Publications by authors named "Muhammad Imran Khan"

175 Publications

Comparison of Performance Properties and Prediction of Regular and Gamma-Irradiated Granular Waste Polyethylene Terephthalate Modified Asphalt Mixtures.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Aug 6;13(16). Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak 32610, Malaysia.

The utilization of waste polyethylene terephthalate (WPET) as aggregate substitutes in pavement has been extensively promoted because of its environmental advantages. However, previous studies have shown that a high percentage of WPET reduces the performance of the pavement. To increase the durability of pavement and mitigate the environmental issues caused by WPET, WPET is treated with gamma-irradiation as a component in asphalt mixtures. The study objectives were to investigate the feasibility of using WPET granules as a sustainable aggregate on asphalt mixture stiffness and rutting and predict the asphalt mixture performance containing irradiated WPET via an RSM-ANN-framework. To achieve the objectives, stiffness and rutting tests were conducted to evaluate the WPET modified mixtures' performance. The result indicated that samples containing 40% irradiated WPET provided a better performance compared to mixtures containing 20% non-irradiated WPET, increasing the stiffness by 27% and 21% at 25 °C and 40 °C, respectively, and rutting resistance by 11% at 45 °C. Furthermore, both predictive models developed demonstrated excellent reliability. The ANN exhibited superior performance than the RSM. The utilization of WPET as aggregate in asphalt mixtures represents a way to addressing related recycling issues while also improving performance. With gamma-irradiation treatment, the utilization of WPET can be increased with improved asphalt mixture performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13162610DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8401156PMC
August 2021

Melatonin rescues the mice brain against cisplatin-induced neurodegeneration, an insight into antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

Neurotoxicology 2021 Aug 21;87:1-10. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Riphah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Riphah International University, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Herein, we evaluated the neuroprotective effect of melatonin against cisplatin-induced oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, and synaptic dysfunction in mice. Cisplatin was administered at a dose of 2 mg/kg for eleven consecutive days to induce symptoms of cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration, while melatonin was administered at a 20 mg/kg dose for thirty consecutive days. We used various experimental techniques such as western blotting, immunofluorescence analysis, and oxidative stress marker assays to support our notion. Moreover, for cognitive impairment, we conducted behavioral analyses such as Morris Water Maze (MWM) and Y-Maze tests. The results indicated that melatonin attenuated oxidative stress by upregulating the expression of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) dependent anti-oxidative protein levels. Similarly, melatonin positively modulated the expression of Sirt1 (a member of the sirtuin family), Phospho-AMPKα (Thr172), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ), PPAR gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) coupled to downregulation of neuroinflammatory mediators and markers such as nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). Moreover, melatonin significantly upregulated the expression of synaptic markers such as postsynaptic density protein -95 (PSD-95), synaptosomal-associated protein 23 (SNAP-23), and synaptophysin compared to the cisplatin alone group. Furthermore, the results of behavior tests suggested that melatonin significantly improved the cognitive functions of the cisplatin injected mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2021.08.010DOI Listing
August 2021

Nanotechnology-based immunotherapies to combat cancer metastasis.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Sep 23;48(9):6563-6580. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Tecnologico de Monterrey, School of Engineering and Sciences, 64849, Monterrey, Mexico.

Emerging concepts in nanotechnology have gained particular attention for their clinical translation of immunotherapies of cancer, autoimmune and infectious diseases. Several nanoconstructs have been engineered with unique structural, physicochemical, and functional features as robust alternatives for conventional chemotherapies. Traditional cancer therapies like chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and ultimately surgery are the most widely practiced in biomedical settings. Biomaterials and nanotechnology have introduced vehicles for drug delivery and have revolutionized the concept of the modern immunotherapeutic paradigm. Various types of nanomaterials, such as nanoparticles and, more specifically, drug-loaded nanoparticles are becoming famous for drug delivery applications because of safety, patient compliance, and smart action. Such therapeutic modalities have acknowledged regulatory endorsement and are being used in twenty-first-century clinical settings. Considering the emerging concepts and landscaping potentialities, herein, we spotlight and discuss nanoparticle-based immunotherapies as a smart and sophisticated drug delivery approach to combat cancer metastasis. The introductory part of this manuscript discusses a broad overview of cancer immunotherapy to understand better the tumor microenvironment and nanotechnology-oriented immunomodulatory strategies to cope with advanced-stage cancers. Following that, most addressable problems allied with conventional immunotherapies are given in comparison to nanoparticle-based immunotherapies. The later half of this work comprehensively highlights the requisite delivery of various bioactive entities with particular cases and examples. Finally, this review also encompasses a comprehensive concluding overview and future standpoints to strengthen a successful clinical translation of nanoparticle-based immunotherapies as a smart and sophisticated drug delivery approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06660-yDOI Listing
September 2021

Predicting COVID-19 incidence in Pakistan: It's time to act now!

J Infect 2021 Aug 9. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, The University of Haripur, Haripur, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2021.08.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8351077PMC
August 2021

Emerging polio hotspots in Pakistan: Challenges and the way forward.

J Infect 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Life Sciences, School of Science, University of Management and Technology (UMT), Lahore 54700, Pakistan. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2021.07.018DOI Listing
July 2021

Non-syndromic inherited retinal diseases in Poland: Genes, mutations, and phenotypes.

Mol Vis 2021 16;27:457-465. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Children's Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw, Poland.

