Publications by authors named "Muhammad Irfan Anwar"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Expression and functional characterization in yeast of an endoglucanase from Bacillus sonorensis BD92 and its impact as feed additive in commercial broilers.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Feb 4;176:364-375. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA. Electronic address:

Some ingredients used in poultry feed formulation contain carbohydrate polymers which are difficult to digest and thus hinder nutritional feed value. Toward overcoming this limitation, exogenous enzymes have been added to poultry feed to improve its nutritive value. The present study was designed to provide first enzymatic characterization of endoglucanase (BsEgl) from the genome of B. sonorensis BD92 expressed in Pichia pastoris. Further, we tested its impact alone and in combination with a β-glucosidase (Bteqβgluc) on growth in commercial broilers as feed additive. The expressed enzyme displayed features of GH5 family and had optimum activity against carboxymethyl cellulose at pH 5 and 50 °C. The BsEgl was stable at a range of pH from 4 to 8 for 60 min and at 50 °C for 180 min. Supplementing broilers diet with BsEgl alone or in combination with Bteqβgluc resulted in better feed conversion ratio among treatments during a five weeks testing period. Moreover, meat percentage was also highest for this treatment, and all treatments with recombinant enzymes increased intestinal length in birds compared to treatment control group. Blood parameters and serum biochemistry profile showed non-significant difference among groups. These results support that recombinant cellulolytic enzymes supplement high fiber diets improve their nutritional performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.02.022DOI Listing
February 2021

Comparison of Intralesional Meglumine Antimonite along with oral Itraconazole to Intralesional Meglumine Antimonite in the treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

Pak J Med Sci 2019 Nov-Dec;35(6):1669-1673

Dr. Faisal Manzoor, MCPS, FCPS. Department of Dermatology and Otolaryngology, Combined Military Hospital, Quetta, Pakistan.

Background & Objective: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in developing countries like Pakistan. Pentavalent antimonials are still drug of choice, despite being toxic and intolerable for patients. Second line treatments have been extensively studied but the results of their efficacy are conflicting. This, to our knowledge, will be the first study in this regard. Our objective was to determine if combination of oral itraconazole with intralesional (IL) meglumine antimoniate (MA) reduces the duration of treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis, as compared to intralesional MA alone.

Methods: A randomized controlled trial (single blinded) was carried out from August 2017 till December 2017 on 69 patients who fulfilled inclusion criteria. They were assigned to Group-A or B by lottery method. Group-A patients received IL MA once a week while Group-B received oral itraconazole 200mg, once daily, for six weeks along with similar regimen of IL MA as Group-A. The patients were assessed every three weeks by the blinded assessor till clinical cure was achieved. A follow up visit, two months after clinical cure was done to look for relapse of the disease.

Results: Thirty patients in Group-A and 35 patients in Group-B completed the study. At 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks the patients were assessed for: no, partial or complete response and results of the two groups were compared for statistical significance. The p-values of 0.20, 0.57 and 0.11 at 3, 6 and 9 weeks, respectively, depict that there was no significant difference at any step of assessment between the two groups in terms of healing. The p values of each t test was>0.05 refuting the hypothesis.

Conclusion: Combination of oral itraconazole with intralesional MA offered no benefit over intralesional MA alone in the management of cutaneous leishmaniasis in terms of duration of therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12669/pjms.35.6.363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6861503PMC
November 2019

Immunomodulatory and ameliorative effects of Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces based probiotics on pathological effects of eimeriasis in broilers.

Microb Pathog 2019 Jan 29;126:101-108. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, 60800, Pakistan.

