants to pathogens and interferes with plant physiological processes. Feeding by the citrus leafminer (CLM), Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), larva exposes leaf cuticle to the causal pathogens of the citrus canker disease. We investigated the impact of larval feeding on photosynthetic rate (Pn), CO2 exchange rate (Ci), and H2O exchange rate (Wi) in eight citrus cultivars [Citrus mandarins (Kinnow, Seedless Kinnow, Feutrell's early), Citrus sinensis (Succari, Salustiana), Citrus tangerines (Fairchild), Citrus limon (China lemon), and Citrus paradisi Macfad (Grapefruit)] under natural conditions in comparison with control plants protected from larval feeding. The effects on gas exchange parameters were tested by allowing the single first instar larvae per leaf to feed till pupation at the rate of three leaves per plant and 10 plants per cultivar. A consistent reduction in leaf Pn, Ci, and Wi rates with larval development through 19 d was observed in all cultivars except Grapefruit in which all three parameters decreased through 13 d and then increased consistently through 19 d. Reductions in Pn, Ci, and Wi were significantly correlated. All three parameters of CLM-infested plants were reduced significantly compared to their levels in control plants except Pn in Kinnow, China lemon, and Grapefruit; Ci in Grapefruit; and Wi in Succari. Pn was reduced most in Fairchild, whereas Ci and Wi were reduced most in China lemon. The consequences of these physiological alterations in regions with high CLM populations could be even more intense and negatively impact plant health, tolerance to pests and diseases, and yield.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toy150DOI Listing
September 2018

Morphological and Genetic Analysis of Four Color Morphs of Bean Leaf Beetle.

J Insect Sci 2018 Mar;18(2)

Department of Entomology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE.

Bean leaf beetle (BLB), Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster; Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), exhibits considerable color variation but little is known about the underlying genetic structure and gene flow among color phenotypes. Genetic and morphological variation among four color phenotypes-green with spots (G+S), green without spots (G-S), red with spots (R+S) and red without spots (R-S)-were analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and morphometrics, respectively. AFLP generated 175 markers that showed ≥80% polymorphism. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that genetic variation was greatest within phenotypes (82.6-84.0%); gene flow among the four phenotypes was relatively high (Nm = 3.82). The dendrogram and STRUCTURE analysis indicated some population divergence of G-S from the other phenotypes. Morphological parameters were similar among phenotypes except that R+S showed significant differences in weight and body-length. Canonical variables 1 and 2, based on average morphometric characters, accounted for 98% of the total variation; some divergence was indicated between G+S and R+S from each other and from the G-S/R-S BLB color morphs. The pattern of genetic variation indicated potential divergence of G-S and G+S from each other and from R-S and R+S. Although these results indicate that the four different color morphs are not genetically or reproductively isolated, there is some genetic differentiation/structure and morphological dissimilarity suggesting weak/incomplete isolation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jisesa/iey016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5890489PMC
March 2018

Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes): A Species with Antioxidant, Immunomodulatory, and Hepatoprotective Activities in Hypercholesterolemic Rats.

Int J Med Mushrooms 2017 ;19(11):981-990

Remount Office, Chenab Breeding Area, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Lentinus edodes is a culinary-medicinal mushroom that has an established history of use in Asian therapies. The mushroom offers well-documented beneficial health effects such as antihypercholesterolemic, antitumor, and antibacterial activities. In this study, dried powder of L. edodes fruiting bodies was used to evaluate immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, and antioxidant effects in hypercholesterolemic rats. Albino rats (n = 24) were divided into 3 groups: the control (CON) group, the hypercholesterolemia-only group (HCG), and the L. edodes group (LEG). Hypercholesterolemia was induced in rats in the HCG and LEG by feeding cholesterol and cholic acid in a chow maintenance diet (CMD) for 24 days. The CON group was fed the CMD throughout the experiment. The HCG continued on the high-cholesterol diet without any L. edodes supplement. The LEG was fed the high-cholesterol diet supplemented with L. edodes for an additional 42 days. Various biological health biomarkers, such as total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, arylesterase, paraoxonase activity, and liver enzymes in serum were studied to evaluate antioxidant and hepatoprotective responses. Cell-mediated immunity was evaluated in each group through a delayed type of hypersensitivity reaction. The total oxidant status decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) after administration of L. edodes in the diet. The cell-mediated immune response significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) in the LEG. The significant decrease in liver enzymes supports the hepatoprotective effect of L. edodes. In conclusion, the results show the immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, and antioxidant activities of L. edodes supplementation in hypercholesterolemic rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2017024504DOI Listing
July 2018

Effects of effluent water on the abundance of cowpea insect pests.

Environ Monit Assess 2017 Oct 3;189(11):537. Epub 2017 Oct 3.

Department of Entomology, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, 63100, Pakistan.

Botswana experiences low and unreliable rainfall. Thus, the use of effluent water in agriculture is increasingly important. Insect damage is the major constraint for cowpea grain production in the most cowpea-producing lands. We investigated the effects of effluent water on insect pest abundance on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) under field conditions. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with 100, 75, 50, and 25% of effluent water and 0% (control-clean tap water) treatments. Treatments with 100% effluent water resulted in a significant increase in insect pest populations as compared with the control. These results show that the use of effluent water to irrigate crops may increase incidence, abundance, and damage caused by insect pests possibly by decreasing plant vigor. The use of effluent water in agriculture should be addressed in a wise way.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-017-6260-4DOI Listing
October 2017

Evaluation of immunostimulatory and immunotherapeutic effects of tropical mushroom (Lentinus edodes) against eimeriasis in chicken.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2018 Jan 24;50(1):97-104. Epub 2017 Sep 24.