Purpose: Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs), encompassing many clinical entities affecting the retina, are classified as rare disorders. Their extreme heterogeneity made molecular screening in the era before next-generation sequencing (NGS) expensive and time-consuming. Since then, many NGS studies of IRD molecular background have been conducted in Western populations; however, knowledge of the IRD mutational spectrum in Poland is still limited. Until now, there has been almost no comprehensive analysis of this particular population regarding the molecular basis and inheritance of IRDs. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about the type and prevalence of causative variants in the Polish population.

Methods: We recruited 190 Polish families with non-syndromic IRDs, including Stargardt disease (STGD), retinitis pigmentosa (RP), cone- and cone-rod dystrophy (CD/CRD), achromatopsia, and congenital stationary night blindness. A pool of molecular inversion probes was used, which targeted 108 genes associated with non-syndromic IRDs known in 2013. We applied filtering for known variants occurring with an allele frequency >0.5% in public and in-house databases, with the exception of variants in , when the frequency filter was set to 3.0%. Hypomorphic p.(Asn1868Ile) was added manually. In the case of novel missense or splicing variants, we used in silico prediction software to assess mutation causality.

Results: We detected causative mutations in 115 of the 190 families with non-syndromic IRD (60.2%). Fifty-nine individuals with STGD, RP, and CD/CRD carried causal variants in . Novel single nucleotide variants were found in and . The complex allele c.[1622T>C;3113C>T], p.[Leu541Pro;Ala1038Val] was found in 33 individuals with -associated disorders, which makes it the most prevalent allele in the Polish population (17% of all solved cases). Diagnosis was reevaluated in 16 cases.

Conclusions: Previously, there were no comprehensive reports of IRDs in the Polish population. This study is the first to indicate that the most common IRDs in Poland are -associated diseases, regardless of the phenotype. In Polish patients with RP, the second most prevalent causal gene was and the third , while there were not as many mutations in as in Western populations. The number of initial erroneous diagnoses may be the result of limited access to diagnostics with advanced tools, such as electroretinography; however, it is necessary to raise awareness among Polish ophthalmologists of rare IRDs. Additionally, it must be emphasized that in some cases genetic analysis of the patient is necessary to achieve an accurate diagnosis.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8286799PMC
July 2021

Oral bioavailability studies of niosomal formulations of Cyclosporine A in albino rabbits.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2021 Jan;34(1(Supplementary)):313-319

University College of Pharmacy, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an immunosuppressant agent. Two niosomal formulations of CsA, F and FSB were formulated. Both formulations were studied in terms of size, polydispersity index (PDI), morphology and entrapment efficacy etc. Niosomal formulations FTS and FSB and plain aqueous dispersion were given to three assemblies of Albino rabbits (n=8 per group). CsA levels in plasma were determined at appropriate time intervals and pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated. The percentage entrapment efficiencies of F and F were found to be 77.29 and 89.31% for respectively. Transmission electron microscopy results indicated spherical nature of niosomes. In vivo studies demonstrated that the value of Cmax for the FSB formulation was 1968.419 ng/ml and it was 1498.951 ng/ml and 1073.87 ng/ml for F and aqueous dispersion of CsA (control) respectively. It was found that both niosomal formulation FTS & F presented significantly high (p<0.05) Cmax, AUC, MRT 0-inf and half-life (t) as associated to plain drug dispersion. However niosomal formulation F exhibited better in-vivo performance as compared to F. It was established that CsA can be successfully entrapped in niosomes. So niosomes are promising vehicle for CsA oral delivery.
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January 2021

Estimation and Analysis of Higher-Order Harmonics in Advanced Integrated Circuits to Implement Noise-Free Future-Generation Micro- and Nanoelectromechanical Systems.

Micromachines (Basel) 2021 May 10;12(5). Epub 2021 May 10.

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Hail, Hail 2440, Saudi Arabia.

This work deals with the analysis of spectrum generation from advanced integrated circuits in order to better understand how to suppress the generation of high harmonics, especially in a given frequency band, to design and implement noise-free systems. At higher frequencies, the spectral components of signals with sharp edges contain more energy. However, current closed-form expressions have become increasingly unwieldy to compute higher-order harmonics. The study of spectrum generation provides an insight into suppressing higher-order harmonics (10th order and above), especially in a given frequency band. In this work, we discussed the influence of transistor model quality and input signal on estimates of the harmonic contents of switching waveforms. Accurate estimates of harmonic contents are essential in the design of highly integrated micro- and nanoelectromechanical systems. This paper provides a comparative analysis of various flip-flop/latch topologies on different process technologies, i.e., 130 and 65 nm. An FFT plot of the simulated results signifies that the steeper the spectrum roll-off, the lesser the content of higher-order harmonics. Furthermore, the results of the comparison illustrate the improvement in the rise time, fall time, clock-Q delay and spectrum roll-off on the better selection of slow-changing input signals and more accurate transistor models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi12050541DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151574PMC
May 2021

Stem cell therapies and benefaction of somatic cell nuclear transfer cloning in COVID-19 era.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 05 12;12(1):283. Epub 2021 May 12.

WHO Collaborating Centre on eHealth, UNSW Digital Health, Faculty of Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2052, Australia.