Eimeria infection is very important in broilers and causes heavy economic losses in extensive farming system due to reduced weight gains, high mortality and poor feed conversion ratio (FCR). Under the circumstances, there is a dire need to devise effective control strategies to avoid/counteract this infectious threat. This study was conducted to assess the immunomodulatory and ameliorative effects of Lactobacillus and Saccharomyces based probiotics against Eimeria infection in broilers. The results showed statistically higher (P < 0.05) lymphoproliferative responses in experimental groups treated either with Lactobacillus or Saccharomyces based probiotics, as compared to control group. Further higher antibody titers (geomean titers) were also recorded in chickens of experimental groups treated with probiotics as compared to those of control group. The probiotic treated groups also revealed significantly improved (P < 0.05) FCRs as compared to control group. In challenge experiment, significantly lower (P < 0.05) oocyst counts were recorded in broilers treated with probiotics, when compared with control group. Further, experimental groups also revealed significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily weight gains and protection rates as compared to control. The data regarding the lesion scoring showed that chickens treated with probiotics had higher values of percent protection against intestinal and caecal lesion, when compared with those of control group. In conclusion, supplementation of probiotics proved very useful to enhance the immunological and performance potentials of broilers which subsequently provided protection against Eimeria infection. Further studies on the physico-chemical properties along with commercial feasibility and cost benefit analysis of these probiotic species are needed for wise selection to get maximum profit from broiler industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2018.10.038DOI Listing
January 2019

Is Cannabidiol a Promising Substance for New Drug Development? A Review of its Potential Therapeutic Applications.

Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr 2018 ;28(1):73-86

Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.

The pharmacological importance of cannabidiol (CBD) has been in study for several years. CBD is the major nonpsychoactive constituent of plant Cannabis sativa and its administration is associated with reduced side effects. Currently, CBD is undergoing a lot of research which suggests that it has no addictive effects, good safety profile and has exhibited powerful therapeutic potential in several vital areas. It has wide spectrum of action because it acts through endocannabinoid receptors; CB1 and CB2 and it also acts on other receptors, such as GPR18, GPR55, GPR 119, 5HT1A, and TRPV2. This indicates its therapeutic value for numerous medical conditions because of its neuroprotective and immunomodulatory properties. Potential therapeutic applications of CBD include, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytic, anti-arthritic, anti-depressant, anti-Alzheimer disease, anti-ischemic, neuroprotective, and anti-fibrotic. More promising areas appear to include diabetes and cancer where CBD exhibits lesser side effects and more therapeutic benefits as compared to recent available medical therapies. Hence, CBD is a promising substance for the development of new drug. However further research and clinical studies are required to explore its complete potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevEukaryotGeneExpr.2018021528DOI Listing
July 2019

A Young Boy with Persistent Nodules and Hoarseness: A Rare Presentation of Nodular Secondary Syphilis.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2018 Mar;28(3):S37-S38

Department of Dermatology, Bahria University Medical And Dental College (BUMDC) and PNS Shifa, Karachi.

Syphilis is a venereal disease caused by treponema pallidum, historically known as "great mimicker" because of its variable presentations. Secondary syphilis usually presents with maculopapular or papulosquamous rash. Rare manifestations include papulonodular, annular and lichenoid lesions. Nodules are usually found in benign tertiary syphilis. We present a case of a young boy who presented with five months' history of nodular skin lesions and hoarseness of voice. Venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) was initially negative owing to prozone phenomenon. However, histopathology was confirmatory and he responded to benzathine penicillin. We present this case because of rare clinical presentation with persistent nodular lesions, unusual age group, and negative initial VDRL test.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.29271/jcpsp.2018.03.S37DOI Listing
March 2018

Evaluation of Saccharum officinarum L. bagasse-derived polysaccharides as native immunomodulatory and anticoccidial agents in broilers.

Vet Parasitol 2018 Jan 27;249:74-81. Epub 2017 Nov 27.