Department of Microbiology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were processed for hot water (HWE), methanolic (ME), and polysaccharide (PSE) extracts. Polysaccharides were isolated through ion exchange (DEAE cellulose) and size exclusion (Sephadex G-100) chromatography. Monosaccharides including maltose (0.282%), glucose (0.113%), and mannose (0.451%) were identified, qualitatively and quantitatively, from the isolated polysaccharides through high-performance liquid chromatography. The whole study was divided into two experiments. Experiment 1 was meant for the evaluation of HWE and ME; whereas, experiment 2 was meant for the evaluation of PSE for immunostimulatory and immunotherapeutic activities. The cellular and humoral immune responses were demonstrated through lymphoproliferative response to phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P) and anti-body response to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs), respectively. The immunotherapeutic effects of these extracts were demonstrated against eimeriasis in terms of lesion scoring, oocysts per gram of droppings, and percent protection. Cell-mediated immune responses observed at 24, 48, and 72 h post-PHA-P injection were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in chickens administered with any of the three extracts (PSE, ME, and HWE), when compared with the controls. Humoral immune response in terms of anti-SRBCs anti-body titers was also observed higher in chickens administered with mushroom extracts. In the challenge experiment, significantly higher (P < 0.05) OPG and lesion scores were observed in controls as compared to the groups administered with mushroom extracts (HWE, ME, and PSE). Significantly higher (P < 0.05) percent protection against eimeriasis was observed in all groups administered with different extracts of L. edodes as compared to controls. In conclusion, L. edodes extracts showed immunostimulatory potential which persisted against eimeriasis in chicken.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-017-1407-4DOI Listing
January 2018

Immunomodulating and Antiprotozoal Effects of Different Extracts of the Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Higher Basidiomycetes) Against Coccidiosis in Broiler.

Int J Med Mushrooms 2015 ;17(3):309-17

Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.

The culinary-medicinal oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus, procured from local sources, was processed for hot water and methanolic extraction. Extracts obtained were subjected to proximate analysis to determine the amount of crude protein, crude fiber, ash, ether, and nitrogen-free extracts. These extracts were evaluated for immunomodulating and antiprotozoal effects against coccidiosis in a broiler. Cellular immune investigation revealed significantly higher (P < 0.05) lymphoproliferative response to phytohemagglutinin-P in groups administered P. ostreatus extracts compared with controls. Humoral immune investigation revealed higher immunoglobulin (total Ig, IgG, and IgM) titers against sheep red blood cells in treated groups compared with controls. However, nonsignificant (P > 0.05) findings were observed in investigations of lymphoid organs. Antiprotozoal studies revealed a significantly higher (P < 0.05) percentage of protection against coccidiosis in groups administered P. ostreatus extracts when compared with controls. Moreover, lesion scoring and oocysts per gram of droppings observed in the control group were significantly higher (P < 0.05) compared with those in groups administered hot water and methanolic extracts of P. ostreatus. Results concluded that hot water and methanolic extracts of P. ostreatus had strong immune-enhancing activities. Further, these extracts also had excellent antiprotozoal activities against coccidiosis in a broiler.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/intjmedmushrooms.v17.i3.100DOI Listing
January 2016

Forms of Melanoplus bowditchi (Orthoptera: Acrididae) collected from different host plants are indistinguishable genetically and in aedeagal morphology.

PeerJ 2014 10;2:e418. Epub 2014 Jun 10.

Department of Entomology, University of Nebraska , Lincoln, NE , USA.

The sagebrush grasshopper, Melanoplus bowditchi Scudder (Orthoptera: Acrididae), is a phytophilous species that is widely distributed in the western United States on sagebrush species. The geographical distribution of M. bowditchi is very similar to the range of its host plants and its feeding association varies in relation to sagebrush distribution. Melanoplus bowditchi bowditchi Scudder and M. bowditchi canus Hebard were described based on their feeding association with different sagebrush species, sand sagebrush and silver sagebrush, respectively. Recently, M. bowditchi have been observed feeding on other plant species in western Nebraska. We collected adult M. bowditchi feeding on four plant species, sand sagebrush, Artemisia filifolia, big sagebrush, A. tridentata, fringed sagebrush, A. frigidus, and winterfat, Krascheninnikovia lanata. We compared the specimens collected from the four plant species for their morphological and genetic differences. We observed no consistent differences among the aedeagal parameres or basal rings among the grasshoppers collected from different host plants. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism markers were used to test the genetic relationships among the grasshoppers. Analysis of Molecular Variance and distance-based Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean dendrogram failed to reveal significant differences. Although the forms showed behavioral and minor color and size differences, the genetic data suggest all forms under study likely interbreed, which indicates they are a single species instead of four species or subspecies. These results indicate that host plant use may influence melanopline phenotype and suggest the need of further genetic analysis of subspecies recognized based on morphology, distribution, and ecology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4060019PMC
June 2014