Background: The global health emergency of COVID-19 has necessitated the development of multiple therapeutic modalities including vaccinations, antivirals, anti-inflammatory, and cytoimmunotherapies, etc. COVID-19 patients suffer from damage to various organs and vascular structures, so they present multiple health crises. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are of interest to treat acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Main Body: Stem cell-based therapies have been verified for prospective benefits in copious preclinical and clinical studies. MSCs confer potential benefits to develop various cell types and organoids for studying virus-human interaction, drug testing, regenerative medicine, and immunomodulatory effects in COVID-19 patients. Apart from paving the ways to augment stem cell research and therapies, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) holds unique ability for a wide range of health applications such as patient-specific or isogenic cells for regenerative medicine and breeding transgenic animals for biomedical applications. Being a potent cell genome-reprogramming tool, the SCNT has increased prominence of recombinant therapeutics and cellular medicine in the current era of COVID-19. As SCNT is used to generate patient-specific stem cells, it avoids dependence on embryos to obtain stem cells.

Conclusions: The nuclear transfer cloning, being an ideal tool to generate cloned embryos, and the embryonic stem cells will boost drug testing and cellular medicine in COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02334-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8114669PMC
May 2021

Innovative BPPO Anion Exchange Membranes Formulation Using Diffusion Dialysis-Enhanced Acid Regeneration System.

Membranes (Basel) 2021 Apr 23;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Qatar University, Doha 2713, Qatar.

Recycling of acid from aqueous waste streams is crucial not only from the environmental point of view but also for maturing the feasible method (diffusion dialysis). Anion exchange membrane (AEM)-based diffusion dialysis process is one of the beneficial ways to recover acid from aqueous waste streams. In this article, the synthesis of a series of brominated poly (2, 6-dimethyl-1, 4-phenylene oxide) (BPPO)-based anion exchange membranes (AEMs) through quaternization with triphenylphosphine (TPP) were reported for acid recovery via diffusion dialysis process. The successful synthesis of the prepared membranes was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The as-synthesized anion exchange membranes represented water uptake (W) of 44 to 66%, ion exchange capacity of (IEC) of 1.22 to 1.86 mmol/g, and linear swelling ratio (LSR) of 8 to 20%. They exhibited excellent thermal, mechanical, and acid stability. They showed homogeneous morphology. The acid recovery performance of the synthesized AEMs was investigated in a two compartment stack using simulated mixture of HCl and FeCl as feed solution at room temperature. For the synthesized anion exchange membranes TPP-43 to TPP-100, the diffusion dialysis coefficient of acid (U) was in the range of 6.7 to 26.3 (10 m/h) whereas separation factor (S) was in the range of 27 to 49 at 25 °C. Obtained results revealed that diffusion dialysis performance of the synthesized AEMs was higher than the commercial membrane DF-120B (U = 0.004 m/h, S = 24.3) at room temperature. It showed that the prepared AEMs here could be excellent candidates for the diffusion dialysis process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/membranes11050311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8146972PMC
April 2021

Effect of Different Quaternary Ammonium Groups on the Hydroxide Conductivity and Stability of Anion Exchange Membranes.

ACS Omega 2021 Mar 15;6(12):7994-8001. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Chemical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Ha'il, P.O. Box 2440, Ha'il 81441, Saudi Arabia.

Anion exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs) are encouraging electrochemical structures for the competent and complaisant conversion of energy. Herein, the development of brominated poly(2,6-dimethyl phenylene oxide) (BPPO)-based anion exchange membranes (AEMs) with different quaternary ammonium groups for AEMFCs was reported. The successful preparation of AEMs was proved by utilizing proton nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. They were explored in terms of water uptake ( ), ion exchange capacity (IEC), hydration number (λ), linear swelling ratio (LSR), morphology, tensile strength (TS), and elongation at break ( ). The alkaline stability of the prepared AEMs was assessed and compared with each other. The experimental outcomes demonstrated that the -methylpyrrolidinium-based membrane (MPyPPO) exhibited higher alkaline stability, whereas the -methylimidazolium-based membrane (MImPPO) showed the lowest alkaline stability among the prepared AEMs. Similarly, the hydroxide conductivity of the prepared AEMs was measured and compared with each other. The pyrrolidinium-based membrane (MPyPPO) exhibited higher hydroxide conductivity among the prepared AEMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c05134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8014933PMC
March 2021

Advances in Gold Nanoparticles-Based Colorimetric Aptasensors for the Detection of Antibiotics: An Overview of the Past Decade.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 25;11(4). Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Hefei National Lab for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and the Centers for Biomedical Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, China.

Misuse of antibiotics has recently been considered a global issue because of its harmful effects on human health. Since conventional methods have numerous limitations, it is necessary to develop fast, simple, sensitive, and reproducible methods for the detection of antibiotics. Among numerous recently developed methods, aptasensors are fascinating because of their good specificity, sensitivity and selectivity. These kinds of biosensors combining aptamer with colorimetric applications of gold nanoparticles to recognize small molecules are becoming more popular owing to their advantageous features, for example, low cost, ease of use, on-site analysis ability using naked eye and no prerequisite for modern equipment. In this review, we have highlighted the recent advances and working principle of gold nanoparticles based colorimetric aptasensors as promising methods for antibiotics detection in different food and environmental samples (2011-2020). Furthermore, possible advantages and disadvantages have also been summarized for these methods. Finally, the recent challenges, outlook, and promising future perspectives for developing novel aptasensors are also considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11040840DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8066193PMC
March 2021

Exogenous melatonin mitigates chromium toxicity in maize seedlings by modulating antioxidant system and suppresses chromium uptake and oxidative stress.

Environ Geochem Health 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Forestry and Wildlife, University College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, 63100, Pakistan.