Department of Microbiology, Govt. College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Coccidiosis is one of the most important protozoal diseases of the poultry industry, inflicting heavy economic losses in the form of high mortality and morbidity in affected birds. Under these circumstances, the development of nonchemical consumer-friendly strategies for its effective control is of paramount importance. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) bagasse-derived polysaccharides as native immunomodulatory and anticoccidial agents in commercial broilers. Polysaccharides were recovered from sugarcane bagasse (PSCB) and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Five different sugars including melezitose, maltose, glucose, mannose, and fructose were detected in hydrolyzed solution of PSCB. The isolated PSCB were orally administered to the broilers in three graded doses ranging from 10 to 50mg/kg of body weight/day for 3 consecutive days, i.e., fifth through seventh days of life. Results showed significantly enhanced (p<0.05) lymphoproliferative and humoral responses to T-cell mitogen (PHA-P) and sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) in PSCB-administered chickens. In a challenge experiment, percent protection and daily weight gains were significantly higher (p<0.05), whereas mean oocyst counts and lesion scores were lower (p<0.05) in PSCB-administered chickens as compared to control. ELISA showed that PSCB significantly enhanced (p<0.05) antibody titers against the Eimeria species used for the induction of infection in chickens of PSCB-administered and control groups. In conclusion, PSCB showed the potential to modulate the immune responses in industrial broiler chickens with subsequent protection against coccidial infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2017.11.012DOI Listing
January 2018

Evaluation of immunostimulatory and immunotherapeutic effects of tropical mushroom (Lentinus edodes) against eimeriasis in chicken.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2018 Jan 24;50(1):97-104. Epub 2017 Sep 24.

Department of Microbiology, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were processed for hot water (HWE), methanolic (ME), and polysaccharide (PSE) extracts. Polysaccharides were isolated through ion exchange (DEAE cellulose) and size exclusion (Sephadex G-100) chromatography. Monosaccharides including maltose (0.282%), glucose (0.113%), and mannose (0.451%) were identified, qualitatively and quantitatively, from the isolated polysaccharides through high-performance liquid chromatography. The whole study was divided into two experiments. Experiment 1 was meant for the evaluation of HWE and ME; whereas, experiment 2 was meant for the evaluation of PSE for immunostimulatory and immunotherapeutic activities. The cellular and humoral immune responses were demonstrated through lymphoproliferative response to phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P) and anti-body response to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs), respectively. The immunotherapeutic effects of these extracts were demonstrated against eimeriasis in terms of lesion scoring, oocysts per gram of droppings, and percent protection. Cell-mediated immune responses observed at 24, 48, and 72 h post-PHA-P injection were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in chickens administered with any of the three extracts (PSE, ME, and HWE), when compared with the controls. Humoral immune response in terms of anti-SRBCs anti-body titers was also observed higher in chickens administered with mushroom extracts. In the challenge experiment, significantly higher (P < 0.05) OPG and lesion scores were observed in controls as compared to the groups administered with mushroom extracts (HWE, ME, and PSE). Significantly higher (P < 0.05) percent protection against eimeriasis was observed in all groups administered with different extracts of L. edodes as compared to controls. In conclusion, L. edodes extracts showed immunostimulatory potential which persisted against eimeriasis in chicken.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-017-1407-4DOI Listing
January 2018

Vitamin D Deficiency in Alopecia Areata.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2017 Apr;27(4):200-202

Department of Dermatology, PNS Shifa, Karachi.

Objective: To compare the mean Vitamin D level in patients with alopecia areata (AA) with age and gender controlled matched healthy controls.

Study Design: Case-control study.

Place And Duration Of Study: Dermatology OPD, JPMC, from October 2014 to March 2015.

Methodology: All the patients diagnosed of alopecia areata by a trained dermatologist were selected. Controls were age and gender matched healthy volunteers. Venous blood was drawn and sent to hospital laboratory for 25 (OH) vitamin D by enzyme immunoassay method on chemical analyser. Data was recorded on SPSS version 16. Mann-Whitney test was applied to compare vitamin D levels of cases and controls. P-value <0.05 was taken as significant.