Melatonin, being an endogenous signaling molecule plays important role in plant growth and stress alleviation. The present study was conducted to evaluate the ameliorative role of melatonin against Cr toxicity in maize seedlings. The Cr toxicity (50, 100 and 200 µM) severely affected hydroponically grown seedlings growth in a dose-dependent manner; however, the melatonin (0.5 and 1.0 µM) application markedly restored toxicity-induced growth retardation. Higher dose of melatonin (1.0 µM) was more effective in case of lower Cr toxicity (50 and 100 µM). Exposure of 200 µM Cr caused 45% and 43% reduction in shoot and root lengths and more than 80% reduction in biomass. In case of 200 µM Cr toxicity, application of 1.0 µM MT effectively restored shoot and root lengths reduction (from 45 to 30%) and biomass decline (from 80 to around 60%). Biomass restoration by 1.0 µM melatonin under 50 and 100 µM Cr was even more pronounced bringing it near to control plants having no Cr exposure. Further, both melatonin levels also improved root tips, root diameter, root volume and root surface area that had been damaged by Cr exposure. The melatonin also alleviated Cr-induced chlorophyll and carotenoids inhibition, improved relative water content, and markedly lowered proline and MDA content in shoots. Lower accumulation of MDA and proline, and greater membrane stability indices indicate that the melatonin conferred better plant growth by playing the role of antioxidant and detoxifying oxidative stress creating substances. Although antioxidant enzymes viz. SOD, POD, CAT and APX activities were also elevated by MT, this increase was not significantly different in the most of cases. No significant difference in NPK contents of shoot was observed by Cr and melatonin application indicating the growth retardation being caused directly by Cr intrinsic toxicity and not by nutrients deficiency. The melatonin-based amelioration of Cr toxicity in maize seedlings seems as the result of its nature as antioxidant, and not by activation/elevation of antioxidative enzymatic system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-021-00908-zDOI Listing
April 2021

Phytotoxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons: Sources, impacts and remediation strategies.

Environ Res 2021 06 18;197:111031. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

National Engineering Laboratory for Improving Quality of Arable Land, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081, PR China. Electronic address:

Extraction and exploration of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHs) to satisfy the rising world population's fossil fuel demand is playing havoc with human beings and other life forms by contaminating the ecosystem, particularly the soil. In the current review, we highlighted the sources of PHs contamination, factors affecting the PHs accumulation in soil, mechanisms of uptake, translocation and potential toxic effects of PHs on plants. In plants, PHs reduce the seed germination andnutrients translocation, and induce oxidative stress, disturb the plant metabolic activity and inhibit the plant physiology and morphology that ultimately reduce plant yield. Moreover, the defense strategy in plants to mitigate the PHs toxicity and other potential remediation techniques, including the use of organic manure, compost, plant hormones, and biochar, and application of microbe-assisted remediation, and phytoremediation are also discussed in the current review. These remediation strategies not only help to remediate PHs pollutionin the soil rhizosphere but also enhance the morphological and physiological attributes of plant and results to improve crop yield under PHs contaminated soils. This review aims to provide significant information on ecological importance of PHs stress in various interdisciplinary investigations and critical remediation techniques to mitigate the contamination of PHs in agricultural soils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111031DOI Listing
June 2021

Distribution of hepatitis C virus genotypes in Punjab region, Pakistan, based on a study of 4177 specimens.

Infect Genet Evol 2021 07 16;91:104811. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

School of Life Science and Food Engineering, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian 223003, China.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a heterogenetic infectious agent that affects a huge proportion of population around the globe. Diverse distribution of multiple subtypes of HCV makes it mandatory and remarkably imperative to understand the genotypic distribution in target population. It could serve as an indictive guideline for the improvement of diagnostic methodologies, and development of effective therapies against this viral infection, in order to improve the infected patients' quality of life. This study included HCV infected patients presented to the diagnostic facility of the Centre for Applied Molecular Biology, University of Punjab, Lahore, between 2016 and 2019. During the 4 years of study, samples were collected from 4177 subjects. Our data revealed no significant differences regarding the prevalence of various genotypes between genders in the adult population. Genotyping was carried out by following the Ohno protocol. The obtained results shown that genotype 3a is the most frequent genotype and accounts for 66.29% of cases. Among other genotypes, 1a is 2.11%, 1b is 0.07%, 3b is 1.89%, 5a is 0.02%, while genome of 28.23% patients was untypable; 1.22% of the samples were non-detectable as viremic. An important concern is that this untypable genome in HCV infected patients may indicate possible mutation of HCV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2021.104811DOI Listing
July 2021

Role of receptor tyrosine kinases mediated signal transduction pathways in tumor growth and angiogenesis-New insight and futuristic vision.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jun 15;180:739-752. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Hefei National Lab for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and the Centers for Biomedical Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027, China. Electronic address:

In the past two decades, significant progress has been made in the past two decades towards the understanding of the basic mechanisms underlying cancer growth and angiogenesis. In this context, receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) play a pivotal role in cell proliferation, differentiation, growth, motility, invasion, and angiogenesis, all of which contribute to tumor growth and progression. Mutations in RTKs lead to abnormal signal transductions in several pathways such as Ras-Raf, MEK-MAPK, PI3K-AKT and mTOR pathways, affecting a wide range of biological functions including cell proliferation, survival, migration and vascular permeability. Increasing evidence demonstrates that multiple kinases are involved in angiogenesis including RTKs such as vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet derived growth factor, epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, macrophage colony-stimulating factor, nerve growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, Hepatocyte Growth factor, Tie 1 & 2, Tek, Flt-3, Flt-4 and Eph receptors. Overactivation of RTKs and its downstream regulation is implicated in tumor initiation and angiogenesis, representing one of the hallmarks of cancer. This review discusses the role of RTKs, PI3K, and mTOR, their involvement, and their implication in pro-oncogenic cellular processes and angiogenesis with effective approaches and newly approved drugs to inhibit their unrestrained action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.03.075DOI Listing
June 2021

Quantitatively Measuring Privacy in Interactive Query Settings Within RDBMS Framework.

Front Big Data 2020 5;3:11. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Computer Science, Insight Centre for Data Analytics, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

Little attention has been paid to the measurement of risk to privacy in Database Management Systems, despite their prevalence as a modality of data access. This paper proposes , a quantitative privacy metric that provides a measure (privacy score) of privacy risk when executing queries in relational database management systems. PriDe measures the degree to which attribute values, retrieved by a principal (user) engaging in an interactive query session, represent a reduction of privacy with respect to the attribute values previously retrieved by the principal. It can be deployed in interactive query settings where the user sends SQL queries to the database and gets results at run-time and provides privacy-conscious organizations with a way to monitor the usage of the application data made available to third parties in terms of privacy. The proposed approach, without loss of generality, is applicable to BigSQL-style technologies. Additionally, the paper proposes a that facilitates the computation of the privacy score.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fdata.2020.00011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7931922PMC
May 2020

Clinical Phenotype of -Associated Retinitis Pigmentosa.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 27;22(5). Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Molecular Genetics Laboratory, Institute for Ophthalmic Research, Centre for Ophthalmology, Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.

In this retrospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study, we investigated the phenotypic and genotypic features of retinitis pigmentosa associated with variants in the gene. Patients underwent clinical examination and genetic testing at a single tertiary referral center, including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), kinetic visual field (VF), full-field electroretinography, full-field stimulus threshold, spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and fundus autofluorescence imaging. The genetic testing comprised candidate gene sequencing, inherited retinal disease gene panel sequencing, whole-genome sequencing, and testing for familial variants by Sanger sequencing. Twenty-four patients with mutations in from 21 families were included in the study (mean age at the first visit: 32.1 ± 13.5 years). The majority of variants were putative splicing defects (8/23) and missense (7/23) mutations. Seventy-nine percent (38/48) of eyes had no visual acuity impairment at the first visit. Visual acuity impairment was mild in 4% (2/48), moderate in 13% (6/48), and severe in 4% (2/48). BCVA was symmetrical in the right and left eyes. The kinetic VF measurements were highly symmetrical in the right and left eyes, as was the horizontal ellipsoid zone (EZ) width. Regarding the genetic findings, 43% of the variants found in our patients were novel. Thus, this study contributed substantially to the mutation spectrum. The visual acuity impairment was mild in 83% of eyes, providing a window of opportunity for investigational new drugs. The EZ width was reduced in all patients and was highly symmetric between the eyes, making it a promising outcome measure. We expect these findings to have implications on the design of future -related retinitis pigmentosa (RP) clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052374DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7956818PMC
February 2021

Synthesis of DMEA-Grafted Anion Exchange Membrane for Adsorptive Discharge of Methyl Orange from Wastewaters.

Membranes (Basel) 2021 Feb 27;11(3). Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Chemical Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Ha'il, P.O. Box 2440, Ha'il 81441, Saudi Arabia.

This manuscript describes the synthesis of dimethylethanolamine (DMEA)-grafted anion exchange membrane (AEM) by incorporating dimethylethanolamine as ion-exchange content into the polymer matrix via the solution casting method. The synthesis of the DMEA-grafted AEM was demonstrated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The prepared DMEA-grafted AEM exhibited higher thermal stability, homogeneous morphology, water uptake (W) of 115%, and an ion exchange capacity (IEC) of 2.70 meq/g. It was used for the adsorptive removal of methyl orange (MO) from an aqueous solution via batch processing. The effect of several operating factors, including contact time, membrane dosage, initial concentration of aqueous dye solution, and temperature on the percentage discharge of MO and adsorption capacity, was evaluated. Experimental data for adsorption of MO onto the DMEA-grafted AEM was analyzed with two parameter and three parameter nonlinear adsorption isotherm models but fitted best using a nonlinear Freundlich isotherm. Adsorption kinetics were studied by using several models, and attained results showed that experimental data fitted well to pseudo-second-order kinetics. A thermodynamic study showed that adsorption of MO onto the prepared DMEA-grafted AEM was an endothermic process. Moreover, it was a feasible and spontaneous process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/membranes11030166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7997434PMC
February 2021

Higher Acid Recovery Efficiency of Novel Functionalized Inorganic/Organic Composite Anion Exchange Membranes from Acidic Wastewater.

Membranes (Basel) 2021 Feb 14;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Department of Zoology, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100, Pakistan.