Results: There are 30 cases of AA, and 30 age and gender matched controls. The mean age of our study group was 23.77 ±8.86 ng/dL in patients and 24.03 ±8.62 ng/dL in the control group. Fifteen (50%) patients presented between 3-12 months of onset of AA. Median (IQR) vitamin D level of cases was 13.5 (18.6) ng/dL and healthy controls was 22.5 (16.25) (p=0.001).

Conclusion: Serum Vitamin D levels were significantly lower in patients with alopecia areata compared to healthy controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/2589DOI Listing
April 2017

Successful Treatment of Haemoglobinopathy Associated Chronic Leg Ulcer with Platelet Rich Plasma.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2016 Jun;26(6):545-6

Department of Dermatology, PNS Shifa Hospital, Karachi.

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http://dx.doi.org/2363DOI Listing
June 2016

In vitro and in vivo toxicological evaluations of methyl ferulate, methyl p-coumarate, and pulegone 1,2-epoxide.

Pharm Biol 2016 11;54(3):523-9. Epub 2015 Jun 11.

a Institute of Pharmacy, Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture , Faisalabad , Pakistan .

Context: Toxicological screening of natural compounds for medicinal purposes.

Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of methyl ferulate (MF), methyl p-coumarate (MpC), and pulegone 1,2-epoxide (PE) with in vitro and in vivo assays.

Materials And Methods: The in vitro toxicity of MF, MpC, and PE was assessed at a concentration of 10 mg/ml with the Ames assay using two strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100. Human red blood cells (RBC) were used to determine the hemolytic activity of these compounds. The cytotoxicity of above compounds was determined with brine shrimp lethality bioassay (BSLB) at the concentrations of 0.1-20 mg/ml. While dermal and ocular irritation studies were conducted on healthy rabbits (n = 8) for 96 and 12 h post-topical application of test compounds, respectively.

Results: PE produced 6-8% hemolysis of RBCs at all the tested concentrations while MF and MpC produced 10-5% hemolysis up to 20 mg/ml, and 50-85% hemolysis at concentrations of 40 and 80 mg/ml, respectively. The Ames assay indicated that MF, MpC, and PE were non-mutagenic as the test values were not significantly higher as compared with background values of the assay. BSLB suggested the lethal concentration (LC50) values of MF, MpC, and PE as 4.38, 6.74, and 25.91 mg/ml, respectively. In vivo ocular and dermal irritation scores of MF, MpC, and PE were comparable with ethanol (control) in rabbits indicating the non-irritant nature of these natural compounds.

Conclusion: The present studies suggest that these compounds are non-toxic/non-irritant and might be used for medicinal purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2015.1052148DOI Listing
October 2016

Dyslipidemia and Psoriasis: A Case Control Study.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2015 May;25(5):324-7

Department of Dermatology, PNS Shifa, Karachi.

Objective: To compare the mean values of lipid profile in psoriatic patients and healthy controls.

Study Design: Case control study.

Place And Duration Of Study: Department of Dermatology, PNS Shifa, Karachi, from November 2012 to April 2013.

Methodology: Patients with psoriasis fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria were selected from Dermatology Outpatient Department (OPD) of PNS Shifa, Karachi. After fasting for 14 hours, 5 ml of venous blood was drawn in sterile syringe and submitted to the Hospital Laboratory for lipid profile, by enzymatic method on Hitachi (Roshe(®)) using reagents by the same firm. The mean values lipid profile in psoriatic patients versus healthy controls were recorded and compared.

Results: Atotal of 256 patients (128 in each group) were enrolled. Mean lipid profile in both groups revealed cholesterol (mg/dl) value of 203.43 ±1 1.43 in cases and 173.64 ± 13.65 in controls. Triglyceride (mg/dl) was 178.87 ± 43.60 and in cases 144.23 ± 34.01 in controls, HDL-C (mg/dl) was 37.81 ± 10.78 in cases and 41.41 ± 9.72 in controls while LDL-C (mg/dl) was 139.52 ± 13.71 in cases and 109.44 ± 13.80 in controls. Each parameters had p-value < 0.05 which was significant.