In this work, the synthesis of a series of the functionalized inorganic/organic composite anion exchange membranes (AEMs) was carried out by employing the varying amount of inorganic filler consist of -(trimethoxysilylpropyl)-,,-trimethylammonium chloride (TMSP-TMACl) into the quaternized poly (2, 6-dimethyl-1, 4-phenylene oxide) (QPPO) matrix for acid recovery via diffusion dialysis (DD) process. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy clearly demonstrated the fabrication of the functionalized inorganic/organic composite AEMs and the subsequent membrane characteristic measurements such as ion exchange capacity (IEC), linear swelling ratio (LSR), and water uptake (W) gave us the optimum loading condition of the filler without undesirable filler particle aggregation. These composite AEMs exhibited IEC of 2.18 to 2.29 meq/g, LSR of 13.33 to 18.52%, and W of 46.11 to 81.66% with sufficient thermal, chemical, and mechanical stability. The diffusion dialysis (DD) test for acid recovery from artificial acid wastewater of HCl/FeCl showed high acid DD coefficient (U) (0.022 to 0.025 m/h) and high separation factor (S) (139-260) compared with the commercial membrane. Furthermore, the developed AEMs was acceptably stable (weight loss < 20%) in the acid wastewater at 60 °C as an accelerated severe condition for 2 weeks. These results clearly indicated that the developed AEMs have sufficient potential for acid recovery application by DD process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/membranes11020133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7918162PMC
February 2021

Antidepressant-like effect of ethanol in mice forced swimming test is mediated via inhibition of NMDA/nitric oxide/cGMP signaling pathway.

Alcohol 2021 05 11;92:53-63. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

There is evidence for a dramatic relationship between depression and alcohol consumption. Depressed patients may abuse ethanol because this agent reduces the symptoms of depression. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the NMDA/nitric oxide/cGMP pathway in the antidepressant-like effect of ethanol in an animal model of behavioral despair. Animals were subjected to locomotor activity in an open-field test separately, followed by a forced swimming test. During the forced swimming test (FST), ethanol (2 and 2.5 g/kg) significantly decreased the immobility time without altering the locomotor activity of animals. The antidepressant-like effect of ethanol (2.5 g/kg) was reversed by co-administration of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA, 75 mg/kg), L-arginine (750 mg/kg), or sildenafil (5 mg/kg). In contrast, co-administration of MK-801 (0.05 mg/kg), ketamine (1 mg/kg), and ifenprodil (0.5 mg/kg) as antagonists of NMDAR, and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10 mg/kg), 7-nitroindazole (7-NI, 30 mg/kg), and methylene blue (10 mg/kg) as inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), or 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) (20 mg/kg), a nitric oxide/cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) inhibitor, with a subeffective dose of ethanol (1.5 g/kg), significantly decreased the immobility time in the FST. Furthermore, injection of ethanol 2.5 g/kg alone or 1.5 g/kg with a 7-NI subeffective dose, significantly decreased the nitrite levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Hence, it is concluded that blockade of NMDA receptors and the nitric oxide/cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) pathway might be involved in the antidepressant-like effect of ethanol in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2021.01.005DOI Listing
May 2021

Glyceryl Monostearate Based Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Controlled Delivery of Docetaxel.

Curr Drug Deliv 2021 02 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur 63100, Bahawalpur, Pakistan.

Background: Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLNs) is the drug delivery systems that has the capability to improve drug release at the desired tumor site. The aim of present study was to develop Glyceryl Monostearate (GMS) based SLNs for the controlled delivery of docetaxel.

Method: Hot Melt Encapsulation (HME) method was employed avoiding the use of organic solvents and therefore, regarded as green synthesis of SLNs.

Results: Optimized DTX-SLNs showed desirable size (100 nm) with low poly dispersity index and excellent entrapment efficiency. Surface charge confirmed the stability of formulation. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis showed spherical shaped particles and Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FTIR) revealed compatibility among formulation excipients. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) analysis revealed that melting transition peak of optimized formulation was also greater than 40°C indicating that SLNs would be solid at body temperature. In-vitro release profile (68% in 24 hours) revealed the controlled release profile of DTX-SLNs indicating lipophilic docetaxel drug was entrapped inside high melting point lipid core. Cytotoxicity study revealed that blank SLNs were found to be biocompatible while dose dependent cytotoxicity was shown by DTX-SLNs.

Conclusion: These studies suggest that DTX-SLNs have potential for controlled delivery of docetaxel and improved therapeutic outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1567201818666210203180153DOI Listing
February 2021

Senior- Løken Syndrome: A Case Series and Review of The Reno-Retinal Phenotype and Advances of Molecular Diagnosis.

Retina 2021 Jan 27. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Ophthalmology, Hadassah Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Hadassah Medical Center, Faculty of Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel St John of Jerusalem Eye Hospital Group, East Jerusalem, Israel Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands Department of Human Genetics, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: To report genetic and clinical findings in a case series of 10 patients from eight unrelated families diagnosed with Senior-Løken syndrome (SLS).

Methods: A retrospective study of patients with SLS. Data collected included clinical findings electroretinography and ocular imaging. Genetic analysis was based on molecular inversion probes (MIPs), whole-exome (WES) and Sanger sequencing.

Results: All patients who underwent electrophysiology (8/10) had widespread photoreceptor degeneration. Genetic analysis revealed two mutations in NPHP1, two mutations in NPHP4 and two mutations in IQCB1 (NPHP5). Five of the six mutations identified in the current study were found in a single family each in our cohort. The IQCB1- p.R461* mutation has been identified in three families. Patients harboring mutations in IQCB1 were diagnosed with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), while patients with NPHP4 and NPHP1 mutations showed early and sector retinitis pigmentosa (RP), respectively. ffERG was extinct for 6 out of 10 patients, moderately decreased for two and unavailable for another two subjects. Renal involvement was evident in 7/10 patients at the time of diagnosis. Kidney function was normal (based on serum creatinine) in patients younger than 10 years. Mutations in IQCB1 were associated with high hypermetropia whereas mutations in NPHP4 were associated with high myopia.