Conclusion: Dyslipidemia was found in a high percentage of psoriatic patients than healthy controls. Psoriatic patients require thorough lipid and cardiovascular examinations as they should be considered as individuals with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/05.2015/JCPSP.324327DOI Listing
May 2015

The effect of infection with mixed Eimeria species on hematology and immune responses following Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease booster vaccination in broilers.

Vet Q 2015 Mar 3;35(1):21-6. Epub 2015 Jan 3.

a Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences , Bahauddin Zakariya University , Multan , Pakistan.

Background: Coccidiosis is an important parasitic disease of chickens, causing high mortality and morbidity. This morbidity is believed to be correlated with altered population dynamics of blood cells and immunocompromisation.

Objectives: This study investigated the effects of mixed Eimeria species (viz., tenella, maxima, acervulina and necatrix) infection on hematology and immune responses following Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) booster vaccination in broilers.

Animals And Methods: One-day-old broiler chicks (Hubbard; n = 200) were divided into two equal groups A and B. On day 16, group A was infected orally with Eimeria species (7 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts), whereas group B served as control. Both groups were analyzed for hematological parameters on post-infection days 6-8. Sera from both groups were analyzed for antibody titers against ND and IBD vaccines. On day 8 post-infection, lymphoid organs were also examined.

Results: Significantly lower (P < 0.05) levels of plasma proteins, globular volume, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, total erythrocytes, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were found in infected chickens compared with non-infected control chickens. In addition, the infected group exhibited significantly increased (P < 0.05) numbers of different leukocytes. Infected chickens also showed significantly lower antibody titers against ND and IBD with decreased relative organ weights of all lymphoid organs except spleen.

Conclusion And Recommendations: Mixed species of Eimeria adversely affected the hematology and immune efficiency of broilers. Thus, inexpensive immune potentiators and hemotonics along with appropriate anti-coccidial medications are suggested to avoid the complications and subsequent economic losses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01652176.2014.991048DOI Listing
March 2015

Kindler's syndrome: a report of five cases in a family.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2014 Oct;24(10):763-5

Department of Dermatology, PNS Shifa, Karachi.

Kindler's Syndrome (KS) is a rare genodermatosis with autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. The disease results from homozygous mutations on both alleles of the FERMT-1 gene (also known as KIND-1 gene) that encodes the protein Kindlin-1 (kindlerin). Clinical features include a constellation of early infantile skin blistering and mild photosensitivity, which improves with age, and progressive poikiloderma with widespread cutaneous atrophy. The differential diagnosis of Kindler syndrome include other congenital poikilodermatous and photosensitive conditions including Bloom syndrome, Cockayne syndrome, dyskeratosis congenita, epidermolysis bullosa, Rothmund-Thomson syndrome and xeroderma pigmentosum. We herein, report the presence of the Kindler's syndrome in 5 out of 7 children of consanguineous parents. To authors' knowledge, this is the first report of Kindler's syndrome involving 5 members of a family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2014/JCPSP.763765DOI Listing
October 2014

Rosacea - the ophthalmic perspective.

Cutan Ocul Toxicol 2015 9;34(2):161-6. Epub 2014 Jul 9.

United Nations & African Mission in Darfur , Nyala , Sudan .

Context: Rosacea is a chronic cutaneous inflammatory disorder with variable presentations. Although primarily considered a skin disease, rosacea may involve the eyes in a significant number of patients leading to ocular complications. It has been recognized that many patients of ocular rosacea in dermatological outpatient department (OPD) go unnoticed as the physicians don't ask about eye symptoms. Same holds true in ophthalmic OPD's where the doctors usually don't consider this diagnosis. The diagnosis of ocular rosacea primarily relies on observation of ophthalmic clinical features but it can be easily missed if accompanying cutaneous features are subtle or inconsistent. The subject diagnosis if not diagnosed and treated promptly, may cause varying degrees of ocular morbidity and may impair vision secondary to corneal involvement.