Conclusions: Patients presenting with infantile inherited retinal degeneration are not universally screened for renal dysfunction. Modern genetic tests can provide molecular diagnosis at an early age and therefore facilitate early diagnosis of renal disease with recommended periodic screening beyond childhood and family planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IAE.0000000000003138DOI Listing
January 2021

Impact of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic on Psychological Well-Being of the Pakistani General Population.

Front Psychiatry 2020 12;11:564364. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Ripha Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ripha International University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

In order to curb the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the countries took preventive measures such as lockdown and restrictions of movements. This can lead to effects on mental health of the population. We studied the impact of COVID-19 on psychological well-being and associated factors among the Pakistani general population. An online cross-sectional survey was conducted between 26th April and 15th May and included participants from all over the Pakistan. Attitudes and worriedness about COVID-19 pandemic were assessed using a structured questionnaire. A validated English and Urdu version of the World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) was used to assess the well-being. Factor analysis was done to extract the attitude item domains. Logistic regression was used to assess the factors associated with poor well-being. A total of 1,756 people participated in the survey. Almost half 50% of the participants were male, and a similar proportion was employed. About 41% of the participants were dependent on financial sources other than salary. News was considered a source of fear as 72% assumed that avoiding such news may reduce the fear. About 68% of the population was worried about contracting the disease. The most common coping strategies used during lockdown were spending quality time with family, eating healthy food, adequate sleep, and talking to friends on phone. Prevalence of poor well-being was found to be 41.2%. Female gender, being unemployed, living in Sindh and Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT), fear of COVID-19, and having chronic illness were significantly associated with poor well-being. Similarly, coping strategies during lockdown (doing exercise; spending time with family; eating healthy food; having good sleep; contributing in social welfare work and spending time on hobbies) were also significantly associated with mental well-being. We found a high prevalence 41.2% of poor well-being among the Pakistani general population. We also investigated risk factors of poor well-being which included female gender, unemployment, being resident of ICT and Sindh, fear, chronic illness, and absence of coping strategies. This calls for immediate action at population level in the form of targeted mass psychological support programs to improve the mental health of population during the COVID-19 crises.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.564364DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7835389PMC
January 2021

Energizing periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMOS) with bismuth and cerium for photo-degrading methylene blue and methyl orange in water.

Water Environ Res 2021 Jul 25;93(7):1116-1125. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Chemistry, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan.

This work reported an efficient catalyst to reduce the organic pollutants by using an energetic periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMOS) supported with bismuth (Bi-PMOS) and cerium (Ce-PMOS). PMOS support was designed through co-condensation of sodium silicate and 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane on polysorbate templates. The resultant PMOSs were fabricated with bismuth and cerium oxides to formulate Bi-PMOS and Ce-PMOS, respectively. These materials showed photo-degradations of methylene blue (MB, 74.7% and 41.1% with Bi-PMOS and Ce-PMOS, respectively) and methyl orange (MO, 53.2% and 39.4% with Bi-PMOS and Ce-PMOS, respectively). Such efficient photo-degradations were attributed to the precise doping of metallic nodes of Bi O and CeO on the porous structure of PMOS with high surface area. The results also showed that Bi and Ce were more effective in PMOS support for photo-degradation of dyes as the support provides more lifetime to photo-generated electron-hole pairs than other materials. Moreover, active reusability and high degradation efficiencies of Bi-PMOS and Ce-PMOS proved them better analytical tools to reduce organic pollutants under visible lights. PRACTITIONER POINTS: The oxides of bismuth and cerium have impressive photocatalytic characteristics. New material energizing mesoporous organosilica with bismuth and cerium for photo-degradation of methylene blue and methyl orange in water. The use of an efficient catalyst to reduce the organic pollutants by using an energetic periodic mesoporous organosilica (PMOS) supported with bismuth (Bi-PMOS) and cerium (Ce-PMOS).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wer.1519DOI Listing
July 2021

Gums-based engineered bio-nanostructures for greening the 21st-century biotechnological settings.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jan 11:1-17. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Tecnologico de Monterrey, School of Engineering and Sciences, Monterrey, Mexico.

Naturally occurring plant-based gums and their engineered bio-nanostructures have gained an immense essence of excellence in several industrial, biotechnological, and biomedical sectors of the modern world. Gums derived from bio-renewable resources that follow green chemistry principles are considered green macromolecules with unique structural and functional attributes. For instance, gum mostly obtained as exudates are bio-renewable, bio-degradable, bio-compatible, sustainable, overall cost-effective, and nontoxic. Gum exudates also offer tunable attributes that play a crucial role in engineering bio-nanostructures of interest for several bio- and non-bio applications, e.g., food-related items, therapeutic molecules, sustained and controlled delivery cues, bio-sensing constructs, and so on. With particular reference to plant gum exudates, this review focuses on applied perspectives of various gums, i.e., gum Arabic, gum albizzia, gum karaya, gum tragacanth, and gum kondagogu. After a brief introduction with problem statement and opportunities, structural and physicochemical attributes of plant-based natural gums are presented. Following that, considerable stress is given to green synthesis and stabilization of gum-based bio-nanostructures. The final part of the review focuses on the bio- and non-bio related applications of various types of gums polysaccharides-oriented bio-nanostructures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1871318DOI Listing
January 2021

Impact of foreign direct investment, natural resources, renewable energy consumption, and economic growth on environmental degradation: evidence from BRICS, developing, developed and global countries.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 7;28(17):21789-21798. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

School of Economics, Henan University, Kaifeng, China.