Objective: To review published literature and provide an overview on different pathophysiologic mechanisms of ocular rosacea and clinical features required for its diagnosis. As well as to highlight various treatment modalities available for ocular rosacea.

Materials And Methods: In our study Medline and Google Scholar were the key search engines to find literature using keywords like epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, management and complications of ocular rosacea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15569527.2014.930749DOI Listing
June 2016

Studies on Emblica officinalis derived tannins for their immunostimulatory and protective activities against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.

ScientificWorldJournal 2014 22;2014:378473. Epub 2014 Jan 22.

Poultry Research Institute, Office of Deputy District Livestock Officer (Poultry), Faisalabad, Pakistan.

The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/378473DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3919087PMC
December 2014

Dermatoprotective effects of some plant extracts (genus Ficus) against experimentally induced toxicological insults in rabbits.

Toxicol Ind Health 2015 Nov 15;31(11):982-9. Epub 2013 Apr 15.

Poultry Research Institute, Office of Deputy District Livestock Officer (Poultry), Faisalabad, Pakistan

Aim: Present study was conducted to evaluate the dermatoprotective effects of plant extracts (Ficus religiosa, Ficus benghalensis, and Ficus racemosa) against known irritants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), atrazine, and petrol.

Methods: The study was conducted in adult male rabbits. Ethanol extracts of plants were obtained through Soxhlet. All irritants and Ficus extracts were topically applied to the backs of rabbits daily for 4 days, while pure ethanol served as control. Skin was examined after 24, 48, and 96 h for erythema. Skin biopsies were taken on 5th day for microscopic examination.

Results: Erythema produced by irritants reduced significantly with the simultaneous application of Ficus extracts. The mean ± SEM epidermal thickness (micrometer) with SDS was 45.40 ± 1.89, F. religiosa + SDS was 18.60 ± 0.51, F. benghalensis + SDS was 18.40 ± 0.25, F. racemosa + SDS was 18.80 ± 0.37, and mixture of three Ficus species + SDS was 16.80 ± 0.37. Similar findings were revealed after using plant extracts with atrazine and petrol. The mean ± SEM epidermal layer count for SDS was 3.60 ± 0.25, atrazine was 3.40 ± 0.25, petrol was 3.40 ± 0.25, and ethanol (control) was 1.00 ± 0.20. This count reduced to 1.20 ± 0.20 for three Ficus species + SDS, 1.40 ± 0.25 for Ficus species + atrazine, and 1.40 ± 0.25 for Ficus species + petrol.

Conclusion: Ficus species demonstrated the potential to block the dermatotoxic effects of topical irritants and could be used successfully to prevent skin toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0748233713483190DOI Listing
November 2015

Quantitative structure activity relationship and risk analysis of some pesticides in the goat milk.

Iranian J Environ Health Sci Eng 2013 Jan 4;10(1). Epub 2013 Jan 4.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan.

The detection and quantification of different pesticides in the goat milk samples collected from different localities of Faisalabad, Pakistan was performed by HPLC using solid phase microextraction. The analysis showed that about 50% milk samples were contaminated with pesticides. The mean±SEM levels (ppm) of cyhalothrin, endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin were 0.34±0.007, 0.063±0.002, 0.034±0.002 and 0.092±0.002, respectively; whereas, methyl parathion was not detected in any of the analyzed samples. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) models were suggested to predict the residues of unknown pesticides in the goat milk using their known physicochemical characteristics including molecular weight (MW), melting point (MP), and log octanol to water partition coefficient (Ko/w) in relation to the characteristics such as pH, % fat, specific gravity and refractive index of goat milk. The analysis revealed good correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.985) for goat QSAR model. The coefficients for Ko/w and refractive index for the studied pesticides were higher in goat milk. This suggests that these are better determinants for pesticide residue prediction in the milk of these animals. Based upon the determined pesticide residues and their provisional tolerable daily intakes, risk analysis was also conducted which showed that daily intake levels of pesticide residues including cyhalothrin, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in present study are 2.68, 5.19 and 2.71 times higher, respectively in the goat milk. This intake of pesticide contaminated milk might pose health hazards to humans in this locality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1735-2746-10-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3622618PMC
January 2013

Pseudoainhum in acute psoriasis.