This research examined the impact of foreign direct investment, natural resources, renewable energy consumption, and economic growth on environmental degradation in BRICS, developing, developed, and global countries for the time period from 1991 to 2018 by using dynamic fixed effect model, GMM, and system GMM estimators. The examined results indicate that FDI causes environmental degradation in BRICS and developing countries while in developed countries, FDI helps environmental degradation reduction. The empirical results indicate that fuel resources and renewable energy consumption help to reduce the environment degradation in BRICS, developing, developed, and global countries while ore and metal resources cause environment degradation improvement in developed countries. Total natural resources (coal, oil, natural gas, and mineral rents) and economic growth are the main factors that boost the environmental degradation in BRICS, developing, developed, and global countries. Based on the examined results, policies are suggested for BRICS, developing, developed, and global countries. It is suggested that policy makers in these countries not only reply to protect environmental degradation but also support the growth of fuel resources, ore, and metal resource and total natural resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-12084-1DOI Listing
May 2021

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors and their unique therapeutic potentialities to combat cancer.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jan 5;168:22-37. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Tecnologico de Monterrey, School of Engineering and Sciences, Monterrey, 64849, Mexico. Electronic address:

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death with a mortality rate of 12%. Although significant progress has been achieved in cancer research, the effective treatment of cancer remains the greatest global challenge in medicine. Dysregulation of tyrosine kinases (TK) is one of the characteristics of several types of cancers. Thus, drugs that target and inhibit these enzymes, known as TK inhibitors (TKIs), are considered vital chemotherapeutics to combat various types of cancer. The oral bioavailability of available TKIs and their targeted therapy are their potential benefits. Based on these characteristics, most TKIs are included in first/second-line therapy for the treatment of different cancers. This review aims to shed light on orally-active TKIs (natural and synthetic molecules) and their promising implication in the therapy of numerous types of tumors along with their mechanisms of action. Further, recent progress in the development of synthetic and isolation of natural TKIs is reviewed. A significant growth in research regarding the development of new-generation TKIs is made with time (23 FDA-approved TKIs from 2018) due to their better therapeutic response. Oral bioavailability should be considered as an important parameter while developing of new-generation TKIs; however, drug delivery systems can also be used to address issue of poor bioavailability to a certain extent. Moreover, clinical trials should be designed in consideration of the development of resistance and tumor heterogeneity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.12.009DOI Listing
January 2021

In vitro Characterization and Release Studies of Combined Nonionic Surfactant-Based Vesicles for the Prolonged Delivery of an Immunosuppressant Model Drug.

Int J Nanomedicine 2020 14;15:7937-7949. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Background: Cyclosporine A (CsA) is an exceptional immunosuppressant used for the treatment of immune disorders. Niosomal vesicles are promising drug carriers that are formed by self-association of nonionic surfactants and cholesterol in an aqueous phase. The objective of the study was to formulate combined nonionic surfactant based vesicles and to evaluate their in vitro characterization, release studies and in vivo studies.

Materials And Methods: Five niosomal formulations (F to F) were prepared using the thin film hydration method. The molar ratio of cholesterol and non-ionic surfactant taken was 1:1. In formulation F, the combination of surfactants Span 20 and Brij 35 was used. The niosomes were characterized by zeta sizer and SEM for particle size analysis, in vitro drug release and stability studies. The pharmacokinetic studies were conducted on healthy albino rabbits.

Results: The size of niosome was found in the range of 427.1 nm to 972.3 nm. SEM image of optimized formulations F exhibit the spherical nature of niosomal vesicles. DSC thermograms of niosomal formulations exhibited a broadened endothermic peak. The stability study exhibited that all formulations are stable and negligible change of vesicle size and entrapment was observed with time. The percentage drug release was significantly higher as compared to CsA plain dispersion for all niosomal formulations at pH 1.2 and 7.4. The release kinetic behavior showed that all preparations were best described by zero order and can release active ingredient in a sustained manner. The pharmacokinetic data showed the test formulation (F10) possessed greater bioavailability as compared to the reference formulation (CsA aqueous dispersion).

Conclusion: The formulation F demonstrated a comparatively more delayed rate of release with enhanced dissolution as compared to a single surfactant scheme. The F formulation can be a remarkable nanotechnology for prolonged delivery of CsA orally with improved dissolution profile and bioavailability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S268846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7569247PMC
November 2020

Investigation on Hamburg Wheel-Tracking Device Stripping Performance Properties of Recycled Hot-Mix Asphalt Mixtures.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Oct 22;13(21). Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Civil and Environment Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Perak 32610, Malaysia.

Moisture damage in hot mix asphalt pavements is a periodic but persistent problem nowadays, even though laboratory testing is performed to identify different moisture-susceptible mixtures. In this study, a Hamburg Wheel Tracking device (HWTD) was used for rutting tests which were conducted on control and a high percentage of recycled asphalt pavement (RAP), i.e., 30%, 50% and 100% of virgin mixtures, under air dry and water-immersed conditions. Similarly, the extracted bitumen from RAP was tested for binder physical properties. Results showed that the asphalt mixtures containing RAP have less rut depth as compared to the control mix both in air dry and immersion conditions and hence showed better anti-rutting properties and moisture stability. Stripping performance of control and RAP containing mixtures was also checked, concluding that the RAP mixture was greatly dependent on the interaction between the binder (virgin plus aged) and aggregates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13214704DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7659950PMC
October 2020
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