J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2012 Dec;22(12):786-8

Department of Dermatology, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi.

The term Pseudoainhum is used in medical literature to elaborate the presence of constricting bands around the digits of hands and feet due to variety of etiologies. This phenomenon can lead to irreversible damage to the supplying neurovasculature and sequential autoamputation of the affected digits. The report herein, describes the rare presentation of pseudoainhum occurring concomitantly in acute psoriasis. Timely recognition of such rare disease entities by physicians is imperative to avoid unnecessary complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/12.2012/JCPSP.786788DOI Listing
December 2012

Virulence profile of different phylogenetic groups of locally isolated community acquired uropathogenic E. coli from Faisalabad region of Pakistan.

Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 2012 Aug 6;11:23. Epub 2012 Aug 6.

National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), P,O, Box 577, Jhang Road, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Background: Uropathogenic E.coli (UPEC) are among major pathogens causing urinary tract infections. Virulence factors are mainly responsible for the severity of these emerging infections. This study was planned to investigate the distribution of virulence genes and cytotoxic effects of UPEC isolates with reference to phylogenetic groups (B2, B1, D and A) to understand the presence and impact of virulence factors in the severity of infection in Faisalabad region of Pakistan.

Methods: In this study phylogenetic analysis, virulence gene identification and cytotoxicity of 59 uropathogenic E.coli isolates obtained from non-hospitalized patients was studied.

Results: Among 59 isolates, phylogenetic group B2 (50%) was most dominant followed by groups A, B1 (19% each) and D (12%). Isolates present in group D showed highest presence of virulence genes. The prevalence hlyA (37%) was highest followed by sfaDE (27%), papC (24%), cnf1 (20%), eaeA (19%) and afaBC3 (14%). Highly hemolytic and highly verotoxic isolates mainly belonged to group D and B2. We also found two isolates with simultaneous presence of three fimbrial adhesin genes present on pap, afa, and sfa operons. This has not been reported before and underlines the dynamic nature of these UPEC isolates.

Conclusions: It was concluded that in local UPEC isolates from non-hospitalized patients, group B2 was more prevalent. However, group D isolates were most versatile as all were equipped with virulence genes and showed highest level of cytotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-0711-11-23DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3475034PMC
August 2012

Immunostimulatory and protective effects of Aloe vera against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.

Vet Parasitol 2012 May 25;186(3-4):170-7. Epub 2011 Nov 25.

IImmunoparasitology Laboratory, Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan.

This paper reports the immunostimulatory and protective effects of Aloe vera extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens. The study was divided into two experiments. Experiment-I was conducted for the evaluation of immunostimulatory activity of A. vera and experiment-II demonstrated the protective efficacy of A. vera extracts against coccidiosis in chickens. Results of the experiment-I revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) lymphoproliferative responses in chickens administered with ethanolic extract of A. vera as compared to those administered with aqueous extract and control group. Microplate haemagglutination assay for humoral response on day 7th and 14th post primary and secondary injections of sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) revealed significantly higher (p<0.05) anti SRBC antibody (total Igs, IgG and IgM) titers in chickens of experimental groups as compared to the control group. None of the extracts, however, demonstrated significant effects on the development of lymphoid organs. Results of experiment-II revealed maximum protection (60%) in chickens administered with aqueous Aloe extract as compared to the ethanolic extract administered chickens (45%). Mean oocysts per gram of droppings in the control group was significantly higher (p<0.05) as compared to the chickens in both the experimental groups. Chickens administered with aqueous Aloe extract showed a minimal mean lesion score (2.3) followed by those administered with ethanolic Aloe extract (2.6) and control chickens (3.05) for caeca, and a similar pattern was observed for intestinal lesion scoring. Further, significantly higher weight gains and antibody titers (p<0.05) were observed in chickens administered with A. vera extracts as compared to those in the control group. It was concluded that A. vera may be a potential and valuable candidate to stimulate the immune responses and can be used successfully as an immunotherapeutic agent against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.11.059DOI Listing
May 2012

Seasonal prevalence of coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens in Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2012 Feb 20;44(2):323-8. Epub 2011 Nov 20.

Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

The present paper reports the prevalence of coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens in Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan to determine the occurrence of different species of Eimeria in the area and to assess their correlation with the environmental conditions including temperature, humidity and rainfall. The study was conducted from January 2009 to December 2010. Examination of chicken guts revealed 43.89% (n = 3,283/7,480) prevalence of coccidiosis. The highest prevalence (27.04%) was recorded of Eimeria tenella followed by Eimeria maxima (22.42%), Eimeria acervulina (19.89%) and Eimeria necatrix (4.02%). The prevalence of disease was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in autumn (60.02 ± 4.38) followed by summer (47.42 ± 2.92), spring (36.92 ± 2.27) and winter (29.89 ± 3.43). Likewise, prevalence of different species of Eimeria also varied (P < 0.05) in different seasons of the year except that of E. necatrix. A strong correlation (P < 0.05) of environmental conditions with the overall and species-wise prevalence of coccidiosis was recorded except E. necatrix.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-011-0024-xDOI Listing
February 2012

Dermatotoxic effects of orally administered ciprofloxacin in sweating and nonsweating animal models.

Cutan Ocul Toxicol 2010 Dec 8;29(4):254-60. Epub 2010 Jul 8.

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Context: Some drugs, such as ciprofloxacin (CFX), that are excreted in sweat may produce some effects/toxicities in the skin structure. In order to differentiate the dermatotoxic effects of drugs due to excretion in sweat, it is essential to perform simultaneous studies in sweating and nonsweating animal models.

Objective: To determine the dermatotoxic effects of CFX in sweating (goats) and nonsweating (rabbits) animals and to determine whether there is a relationship between dermatotoxicity and the blood CFX concentration.

Materials And Methods: CFX was administered orally at the dose rate of 20 mg/kg body weight to goats (n = 16) and rabbits (n = 16) for 1 and 2 weeks, while control animals were given vehicle (water). Skin biopsies were taken after 1- and 2-week administration of CFX and processed histologically. Similarly, the CFX concentration in the plasma samples was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

Results: Mean ± standard error (SE) epidermal thickness (μm) was 26.2 ± 0.2, 38.6 ± 2.05, and 37.8 ± 1.8 for the control, 1-week-treated, and 2-week-treated goats and 16.06 ± 2.39, 50.67 ± 6.61, and 34.03 ± .12 for the control, 1-week-treated, and 2-week-treated rabbits, respectively. Mean ± SE epidermal cell layers were 2.08 ± 0.08, 3.42 ± 0.16, and 3.25 ± 0.21 in the control, 1-week-treated, and 2-week-treated goats and 1 ± 0, 3.08 ± 0.37, and 1.83 ± 0.35 in the control, 1-week-treated, and 2-week-treated rabbits, respectively. Mean ± SE plasma concentration (μg/mL) of CFX was 0.37 ± 0.06 and 0.30 ± 0.05 in the 1- and 2-week-treated goats and 0.13 ± 0.04 and 0.14 ± 0.09 in the 1- and 2-week-treated rabbits, respectively.

Conclusion: Microscopically, increases in epidermal thickness, number of cell layers, and cell infiltration were observed in both sweating and nonsweating animals, indicating that the dermatotoxic effects may not be due to CFX excretion in sweat. No relationship was found between dermatotoxicity and blood CFX concentration in both animal models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/15569527.2010.494325DOI Listing
December 2010